The Commonwealth of California is a federation of 12 states and one federal district. Each state is an equal partner in the federation, and all return delegations to the Californian House of Representatives in the Federal District of Sonoma. All 12 states also have equal representation in the House of Councillors, which together with the House of Representatives comprises the Parliament of California. All states are partially self-governing and have their own constitutions and governments independent of the federal administration, which have jurisdiction over all powers not granted to the Commonwealth.
Fremontia is the most populous state, with 38,332,521 residents (2013 estimate); Idaho is the least populous, with an estimated 1,716,943 residents. The largest state by area is Texas, encompassing 268,596 km2, while the smallest is Cochimia, which has an area of 143,390 km2. The current Constitution came into effect on 1 January 1851, federating Fremontia, Cochimia and Oregon simultaneously, making them the oldest states in the Commonwealth. The newest state is Arizona, which was admitted to the Commonwealth as the 12th state on 14 February 1912.
The table below lists the 12 states, with their current capital, largest city, the date they ratified the Californian Constitution or were admitted to the Commonwealth, population and area data, and number of representative(s) in the Californian House of Representatives.