Sports are forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
In the Principia Moderni IV universe there are many popular sports that are played around the world, which are listed below.
The list of sports
Association football, known more commonly as football or soccer is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players, in which a spherical ball is used to score on the opposing teams goal.
Football is believed to have originated in the British Isles some time in the early nineteenth century, and became popular among college campuses in England. The first nation to officially sponsor the game of football and formulate a rules sytem was Hawaii, after a visit by the Hawaiian monarch to England. 
The game became heavily popular in the Pacific, partially thanks to its inclusion in the Pan-Polynesian Games, and the creation of the Pacific Football Committee in 1825 . Later that year the sport would spread outside the Polynesian region, when it reached the Mehican Empire . In 1826 an international exhibition game took place in the city of Guadalajara, between the two popular Hawaiian teams of Lahaina and Lanai City. This was followed later in the year by another game in St Denis, Brésil between Kaluahine and Hilo . By the time of the second Pan-Polynesian Games in 1828 several teams from the Pacific, Laurentia, and Arcadia participated in the football tournament. Kaluahine FC would become the 1828 football champions, and would go on to have good seasons in 1829 and 1830 as well . In 1830 a famous exhibition match would be held in St Denis, Brésil, famously attended by both the Hawaiian and Brésilian monarchs, and the infamous Napoleon Bonaparte . In 1825 the first football matches took place in Asia and Oceania, with exhibition matches in Ngarrindjeri, Uluru and Japan.
The sport of football remained largely isolated to the western hemisphere until later in the century. In 1867 a game similar to football began to be played in Ethiopia, and the first official team was personally promoted by Prince Theodore. Similar teams followed in the capital city of Addis Ababa, beginning an amateur league in the city.  The first semi-professional league in the country would be formed in 1871, known as the Ethiopian League, with two teams being created in each of the four major cities. Prince Theodore would become a member of the Addis Abba Royals, which took home the first ever championship, while Prince Theodore would be honored with the Emperor's Choice Award, an award voted upon by the players and the audience. The prince would retire after that inaugural season.
In 1871 the sport also became popular in Nova Belgica, initially being played mostly on college campuses and in amateur leagues in the major cities. By the mid 1870s the sport would become one of the most popular in the colony, also sparking interest in neighboring colonies, such as New Netherlands. In 1872 French migrants spread the sport from Nova Belgica to France, with the Picardy Football Club becoming the first official football club in mainland France. Normandy, Brittany and Orleanais would soon follow that year, forming their own teams.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams usually consisting of six players each: one goaltender, and five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team.
The sport of ice hockey was first created in Nova Belgica in 1871, based upon the traditional Burgundian and Dutch game of IJscolf. The government of the colony sought to popularize the sport in an effort to increase the prestige of Nova Belgica, while also promoting cooperation with neighboring nations, and Nova Belgica's governor, Frederick Stenweide, created the "Stenweide Cup", a challenge cup for Nova Belgica's best amateur hockey club, to help promote the sport. By the end of 1872 Wilhemina HC became the first champions in the colony, after defeating three rival teams; Sint Jan HC, Queen's University, and the Sint Jan Capitals.
Rugby is a contact team sport which players run with an oval-shaped ball in hand, to score on opposite sides of a rectangular field, with H-shaped goalposts on each try line.
The sport is believed to have originated in the British Isles, although its rules were not formally codified and standardized until 1870, in Nova Belgica. In 1873 the first international rugby match was held in Amiens, France between the Sint Jan Blue Sox from Nova Belgica and the Picardy Rugby Club, resulting in a victory for Sint Jan.
In 1660 a rich man called Adam Johnson held an impromptu event in New Rome, English Arcadia, in which two slaves fought to the death. This form of gladiatorial-like combat would become a popular, although rare, pastime in the southern regions of English Arcadia, with several more events taking place over the course of that year.  The sport became known colloquially as "duels", although the term "Gladiator games" also became popular. In 1661, a 17-day long tournament was held in the city of York, drawing interest from other major cities in Arcadia, such Bilzen, and even some spectators from Europe. This would further help promote the sport, turning it into a popular attraction at various festivals, as well as a form of private entertainment for the wealthy. Also that year the first gladiator games were held in France, spreading the sport to Europe .
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a cricket field, at the center of which is a rectangular 20 meter (22-yard) pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit). Each phase of play is called an innings, during which one team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, whilst their opponents bowl and field, attempting to minimize the number of runs scored. When each innings ends, the teams usually swap roles for the next innings (i.e. the team that previously batted will bowl/field, and vice versa). The teams each bat for one or two innings, depending on the type of match. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained (except when the result is not a win/loss result).
The first game of cricket was played in Sussex, England in 1697 
Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports.
The original game originated from the Karakoram Mountains' area. The Maqpon ruler Ali Sher Khan Anchan introduced the game to other local valleys during his conquests beyond Gilgit and Chitral in early medieval times.
The modern format game of polo is derived the traditional and related game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei', 'Kanjai-bazee', or 'Pulu' in Manipur, Bengal, where it first began centuries ago.
It was the Anglicised form of the last - 'Pulu', referring to the wooden ball that was used, which was adopted as 'Polo' by both the British in India and the sport's proponents in its slow spread to the west. The first official 'polo' club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, Bengal, in 1833.
The sport is governed globally by the Federation of International Polo.
It is popular in both Kashmir, Baltistan and Manipur. Polo is the national sport of Kashmir.
The Pan-Polynesian Games were a series of competitions hosted in Hawaii that saw tournaments of traditional and popular sports local to the Pacific region. The idea of a tournament was first conceived in 1822, based on the idea of the Ancient Olympics held in Greece, but centered around Polynesian games  The Pan-Polynesian games are also notable for being the first tournaments for the sport of football, and also popularized Hawaiian pastimes, such as surfing.
The Pan-Polynesian Games were held in 1824 and 1828. The original tournament held competitions for surfing, football, canoe racing, swimming, sailing, and track and field, and later the Laurentian sport of hoopball and the European sports of fencing and tennis were added.
Rugby Commonwealth Championship
The Rugby Commonwealth Championship is a rugby championship for members of the Belkan Commonwealth. The first annual championship was held in 1879 in Vasiligrad, the cultural capital of Belka. The game ended in a victory for Belka.
The Burgundian Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Burgundian Empire. The event was first held with the 1880 Burgundian Games, after which the event took place every four years thereafter.
The Burgundian Games include several major tournaments that are highly contested, including rugby, football and hockey. Additionally it includes one of the largest cycling events in the world, as well as numerous other sports.
The modern Olympic Games, or Olympics are leading international sporting events, with athletes from around the world competing. The first modern Olympic Games were the 1892 Olympics, held in Attina, Belka. The games are organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which was founded in Sint Jan, Borealia in 1879.
- ↑ Year 1824: "An additional sport is added to the event, based on an unoffical game the king witnessed during a trip to Britain, in which teams try to kick a ball into their opponent's net without using their hands. The sport is named football, and rules are formulated based on the rudimentary version played in Europe."
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Year 1825
- ↑ Year 1826
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 1830
- ↑ Year 1867: "A sport that involves kicking a ball into a net catches the eye of Prince Theodore. He ask for the best of these "Footballers" to be put on a team and play together. Other teams are formed around the capital stating an amateur league in which teams play each other at the end of every week."
- ↑ Year 1660: "This year, a rich man called Adam Johnson holds an event in New Rome. Though it wasn't planned, the main event turned out to be a contest where two slaves fought to the death."
- ↑ Year 1662
- ↑ Year 1697: "The first game of first class crickets occurs in Sussex."
- ↑ Year 1822: "...inspires the king to announce a pan-Polynesian games based on the ancient Olympics, featuring popular local games that have been structured with new centralized rules."