O quam cito transit gloria mundi!
A character painted with dark colors by its contemporaries; a dangerous revolutionary, a conspirer, a betrayer of the Republic; a monster, a cruel, manipulative weaver of evil and mischief. Catiline was all this, and perhaps more: but his conspiracy, his grand attempt to reform the Roman state would be doomed to failure and defeat.
Yet, things did not have to go this way. Perhaps, Catiline could have won the battle at Pistorium, and seized Rome itself, putting himself at the head of the Republic. Surely, the history of the whole world, not just that of Rome, would have been changed: in this timeline, the next thousand years of world history after Catiline's conspiracy are discussed. Empires have risen and fallen, crowns have been worn and broken into pieces, cities have prospered and were left in ruins, gods were raised and cast down from the heavens: for in this world, glory is a fleeting thing, and even those who today are great, will one day be a mere paragraph in dusty books...
62 to 0 B.C.E.
- 62 B.C.E.: Catiline and his troops defeat the army of Marcus Petreius in the fields outside of Pistorium. Rapidly, Catiline advances on Rome: upon his arrival, the urban plebs and proletarians rise in revolt. Catiline marches on Rome, and seizes power.
- 61 B.C.E.: Pompey returns from the Orient where he was on campaign, and enters Rome without his army. Catiline, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey agree to form the First Triumvirate: Catiline remains in Rome to govern as dictator, Caesar and Crassus are consuls, and Pompey is granted an extraordinary imperium to secure the eastern Mediterranean.
- 60 B.C.E.: following instructions from Catiline, Pompey returns to the Orient and puts Philip II Philoromaeus on the throne of the Seleukid Empire, then moves to Anatolia. Mithridates VII is named client king.
- 58 B.C.E.: Caesar begins his campaign of conquests in Gaul, while Catiline begins his ambitious plan of colonization.
- 57 B.C.E.: Crassus leaves for the Orient to face the Parthian threat. Pompey places Mithridates VII as client king of Pontus.
- 56 B.C.E.: the already tense situation in Italy escalates into a civil war as the Italics revolt against Catiline's program of colonization.
- 55 B.C.E.: a coalition of Greek poleis, spearheaded by Athens, revolts agains Roman rule: Sparta alone remains on the Roman side. Pompey moves to Greece to face this threat, while Crassus remains in the Orient and launches an expedition against the Parthians.
- 54 B.C.E.: faced with the alternative of being forced to call one of the three dynastes back to Italy, Catiline decides to find a diplomatic solution to the crisis. The ius Samnii is created, and the Italic peoples (Samnites, Osci, Martii, Peligni, Lucani and Sabines) are no longer forced to give up lands for colonization.
- 53 B.C.E.: the Battle of Carrhae is fought, and the Romans are soundly defeated: Crassus dies. Pompey takes Athens, ending the Greek insurrection: Sparta is granted the ius Samnii, and organizes itself as a client kingdom. A new revolt rises in Hispania, headed by the Lusitanians.
- 51 B.C.E.: Catiline negotiates with the Lusitanian leaders, and grants them the ius Samnii. Pompey returns to Rome, and the relationship between him and Catiline immediately become tense.
- 50 B.C.E.: a vote is held in the Roman senate, which is divided between supporters of Pompey and Catiline, to end Catiline's dictatorship. A violent insurrection ensues: Catiline is killed, and Pompey is named consul sine collega.
- 49 B.C.E.: Caesar crosses the Rubicon, beginning the Great Roman Civil War. Pompey is backed by the senators of the Republic, while Caesar is supported by the urban plebs, the Italics, and the small landowners.
- 48 B.C.E.: Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey escapes to Egypt, where he is assassinated by Ptolemy XIII. Caesar is the only ruler of Rome, and is named both dictator and consul. He returns to Rome after installing Cleopatra as queen of Egypt: he is seduced by her and has a son from her, Cesarion.
- 44 B.C.E.: Caesar is assassinated. A new civil war breaks up between the cesarian and republican factions, headed respectively by Octavian and Mark Antony.
- 43 B.C.E.: the republicans are defeated at the Battle of Modena, but Octavian and Mark Antony reconcile. The Second Triumvirate is created by Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
- 42 B.C.E.: the republicans are defeated once and for all at the Battle of Philippi. Mark Antony leaves for Egypt to prepare another expedition against the Parthians, where he is seduced by Cleopatra. Meanwhile, Octavian remains in Rome and gradually eliminates all opposition.
- 40 B.C.E.: Amyntas, king of Galatia, allies himself with Mark Antony and prepares an expedition against the Parthian empire.
- 37 B.C.E.: Mark Anthony decides to remain in Egypt with Cleopatra rather than attack the Parthians. Dissatisfied, Amyntas begins his expedition alone, and attacks Armenia, a Parthian ally.
- 34 B.C.E.: after subduing Armenia, Amyntas marches his army deep into the Parthian territory. Mark Antony organizes the bethrotal of Cesarion to the Seleukid princess Berenike. Mark Antony's reputation in Rome is severely damaged.
- 32 B.C.E.: as Mark Antony's behavior can no longer be tolerated, Octavian, on behalf of the Roman senate, declares war to him as an enemy of the Republic. Mark Anthony is supported by the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
- 31 B.C.E.: the Battle of Actium is fought, and Octavian's fleet soundly defeats the Egyptian one. The Seleukid and Nabatean kingdom pledge support for Octavian and invade Egypt. Amyntas marches deep into the Parthian empire, claiming victory after victory before seizing the Parthian capital, Hecatompylos, and razing it to the ground.
- 30 B.C.E.: Mark Antony kills himself, faced with defeat. Octavian installs Ptolemy XIII, brother of Cleopatra, as client king of Egypt, now deprived of Cyrenaica, which is made into a Roman province. Octavian is the sole ruler of Rome. Amyntas returns to Galatia, and creates another treaty of alliance with Rome.
- 29 B.C.E.: Octavian is granted the cognomen of Augustus. Amyntas dies: his successor swears fealty as a client king of Rome and is granted the ius Samnii.
- 28 B.C.E.: Octavian begins his campaign to pacify Hispania, aided by Lusitanian auxiliaries, against the Cantabrians led by king Corocotta, and is awarded the imperium maius, becoming supreme commander of the Roman armies for life.
- 27 B.C.E.: Octavian marries Berenike, which will bear him a son, Alexander I.
- 23 B.C.E.: Octavian is granted the title of optimus princeps. Amanirenas, queen of Kush, marries Cesarion and invades Ptolemaic Egypt, ransacking numerous cities on her way.
- 19 B.C.E.: Corocotta's revolt is put down by Roman troops. Amanirenas retreats to Kush, carring a large loot with her. Balbus, fearing to wage a war among the cruel sands of Kush, decides to remain in Egypt.
- 14 B.C.E.: a Germanic host, headed by Melo, king of the Sicambri, is forced to retreat east of the Rhine after a pillaging campaign in Gaul.
- 8 B.C.E.: another Germanic invasion, headed by Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni, is defeated while attempting to cross the Alps.
- 4 B.C.E.: Herod the Great, king of Judea, dies, and Herod Archelaus succeeds him among violent civil wars and clashes. The Romans support Archelaus, and send three legions to Judea to remain there permanently: about ten thousand Jewish rebels are crucified.
- 1 B.C.E.: Arminius begins to create a tribal confederation in northwestern Germania.
0 to 100 C.E.
- 5 C.E.: Alexander I campaigns in Germania. Alexander IV Seleukos campaigns against the Parthians.
- 6 C.E.: Judean census, followed by the birth of the Zealot movement. The Seleukid army continues its advance into Persia, with most satraps, tired of the Parthian domination, bending the knee to them.
- 7 C.E.: Alexander I arrives in Judea to put down the Jewish revolt. Jerusalem is besieged, more than five thousand Jews are crucified.
- 9 C.E.: three Roman legions are annihilated at the battle of Teutoburg. Alexander II, son of Alexander I, is born.
- 11 C.E.: the Seleukid Empire is in control of most of Persia. The so-called Seleukid Renaissance begins. Alexander I dies while on campaign in Germania.
- 14 C.E.: Octavian dies and is deified.