Los manantiales de la abundancia no están en las plazas, sino en los campos; sólo puede abrirlos la libertad y dirigirlos a los puntos donde los llama el interés
(Informes, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos)
The Republic of Texas (Spanish: República de Tejas) is a sovereign state in North America. It is bordered by California to the west and Mexico to the southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, Louisiana to the north and east.
Tejas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, later part the Mexican Empire. The settlement of Tejas was deterred by its remote location and the attacks of Indians (i.e., Comanches). However, this did not stop the illegal migration of French-Louisianans. However, the lack of laborers for agriculture and cattle was provided by the slaves they brought with them from Louisiana. Besides Spanish speaking Texans, French Texans were the other main group. The restrictions that Emperor Agustin I began to put on land ownership by foreigners was one of the causes of the later independence of Tejas.
The growth of the production of cotton and cattle, mainly by French Texans that were burden with high taxes and restriction on trade and ownership led many to conspire against Mexican authorities allied with anti-monarchical liberals.
The province of Tejas declared its independence from Mexico during the First War of the Reforms (1829-1830), along California, Yucatan and Río Grande. The latter's National Congress voted its union with Tejas of the territories it still controlled in 1833. This after a series of defeats of the Rio Grandense army with Imperial Mexican armies.
On its independence the new republic reluctantly recognize the existing Comancheria, the areas occupied by the Comanches.
The Constitution of the Republic of Tejas of 1831 established a presidential unitary republic as it became independent from the Mexican Empire. The Constitution established the three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. President is to be the chief executive. The first elected President served six years and could reelected only once. The following Presidents are elected for a mandate of four years and cannot serve a succeeding term. The legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Republic which is composed of a Senate and a House of Delegates. The senators are elected for eight year terms and the delegates for four year terms. The judiciary is the Supreme Court and lower courts. It gives Congress the power to establish lower courts.
- Juan Erasmo Seguín (1782-1857) 1830-1837, National Republican.
- Stéphane Buenaventura (1793-1838) 1837-1838, Reformist.
- Juan Erasmo Seguín (1782-1857) 1838-1842, National Republican.
- Adrián Woll d′Obm (1795-1875) 1842-1846, National Republican.
- Leandro Olmos 1846-..., Democratic.
Liberal and Conservative opponents of Mexican rule were united during the independence war. However this alliance broke down on the question of how the republic would be organized and by whom. The Convention of 1830 was divided between nationalist and reformist, the latter advocating annexation with Louisiana.
The main products of Texan economy are cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. The first to enjoy major success and that has been the basis of society in Tejas are cattle and bison. In the early days of Mexican and French settlement furs, hides and dried meat were the major products derived from cattle. Beef was not particularly popular in the major markets that were Mexico and Louisiana. However, soon Texan entrepreneurs pioneered the beef industry by means of earlier adoption of industrial meat packing and refrigeration, and demand steadily increased. Large private investment of railroads and port facilities in Galveston made it the main outlet of beef exports to overseas nations.
Cotton production, which had been known in Texas since Spanish times, gradually increased throughout the 19th century becoming one of the leading cotton producers in the Americas. By the end to the 19th century the cotton industry was past its peak as government regulation and foreign competition took their toll.
Texas densest forest lands lie in the eastern part of the country - in particular the Big Thicket (Gran Matorral) region, that has historically been home to the most dense woodlands. The Big Thicket was mostly uninhabited until heavy settlement from Loyalist Louisiana began and was even used as a refuge by runaway slaves. However, extensive exploitation of timber for fuel and construction led to massive deforestation.
The discovery of large oil fields in Texan soil was an event that drastically changed Texan economy and society, besides its international standing.