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====East Africa====
 
====East Africa====
*Ethiopian Empire -
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*Ethiopian Empire - Bender123
 
*Sultanate of Zanzibar -
 
*Sultanate of Zanzibar -
 
*Ankule Kingdom -
 
*Ankule Kingdom -

Revision as of 13:33, 25 June 2019

It's the Year 1870 and the world is on the verge of war. In Europe, the French Empire under Napoleon the Third prepares for war against Prussia, which has been provoking Napoleon for the past few years. In the United States, President Grant leads the nation through reconstruction, but faces opposition by white militant groups. In China, the Qing Dynasty still continues to reign, but in a weakened state after decades of humiliation and faces three rebellions. Meanwhile, in South America, the continent sees the end to one of the bloodiest wars in history as the forces of the Triple Alliance close in on the forces of Francisco Lopez.

As the world continues to march into war, many wonder who will rise and who will fall after the End of Peace.

Rules

Moderators

Map

1875

Map Resources

Note: If there are any errors or map changes please let me know on my talk page or message me on discord. Thanks You. Dev

TEP1875.jpg

Sign ups

Sign up rules are: Can’t be two nations at once, you can only put your name by one. To claim a country, please put your signature next to the country you wish to be. If your nation has a puppet, protectorate, colony or whatever, then you may put your name under them and play as them as well as your nation, just put the subjugated state’s turn underneath its master's turn. If someone wishes to play a colony, puppet, protectorate, etc. then ask the master nation’s player first.

Europe

Western Europe

  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland -
    • Cape Colony -
    • British Gold Coast -
    • British Guyana -
    • British Caribbean -
    • British Aden -
    • British Raj - Dev
    • Australia -
    • New Zealand -
  • Second French Empire - Th3Legnd27
    • French Algeria - Th3Legnd27
    • French Guyana - Th3Legnd27
    • French India - Th3Legnd27
    • Cochinchina - Th3Legnd27
    • French Caribbean - Th3Legnd27
  • Principality of Andorra -
  • Kingdom of Portugal - AtomicSwagBloke
    • Angola - AtomicSwagBloke
    • Mozambique - AtomicSwagBloke

Central Europe

  • North German Confederation - Adolf Coffee
  • Grand Duchy of Baden -
  • Kingdom of Bavaria -
  • Grand Duchy and Hesse and by the Rhine -
  • Kingdom of Württemberg -
  • Kingdom of the Netherlands -
    • Dutch East Indies -
  • Kingdom of Belgium -
  • Grand Duchy of Luxembourg -

Eastern Europe

Southern Europe

  • Kingdom of Italy - Ycasto
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire - Colgan dog
  • Principality of Serbia - Person67
  • Romania -
  • Kingdom of Greece -

Northern Europe

  • Kingdom of Norway (In a personal Union with Sweden) -
  • Kingdom of Sweden (In a personal Union with Norway) - Ahoys123

Africa

Northern Africa

West Africa

  • Republic of Liberia -
  • Kingdom of Cayor -
  • Ashanti Empire (In a personal union under the Fante Confederacy - presumed temporary) - Foothillball
  • Fante Conderacy (In a personal union with the Ashanti Empire - presumed temporary) - Foothillball
  • Kingdom of Jolof
  • Kingdom of Dahoney -
  • Empire of Bornu -
  • Dagbon Kingdom -
  • Kingdom of Dendi -
  • Sokoto Caliphate -
  • Toucouleur Empire -
  • Wattara Empire -

East Africa

  • Ethiopian Empire - Bender123
  • Sultanate of Zanzibar -
  • Ankule Kingdom -
  • Kingdom of Buganda -
  • Kingdom of Tooro -
  • Kingdom of Busoro -
  • Kingdom of Bunyoro -
  • Rwenzururu Kingdom -

Southwestern Africa

  • Kongo Kingdom -

Southern Africa

Asia

East Asia

Southeast Asia

South Asia

  • Kingdom of Nepal -
  • Kingdom of Sikkim -
  • Kingdom of Bhutan -
  • Emirate of Afghanistan - zultan

West Asia

North America

  • Dominion of Canada - Darkight1000
  • United States of America - Mr. Orwell
  • United Mexican States - Curmudgeonly yours - Crim

Central America

  • Republic of Guatemala -
  • Republic of Nicaragua -
  • Republic of Honduras -
  • Republic of El Salvador -
  • Republic of Costa Rica -

South America

  • United States of Colombia -
  • Republic of Venezuela -
  • Republic of Ecuador -
  • Empire of Brazil - Guilhermelcb (talk)
  • Republic of Bolivia -
  • Republic of Chile - w0h i'm back
  • Republic of Paraguay -
  • Republic of Argentina - Steph (talk)
  • Republic of Uruguay -

Oceania

Game

1870

And we have begun! Feel free to sign up and post any time you want! This turn will be a little longer than usual to give time for everyone to post.

The State newspapers of Imperial France publish Emperor Napoleon III’s declaration of war against Prussia and her German allies. After news hits Berlin, Prussia mobilizes for war against France, and manages to get the rest of the German states to join her.

In the United States, terrorist groups like the Ku Klux Klan, who oppose reconstruction and the newly amended 15th amendment, continue to harass Northern Troops and commit hate crimes against the newly freed slaves of the South. Many in the government demand immediate action against these criminals.

In China, numerous rebellions such as the Panthay Rebellion by Hui Muslims threaten the centuries of uninterrupted rule by the Qing Dynasty. In other news the Qing Emperor continues the Tongzhi Restoration of “the traditional order”.

In South America the Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, comes to an end as the forces of Paraguayan Dictator Francisco Lopez are massacred at Cerro Corá.

  • Second French Empire: With our declaration of war on Prussia, the Imperial Army’s size is increased from 385,000 Men to 620,000 in order to rival the Prussian Force. The Main French Army, the Army of the Rhine under the command of Marshall Francois Bazaine consisting of 250,000 Men, is sent to the region of Alsace-Lorraine in preparation for the incoming Prussian Force while a reserve force of 200,000 Men is established. With the Emperor Himself leading the French Armies, the Empress takes control over internal affairs while the Emperor leads the Imperial Army. Emilie Olivier the current Prime Minister of France is replaced by the Charles Montauban, Comte de Palikao as the Empress-Regent sees him as a capable Administrator, capable in leading France against the Germans. (Secret) As Napoleon III arrives with his forces on the Front lines he sends German messengers from Alsace-Lorraine to the Southern States and the Rhine in order to convince the Catholic Regions of Southern Germany and the Rhenish Nationalists in the Rhineland promising to help them establish independent states in Southern Germany and in the Rhineland protected by the Empire. The Emperor also sends messengers to Austria-Hungary to attempt to convince them in joining the French in their struggle against the Germans in order to have their revenge against Prussia for the Austro-Prussian War (Player and Mod Response) (End Secret). Acknowledging Prussia’s Military might, Napoleon III and Bazaine decide to fight the War defensively positioning their forces in Nancy while the Reserve Force is split in two and positioned in the cities of Verdun and Vesoul. With this, the Empire prepares to face the Germans as troops entrench themselves to face the Prussian Army.
    • Rhenish Nationalism was dead around this time. - Mod.
  • Empire of Vietnam: With the constant threat of colonization, Emperor Tu Duc recognizes the importance of westernization. Thus, a process of westernizing the military begins. A process of conscription begins implementation. A policy is also installed requiring westernized training for all military personnel, including officers. A process of western reform also begins. Looking to King Rama V's reforms, Tu Duc implements many Siamese-style institutions, including Vietnam's own Auditory Office for westernized tax collection and a western-style Council of State. A process of reform starts, slowly transforming the government into a western-style government. Recognizing the dangers of a French invasion, Tu Duc attempts to reach an agreement with France. The French can keep the territory they currently hold in Vietnam as long as they do not proceed to annex any more Vietnamese land. He promises to pay tribute to the French as well if they agree to his terms. Tu Duc requests to purchase modern arms from France and also proposes a trade relation with France. (FRENCH RESPONSE NEEDED) Tu Duc sends a diplomatic envoy to neighboring Siam, seeking a trade and military alliance. (SIAM RESPONSE NEEDED)
    • Kingdom of Siam: We accept. King Rama V hopes that this partnership will bring prestige and benefit to both of our great nations.
  • Kingdom of Hawaii: King Kamehameha V enters the seventh year of his reign, during which he marries the daughter of a prominent member of the missionary party, Charlotte Smith. Following this he begins to initiate reforms at her behest, including granting universal male suffrage toward all males on the islands further allowing the missionary party to control the legislatures. In addition to this the ability to change the constitution must be done with the approval of three-fourths of the legislature. Many plantation owners within the legislature knowing they need fresh workforce for Hawaii open up the country to immigration from countries such as China and Japan along with Korea and the Spanish East Indies and British India. This begins a minor demographic shift as people from Asia immigrate introducing elements of Asian culture to the lower-class. Probably most important, King Kamehameha V and Queen Charlotte are announced to be pregnant and expecting in the next year in October. The kingdom begins to expand its trade allowing various goods to enter and sugar being grown in the plantations. The Monarch begins to organize a royal military loyal to him in order to better protect the people of Hawaii from revolts. He also begins a minor encouragement of cultures of his people blending Hawaiian and American cultural aspects.
  • Nippon: The leaders of the Meiji restoration continue to pursue relentlessly their reform policies to ensure that Japan emerges from its place of slumber into the world as a strong and independent nation. Under the guidance of the so-called Meiji Oligarchy in particular Okubo Toshimichi, spearhead the centralization of administration with the various hans or feudal domains having been fully handed over to the central government by the various daimyos allowing for Okubo to appoint men based on loyalty and skill. Military reform begins in earnest under Omura Masujiro as plans to begin implementing conscription across all classes is laid out to unify the commoners and former samurai into a unified imperial army. Production and purchase of modern firearms and artillery is also expanded as the Osaka arsenal is expanded to accommodate the plans for military expansion more arsenals are planned for construction. These facilities are meant for the production of rifles, Gatling guns (OTL this was true) and ammunition. Training along western lines is also heavily implemented particularly along French lines. Large scale naval expansion and modernization is also put forward as plans to build along the lines of the British are made. Using the ships purchased during and before the boshin war as the core along with ships captured from the shogunate navy efforts to bring the ships under control of the various daimyos continues. The ironclads under Imperial control in particular are used to enforce imperial control over the sea lanes. Efforts by the central government to curve and slowly integrate the massive samurai class (numbering some 1.9 million) into the new order and society begins slowly by the government taking over the payment of stipends (previously a responsibility of the daimyos). Construction of model factories, roads, ports and of railways by the government grow as economic development and industrialization are the at the heart of the economic plans for modernization. Samurai and merchant are encouraged to invest in these endeavors. Many of the now unemployed samurai do indeed invest and become involved in the new government either as administrators or as officers seeing the way the wind is blowing following the final defeat of the traditionalists in Hokkaido the previous year. Major tax reforms are also planned to begin in 1871 once the han system has fully been abolished, and central authority fully implemented throughout the Islands. Plans are also made to begin education reforms to improve literacy in Japan and help the process of modernization. In an effort to consolidate Tokyo's authority over the Japan and its dependencies troops are moved into Hokkaido to reinforce control over the island and prevent possible incursions from the mainland, while an envoy is sent to the Ryukyu kingdom along with 5,000 troops to bring the king of Ryukyu back to Tokyo so that he may be bestowed a title of nobility within the newly created Kazoku (Japanese Peerage), and to garrison the islands. Envoys are sent to the French, British, Prussians, Spanish, Russians, and Americans to begin trade talks, to hire advisors and to settle possible disputes. Furthermore, plans for a diplomatic and academic mission to Europe and North America is planned with requests to all the mentioned countries to allow for such a mission to occur. An envoy is also sent to Qing to open trade relations with Qing on the basis of equals and hopefully open up an embassy in Beijing. Feelers are also sent to Joseon, Dai Viet, and Siam to begin opening trade relations with them. (Player and mod responses as required, please)
    • Kingdom of Siam: We agree. We hope this partnership shall bring us glory and prosperity.
  • República de Argentina: With Paraguay under occupation by members of the Triple Alliance a delegation is sent to meet representatives of Brazil and Uruguay to discuss the dissolution of Paraguay under the terms of a new Treaty of Montevideo. In early March the Treaty of Montevideo is to be finalized and signed by the members of the Triple Alliance and the Provisional Government of Paraguay which will officially dissolve in May following the establishment of provisional occupation governments on both sides of the new border. Argentine troops are dispatched to secure the region, overwhelming any marginal resistance that might attempt to prevent the annexation. However, with the massive loss of life in Paraguay, the prospect of stability is expected to out-weight the pain of the occupation. Immediately President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento sets to work expanding the scope and prosperity of the nation's rebounding economy. Thankfully, Argentina’s debt from the war remains small compared to that incurred by the Brazilians, and thus the nation quickly returns to the reforms of Sarmiento’s administration. A true modernist, Sarmiento emphasizes the establishment of secular education institutions across the country, having already built hundreds of schools and higher education facilities. Following the experience of the war, a new military institute is constructed and staffed with veterans. It shall serve as the flagship of military education for the nation. Internationally Sarmiento reaches out to European cruise liner companies, offering them discounted coaling and port fees to come to Argentina. Already a hub of immigration from Europe, the president believes it is these skilled European immigrants who will help kick-start the Argentinian economy. His actions draw increased immigration from an overly crowded Europe. These settlers are to be granted lands in the Chacos Region or can choose to remain in the coastal cities and find work in either factories, manufacturing, or other industries there.
  • United States: We start off January with four important events in the history of our union. The Brooklyn Bridge starts construction in New York. John D Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil. In Reconstruction African American males are given suffrage via the 15th Amendment and Virginia is admitted into the Union after five years of Federal Occupation. As time goes on in Utah women are granted suffrage as Mississippi is admitted into the Union. Hiram Rhodes Revels is voted as the first black senator in the US, this a major advancement in black empowerment. By March Hamilton Fish proclaims the 15th Amendment as Texas is admitted into the Union. Christmas and other holidays are made into Federal Holidays by congress. The first pneumatic subway opens in New York City and Georgia, the last former Confederate state is admitted into the Union. However, because of the massive anti-black presence in the south President Grant keeps federal troops stationed in the south. The Eutaw Riot takes place as vote intimidation against Africans in Alabama and intervention by Federal Troops prevents a massacre. The riot prompts federal troops to be stationed in an around the state to protect blacks at the voting stations. The Klan perpetrators of the event are also sought out by Federal Marshals on charges of terrorism. The Democrats by inches win the Alabama gubernatorial election. Sections of the transcontinental railroad are finished in Colorado. Meanwhile, the US army also looks into using the Gatling gun as an anti-infantry and infantry support weapon similar to artillery. President Grant also improves a vast ship modernization program to reinforce the navy with modern ships and weapons. Development of a new class of ironclad begins (think American version of HMVS Cerberus). However, plans of construction are estimated to begin by 1871 or 1872. The Japanese are met by older Federal officials in the Embassy there. A trade agreement is hashed out which is to reopen relations between the two countries on friendlier terms than 1852 and the 1864 Shimonoseki campaign. However, despite being against Chinese, anti-Asian laws do upset the Japanese diplomats a little bit. Seeing potential profits several businessmen ask Hawaii to buy large tracts of land for sugar plantation's (Bel respond). President Grant in order to rebuild the economy from the civil war accepts the Japanese request for American arms and machinery. Namely single shot breech carbines and Union-Pacific getting thoughts about expanding its railroad up to Alaska and maybe a branch in Japan.
    • Japanese Dip: The Japanese envoy requests for the purchase of American arms, and machinery as well as for the Japanese to begin employing American advisors while Japanese students be permitted to study in the US. On another, a mission to North America and to Europe is planned the Japanese delegation requests permission for this delegation to start off in the US.
    • Hawaiian Diplomacy: We inform the American businessmen, that they must follow the land reform laws passed by the Missionary Party, which state the government cannot allow sale of private land and to own land they must apply and be approved for a license, and gain assent from the land owners to buy the land.
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire: Our current Head of State is Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia and so on. The empire begins construction of factories within its major population centers such as Vienna, Budapest, Zagreb, and Lviv. Many of these factories are arm factories and produce weapons for the Austro-Hungarian Army, which go through extensive training with this weapons. At the start of this year we inaugurate the Musikverein in Vienna, a concert hall. We form the National Association of Philosophers and Intellects to bring the great minds of the empire in one place. Imperial Army troops are sent down south to the Austria-Ottoman Border and ordered to garrison there till further notice. We declare neutrality in the Franco-German conflict. We send in troops to the Austrian-Italian border to defend from any possibility of an Italian assault.
  • Sublime State of Persia: Shah Nasser begins a reform of the Persian army by modernizing its structure to better suit Persia's situation. Meanwhile, the Nasser defense line begins to be constructed on our border with Russia as a precaution. The shah reasserts the Russian tsar that we do not want any further wars.
  • Kingdom of Nepal: The Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana attempts to establish direct relation with the British government once again and sends an envoy to the British Government in London (British Response). Seeking to expand relations he also sends an envoy to the Japanese government in Tokyo (Japanese Response). The Jung Bahadur Rana also requests the British resident in Kathmandu to send British advisors to help modernise the Nepali Army (British Response). Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana tries to improve the education of the country by encouraging traditional informal schooling systems.
    • Jap Response: Tokyo gladly accepts the Nepali request to open relations.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The Kingdom of Italy had been born just a few years before after a series of internal and external conflicts, which united the various Italian states. Now, after these internal conflicts are over, the nation has still large issues with instability. The south of the country, formerly known as the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, is still one of the poorest regions of Western Europe and bandits sabotage the Italian rule. The current King, Emmanuel II. and his parliament are in a rather heated dispute, on how to solve the problem in the south, the lack of foreign investments and the overall bad economic situation. One proposal is, to move the capital from its current place in Florence to the southern Italian city of Naples, as this could appease the locals. After months of fighting, the King gives in, and the capital is moved to Naples. Yet this has to come with a series of reforms. One of them is a unitary and compulsory education system with the Prussian model, under which both boys and girls have to go to school for at least four years, to gain literacy and learn basic mathematics. Another problem is the so called Lazzeroni-Question named after the infamous Lazzeroni, the poorest of the poor within the Naples. These people are often homeless and a large factor for rebellions and support for bandits. The establishment of hospitals for the poor, a regulated bread price and the new educational reform are the hope to keep them quiet. Seeing the coming conflict between the North German Confederation and France, the Italian high staff hopes for orders, that could help Italy out of French dependence. SECRET Both the Navy and the Army are prepared to cooperate with the Germans in the coming war, as a secret military alliance was made in 1866 (GERMAN/PRUSSIAN RESPONSE NEEDED). The navy is ready to seize Corsica and French North Africa, with around 30,000 men being stationed at the French border and a major conscription taking place to enlarge the size of the navy and the army. 10,000 will be stationed around Rome to attack the French garrisons in the Papal States, and 5,000 to seize Algeria. The rest will be used as a back up to help with the campaign in northern France or as reserves. SECRET END The railway projects are continued, while the import of grain is lowered, to keep the local economy from falling apart.
  • Principality of Serbia: The Belgrade officer military academy is formed and mandatory national service of a year is introduced. An agricultural university is set up in Nis, British farmers are asked to come and run the new Ministry of Agriculture (Mod Response) which will supervise education, lending to farmers and tax breaks to increase agricultural productivity. Loans and tax breaks are offered to farmers who introduce the Norfolk crop rotation system and Dutch plows. While the Enclosures Act is passed eliminating much common land and consolidating smaller holdings into larger holdings. Removal of internal barriers such as customs tolls and such while the National Bank of Serbia is founded which will provide a role as a central bank. A land value tax, income tax, corporation tax, duty and sales tax are established as the new forms of taxation and this new cash is used to start construction of railways going from the south of the country to the north while heavy fortifications are beginning construction at Vranje, Leskovac and Prokuplje. We propose a free trade deal with Austria-Hungary and Romania (Mod and Player response). As a result of some of the tax reforms and Enclosures Act civil disturbances amongst the population begins with rioting in Belgrade and resistance to the new taxation we ask our Russian and Austrian allies to send 20,000 troops each to help keep order in Serbia.
    • British Dip: A group of British farmers agree to advice and run the ministry of agriculture.
    • Austrian response: We agree to a formalized free trade deal, we also agree to send 20,000 troops to aid the Serbian government in restoring order.
    • Romania agrees to creating a free trade deal. - Mod
  • United Mexican States: Since revolting from Spain, Mexico has undergone many iterations. This instability has caused an interest in political thought throughout Mexico, though it has also sparked much violence. Only recently, Maximilian's reign over Mexico was cut short, with France withdrawing from Mexico and Maximilian being executed by the forces of Benito Juárez. Now, President Juárez works tirelessly to keep Mexico free from the influence of Europe. Scarred by the countless atrocity visited upon Her soil by the French, Mexico seeks to improve relations with the United States. Though this is a controversial decision to some Mexicans due to the Mexican-American War only a few decades ago, Juárez stresses, "Ours is a new Mexico, one that cannot be taken from us. One that does not forget the hardships we endure, but learns and evolves." It proposes a number of trade deals with the United States, particularly involving cheaper textiles - a sector that had been severely impacted by the US Civil War and aftermath - from Mexico. though Juárez learned from the blowback of the McLane-Ocampo Treaty not to take matters to an extreme. Work on the railway from Mexico City to Veracruz begins this year Work on the railway had begun nearly 30 years prior, yet the workers were forced to halt construction due to the civil wars. Mining and textiles continue to provide Mexico with a large source of income - the mining industry especially booms this year as efforts to expand Mexico's railways past Veracruz are underway even before the line is finished. In addition, Juárez's efforts to expand the industrial sector of Mexico results in a further spike in mining productivity and profits. Settlers from towns once ravaged by the civil wars begin to fan out to the countryside, especially in Tamaulipas, which had been one of the last states resisting Maximilian's reign. Chihuahua also sees marked improvement this year, particularly due to its agricultural output and its position as a trading hub. Juárez has payed particular attention to Chihuahua's well-being in recent years, especially due to a growing scandal regarding allegations of Juárez's involvement in the assassination of General Canto. As matters begin to boil out of hand, Juárez considers suspending Chihuahua's voting rights, but decides against it. The situation in Chihuahua fizzles out. In the meantime, a number of Mayan and Nahua native communities see prosperity via Juárez's economic reforms. Juárez, a native himself, believes in using the discontinued cacique system, which would result in the natives of Mexico having more of a voice in its political system. Mexico bolsters its military with a wave of recruits, ready and able to protect Mexico from the imperialists of the world.
  • Qing Dynasty (China): After three rebellions, The Qing would grow weaker as time passes on due to their age and rebellion. They also have problems with Europe mostly Britain (considering they lost Hong Kong) The Qing relationship to Europe would grow weaker and their economy would also weaken. However, with Europe about come to another war again, they decide to raise its army, attempt trade with the US (United States response needed). China also decide for a possible invasion of Hong Kong (it's secret, though, so no response for Britain) Qing also decide to bring more troops to Korea in order to prevent a possible Korean uprising or a Japanese invasion of them (Qing Korea and Japan response needed ) After the rebellion by Hui Muslims, The Qing began to force Muslim in their area to leave China, forcing them to move to the Middle East, racial segregation also began as Chinese Asian are living much better lives than Hui Muslims. When the French-Prussian war begun, We knew that Europe may have another continent-wide war, so we decide to improve our economy and armed force. The king of China decides that they would stay neutral if a war in Europe broke out, however, will support Prussia due to France starting to colonize Vietnam (Prussian and France response needed) We knew that if our support and possible war with Britain failed, it would spell the end our empire. The Qing also decide to have a more friendly relationship with Vietnam and Siam as European colonialism reach near them (Vietnam and Siam response needed)
  • Kingdom of Siam: King Chulalongkorn is deemed mentally mature enough to rule Siam without a regent and assumes the title of King Rama V. His first reform is to establish the Auditory Office, a government office which is solely responsible for Tax Collection. Before, tax collectors had managed tax collection, but many of them were corrupt. However, due to the fact that tax collectors were a source of wealth for some nobles, this caused much consternation among the nobility, especially the front palace (Viceroy). Later that year, Chulalongkorn establishes the Council of State, a privy council and a legislative body. Council members are appointed by the King. These actions quickly drew the ire of the Front Palace and much of the aristocracy, as their power was being eroded. He continues the hiring of western mercenaries to train the army western-style. A western navy is made. (OTL we had the technology to do so)  along the lines of the British composed of steam ships. A plan is made to improve literacy all over the nation, but only teaching Central Thai To help aid our modernization process, we ask the British, Prussians and Americans to begin trade talks, allow us to hire advisors, and to settle border disputes (if any).
  • you need to build it over time With Blood and Iron (talk) 13:08, June 19, 2019 (UTC)
  • Empire of Russia: Long live Tsar Alexander II! The tsar invites foreign leaders to Saint Petersburg. With a heavy emphasis on the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and their Queen Victoria, the King of Prussia William I, and Dutch King William III. (Mod and player response) These monarchs and their diplomats are invited to discus the Russian Empire and the plausibility of reform in it. With this as a way to get new ideas of how to do the reforms. The Army also begins its preparations to start the civilising and conversion of Khiva in an armed manner. The a small army force of 5,000 men is also readied at the Xinjiang border for if the situation around the Dungan rebellion escalates further. While at the same time emperor himself gives permission for soldiers to make cannons and smaller boats on the Caspian Sea. Further, we reach to the Persian Empire about fishing rights and military movement around the Caspian Sea. Seeing the Serbian tax rebellions the army readies army 20,000 men with 15,000 being for only policing duties and 5,000 for possible battles. With this, Alexander gives full support to Prince Milan. Slavs unite in all struggle one people three faiths. The emperor also begins to encourage foreigners to settle in Russia and bring industry to Russia due to it. One of the first steps of reforms is also the standardisation of Autonomy which specify which gets what rights. This is to simplify Russian and make it easier for administrators to switch to regions of needed. This will make it so all Duchies, Grand Duchies, etc., will know what their rights and duties are that they have to abide by.
  • The Northern German Confederation: with Prussia and her allies at war with the Second French Empire, it is taken into the hands of the government to rally the people in our efforts against the French menace. As a result, plans are drawn for an invasion through Alsace and Lorraine. The railways are taken full advantage of as the Prussian and various German Armies are sent off toward what would be settled as the primary location for invasion. Supplies are also transported and so are various military weapons and equipment such as guns, artillery, and more. 938,500 men are sent off to the battlefield with an additional 300,000 troops to follow as locations such as the likes of Metz, Sedan, Verdun, and Vesoul see the German Army march onward led by the commanders Helmuth von Moltke, Prince Freidrich, Albrecht von Roon, and Otto von Bismarck. These battles of course would amount to a combined German Victory over the French Forces with the capture of Napoleon III. Farming and Agriculture continues to be a success which would assist in providing food to the German people and the military as the brave men on the battlefield continue to lead the nation to victory. In the meantime, Bismark continues to push for the idea of a united German State especially moving forward following the successes achieved by the united German people as the fate of the war. More railroad companies take advantage of the plots of land still left open and undeveloped by setting up areas of development to create future rails to use as more people especially now more than ever, the government uses it as a reliable source of quick travel. with the campaign against the French going very well, the next stage of the war is set with Helmuth von Moltke and Albert of Saxony leading the siege on Paris in September with 300,000 troops.
    • Qing dynasty (China): Due to our failing economy, we send diplomats on a boat to Prussia. After two weeks we arrived at Germany asking for asking for alliance and economic support to the kaiser(Prussia response needed)
    • Please add an algo. -mod
  • Império do Brasil: With the end of hostilities in Paraguay, Brazilian diplomats are sent to attend peace negotiations in Uruguay. After much deliberation the Treaty of Montevideo is concluded by mid year, including the annexation of the majority of Paraguay proper into Brazil is ratified. Some of the annexed Paraguayan land is integrated into the state of Mato Grosso (OTL Brazilian gains) with the majority of the territory reorganized into the a province, temporarily under military rule. With most of Paraguayan males having died during the bloody war vast swaths of land would be left un-owned and the Imperial Government would take advantage of this, seizing these territories. seized plots of land would be granted as payment for due military salaries and pensions, the ones not given out would be sold and used to pay debt. The soldiers that fought in the war would also be incentivized to settle in Paraguay with the excess lands and unmarried women being an attractive deal. With the end of the War of the Triple Alliance large celebrations would be held through out the country, Pedro would take this opportunity to hail Count Gaston of Eu, Husband of Isabel, as a war hero along with Caxias and others, introducing him in good light to public eyes. After having focused his attention in the struggles of the conflict for five years Pedro II would turn his eyes to the economy of the nation, which now faces a debt of 11 years-worth of government revenue. With peace successfully negotiated, regional tensions at an all time low and due payments being made with land, the military size and spending is drastically cut down. Knowing that the war expenses will cost Brazil much needed investment in development, The Emperor and the Ministerial Cabinet would look to compensate for this without spending government money. Pedro would also begin planning a large trip to Europe during which he would appoint his daughter Isabel as regent, despite still not believing in her to be a proper heiress to the throne he would decide to introduce her into political life as to prepare her for the regency,
  • Dominion of Canada: The Dominion of Canada is a very new Nation Formed in 1867, the nation is three years old. Although now an independent nation, we are considered a part of the British Empire and can make laws and decisions only with Britain approval. The nation is a democracy like its neighbour, the United States. We want to have friendlier relations with the US - as well with other nations. currently, Manitoba has joined the confederation

1871

The Franco-German conflict will be at a stalemate until algos are made.

China protests Japan’s increasing expansion of influence in the ryukyus and threaten to send warships to the ryukyus.

All trade deals are accepted, some German Catholics join the French army, and the Ryukyan king accepts the Japanese offer and heads to the islands to be crowned, while the garrison set up on the island.

Mexico’s agricultural sector sees a huge boom with the government’s new policies and the sector begins to prosper.

British Columbia is annexed into the Canadian Confederation.

The First Cat Exhibition is held at the Crystal Palace in London.

Excavation of some ruins in Turkey are beginning to look promising for stories of an ancient city from Greek times.

  • Empire of Russia: Long live Tsar Alexander II! Soldiers are readied on the borders of the Khivan Khanate, with a warning that troops will advance if the Khan does not recognise Russian sovereignty over his nation. While at the same time diplomats do inform him that if he is to surrender the sovereignty to Russia that he will be made Grand duke of Khiva. and that with this move he will able to rule his land how he sees fit as long as he accept Tsar Alexander as his master and that he will recognise him as his Protector. For this Russia will allow the Muslim faith in his lands. The Khan will also be allowed to have his own language, anthem, flag and Coat of Arms. So we request that he will accept. If not, the 15,000 Russians will cross the border into his lands and take away all his rights. (Mod response). While at the same time the standardisation of government ranks is continued with now three basic levels, Grand Duchy, Duchy and County. With Grand duchies having the right to have their own language, police, religion and Duma with the Duma being able to make laws in the region. While the question if all grand duchies can use a flag is debatable as some consider the Russian flag as the only flag that should be flown in Russia. The level of Duchy has the ability of an own language, and religion and a Lesser Duma which only has the ability to advise and make suggestions. Counties will have the ability of an own of basic lesser taxation and being able to  make a language other then Russian the secondary language if they request.
    • Mod Response: The Sultan of Khiva accepts the Russian demands becoming an integrated protectorate of the Empire.
  • I’m Sorry man but we are gonna have to remove you as China. You are new to map games hence you don't have enough experience to play as China. Again I’m sorry. You may choose another nation.
    • It's alright, I understand. I am sorry. I will play better. I promise I will act better. Darkight1000
  • Kingdom of Italy: Seeing how many of the French soldiers are caught up in the stalemate, the first official measures are taken to prepare the troops at the border as well as the navy to intervene in the conflict. Artillery is installed in large quantities at the border near Nice, while the light infantry is mostly concentrated to take charge of an attack in Lazio (central Italy, around Rome), most of which are former Brigade members who fought around a decade ago in the unification wars. Their officers are experienced in unconventional warfare, such as using bandits to their advantage and gaining support from the locals. SECRET Especially those former "red shirts" are sent under cover behind the border into Nice and the Italian towns of the region, to clear the way for a coming invasion, by spreading pro-Italian propaganda (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) SECRET END Its now standardized, that messages are communicated via horse, as bicycles rely on more or less properly made roads, making slipping through enemy lines or into enemy-controlled territory more difficult. The navy has learned from their former mistakes and has now improved their coordination and self-evaluation, with intense studying in battle-tactics, which are now put into praxis. The lighter ships of the Italian navy are sent out to cruise along the Algerian coast and the heavier are sent west to slowly cutting off Corsica from the mainland, as it is one of the major strategic. As long as the stalemate lasts, more and more troops are sent to the border, while the 10,000 men in Lazio are reduced to just 7,500, to strengthen the naval operations in north Africa. In May, war is declared on France, when Italian troops seize the Papal States and capturing the undermanned garrisons in central Italy. The war in the north goes much slower however, the first major battle occurs in Nice, with about 15,000 men participating, with additional 900 former Brigadists. There, the Italian population is called to pick up the fight with their fellow countrymen. The navy bombards north African cities controlled by the French, putting pressure on these cities by cutting their communication lines with a major blockade over Algiers and Oran. This war boosts the industry, as rifles, artillery and ammunition are built en masse. (to be continued)
    • Mod Response: The propaganda campaign is somewhat successful. The red shirts are able to establish safe houses in Nice and surrounding areas.
  • Persia: The shah continues his policy of modernizing the army, which is now divided into two field armies consisting of 24 divisions each in war time and one field army in peace time. We secretly begin to build fortification on our border with the Ottomans and also sends five divisions there. Meanwhile, an expedition to study the feasibility of rebuilding the ancient capital of Persepolis is planned.
  • Russian Diplomacy: Our government once more ask the Persian government to the tables to create a treaty about the Caspian Sea and future relations. The diplomats inform no response will be seen as an aggressive action and will get sanctions. As the future of the Caspian Sea and area are seen as treats to Russian safety as a sovereign.
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire: fortifications and barracks are built on the Austrian border of Ottoman Bosnia. Factories are ordered to pump our rifles for the Armed Forces of the Empire. The government takes on government reforms for agriculture in the empire, lowering taxes and allowing farmers’ to choose the prices of their crops and to sell them on the market. To better the conditions in Galicia, large investments in agriculture and infrastructure are made there, and more autonomy is gifted to the locals in politics and economics. The navy patrols the Adriatic Sea ready to protect the empire from a possible Italian revanchist attack. We send diplomats to the Russian Empire offering to increase ties and strengthen the Three Emperors Alliance (TULLIN RESPONSE NEEDED). 20,000 Austrian troops cross the border into Serbia and help contain and suppress the rioters. They move in on the cities where the riots are the biggest and the violence is the greatest do whatever it is the Serbians want them to do in order to defeat the revolt. Field artillery is included in many of the divisions on the Austrian border, along with the installation of normal artillery.
  • Nippon: Tokyo Declines the outrageous demands of Qing. The Ryukyu Kingdom has been a vassal of the Satsuma Domain since the 1600s, and is under Japanese sovereignty. Tokyo in agreement with the king of Ryukyu disband the kingdom in favour of the Ryukyu Domain as a protectorate of Japan. The Japanese naval forces made up of eight ironclads, several steam powered frigates, and smaller ships, more ironclads are being purchased from the Americans along with breech-loaded rifles and artillery pieces. More firearms and munitions are produced at the Osaka Arsenal. Another arsenal is beginning construction in Nagasaki. The port of Nagasaki, Osaka, Tokyo,and other major cities also receives funds for an upgrade to start developing facilities capable of building modern ships. The final face of abolition the Han system is carried out with the consolidation of the 260 domains into 72 prefectures throughout the islands. The previous daimyo and samurai provided with government bonds that are reimbursed based on a lottery annually. The samurai are also encouraged to join the officer corps and the administration. With the Chinese threatening war the differences that exist amongst the members of the Meiji Oligarchy over conscription set aside their differences and agree to push through universal conscription. To make this more palatable to the commoners the planned land reforms are put into effect providing massive amounts of land to become available for purchase and for development. New tax laws are also put into place to simplify and streamline tax laws and collection. The core forces of the imperial army (roughly 35,000) made up of the Satsuma, Chosu, and Tosa Clans as well as former Tokugawa troops who swore loyalty to the Meiji emperor upon his ascension to the throne form the core of the new imperial army which now numbers 80,000, plans to expand it again as soon through conscription. There remains some lingering tensions between former enemies but the external threat of the Qing to Japanese national interests keeps everyone together. The Japanese forces Efforts to fund development and industrialization continue.Support is offered to the Koreans should they desire Japanese assistance to resist the Qing invaders. 
  • United States: On April 20th, President Grant sings the Ku Klux Klan Act which suspends the law forbidding the military from becoming law enforcement to combat the Klan Grant extends this to the length of the Confederacy where Federal troops raid and arrest thousands of Klansmen. The Klan in South Carolina is virtually decimated. Construction of the Grant Class Iron-clad (essentially a Miantonomoh accept raised several feet higher and the hull has waterline armored plating). Ships under Admiral John Rodgers arrives in Japan carrying US diplomats to the Japanese government offering several trade agreements and asking for a naval base for the US Asiatic Fleet (NK if you may). Due to experiences in the civil war with massed fire taking out volumes of men, then later moving on to trench warfare, the army sees the benefits in adopting the Sharps 1867 single shot carbine for the whole US army instead of having single firing muskets. Commanders see the idea of expending more lead than men and adopt the mentality of superior firepower. Army researchers go into making a breech loading cannon with a breech similar to that of the Armstrong gun. The Great Chicago Fire happens killing 300. The First Major League Game happens between unknown teams.
    • Nippon Dip: The Japanese allow for the Americans to refuel and use Japanese ports but at present can't accommodate the request for a base of their own. However, with rising tensions with Japan offer to help the Americans the possibility of a port if they assist in dealing with Qing
  • República de Argentina: With the apparent success of the Treaty of Montevideo, the Army of the Republic, numbering 20,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalrymen begin to demobilize. 20,000 troops, are released from service. Meanwhile, the remaining Argentine troops occupy roughly the bottom 25% of Paraguay proper, while another 2,000 cavalrymen are dispatched to begin securing the Chacos region. President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento orders Colonel Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz, a young but impressive commander, to lead this division in establishing a series of fortresses and subduing any natives. A new government policy of repayment is determined and large tracts of land in the Province of Paraguay are settled by soldiers as payment for their service. This settlement is carried out by a purpose-created battalion of Army Surveyors who take inventory of the land obtained from the war, its inhabitants, and new owners. Internationally, President Sarmiento launches a major diplomatic endeavor. Diplomatic missions are sent to major global capitals such as London, Berlin, Rome, Madrid, Paris, St. Petersburg, and Washington. These diplomats serve a dual purpose, firstly they establish the beginnings of economic and scientific relations, but critically they serve as a tool to distribute pro-Argentine literature. In Argentina, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs establishes a Department of International Opinion which produces pro-Argentine articles in foreign languages, notably English, French, Italian, German, and Russian. These are distributed to newspapers in these countries through the diplomatic offices. A particularly strong diplomatic team is sent to the United States of America, seeking to establish a “Special Relationship” between the Republic of the North and the Republic of the South. The diplomats are quick to paint Argentina as a friend and ally to the United States and attempt to convince the leadership there that Argentina is equally dedicated to democracy, equality, and liberty. To solidify this relationship, Argentina asks to purchase the four hulls of the Kalamazoo-class ironclads, currently sitting in drydock and have them completed without armament by 1873. (Orwell Please) These ships are to be renamed the Rio Plata-class, and feature an added super-structure to improve fire-control, optics, and a new yet-to-be-acquired armament. To increase the simplicity of the design and reduce the overall cost to operate the ships it is decided to limit the number of additional secondary weapons to eight Hotchkiss Revolving Cannons in the superstructure. On the home-front, more schools are constructed and children are given free access to these public schools from the ages of five to twelve. Although not universal, this has the effect of granting poor urban children decent educations. Meanwhile, the government begins the negotiations with the Church to nationalize, standardize, regulate, and make free the multitude of Catholic schools and colleges in the nation. Having returned to peace, the economy surges. Driven by increasing agricultural exports and growing agricultural productivity, exports boom taking the economy with it. Immigration from abroad accelerates. These immigrants are sold land for cheap, emulating the Homestead Acts of the United States. They are granted land in Chacos, Paraguay, and along the southern line of colonization in Patagonia in exchange for a 5% tax on their farm-produce for five years. In an effort to accelerate the economy further, the government begins plans to expand the rail system.
  • Principality of Serbia: Much of the resistance to tax reform has been reduced by the presence of Austrian and Russian soldiers but there is still a focus on restoring law and order. Super phosphate fertilisers are imported from Britain while further land reform is pushed through and work continues on building a railway from the south of the country to Belgrade. The Ministry of Agriculture run in part by the British continues to withhold tax breaks from those who don't move over the Norfolk crop rotation system. Loans are given for the beginning of coal mining in Kolubara for export.
  • Qing Dynasty (China): After the decline of our message we decide to mobilize our navy and send around 20 outdated ship to Ryukyu. After two hours we arrived and order the last message to Japan telling them to leave the island once and for all or war will break out if a decline also happen again our ship orders to fire on the navy and invade the island if they don't back down. we also start to build more advance ship to catch up to the Japanese and industrialized our nation and send more war ship to it as we quickly bu
  • Joseon Dynasty: The outcome of the recent foreign interventions prompts outrage within the Confucian scholar—gentry, who are now well aware of the technological disparity between the West and the East. With a decisive American military victory in the Battle of Ganghwa, which has left a foreign force in proximity to the capital of Seoul, the Koreans are now coerced into negotiations. With the threat of another foreign intervention and the imposition of an unequal treaty increasingly imminent, the imperial court is restless. King Gojong, now aged ~19, dismisses his father as regent with the aid of his consort, Queen Min, and her clan. Nevertheless, he still lacks the charisma necessary to unite the divided aristocracy. As a result, the conservative faction remains predominant in Korean affairs. King Gojong orders a tax reform law which regulates the tenant-landlord relationship, whilst also establishing a head tax (instead of a household tax) based on coinage, grain or corvée. He also bans the practice of buying licenses to deal with an excessively large nobility, which is now largely comprised of middle-class smallholders and prohibits the practice of slavery — thus reducing the caste system to four tiers (aristocracy, lesser nobility, commoners and the « untouchables »). Queen Min continues to assume a larger role in governance. She successfully advocates for the legalization of Christianity to avoid further clashes with European powers and ends the centuries-old isolationist policy. In spite of this, China remains a close partner, and Korea reaffirms its allegiance to the age-old civilization through the continued observance of tribute – opposition to the Qing in the form of Ming royalism and anti-Manchu sentiment continue to manifest. Queen Min tries to rationalize opening up to foreigners by asserting that China has undertaken the recent Tongzhi Restoration and there are many new reformist-minded statesmen. She also increases the regular army to 22,500 men (split between Seoul, and the eight provinces) — though they continue to be armed with muskets, low-caliber cannons, and rocket launchers, in addition to polearms. With Korea now open to trade, the government sends delegates to meet with Western dignitaries in Shanghai and other Chinese hubs – specifically, the British and Russians. The government also tries to bolster the production of silk and ceramics (especially celadon and lacquerware), the mining of gold, as well as the cultivation of tea, cotton, and ginseng.
    • Diplomacy to Russia: The Koreans want to establish an open market with the Russians (no tariffs) – thus allowing Russia to acquire lucrative goods such as celadon, lacquerware, silk, and tea, while Korea could acquire industrial machinery and blueprints. The Koreans also ask permission for private advisors to help educate the bureaucracy. The Koreans also remind Russian dignitaries of the recent legalization of Christianity, including Orthodoxy.
    • Russian Diplomacy:Russia will allow allow the free trade and even thanks Korea for the trade opportunity.
  • United Mexican States: A presidential election takes place, with Benito Juárez winning by a slim margin. Though he has held office throughout the French invasion, his administration has been marred by controversy and scandal. His opponent, Porfirio Diaz of Chihuahua, loses much of his political clout, as Juárez did not suspend Chihuahua's voting rights as he had OTL. This, coupled with the booming agricultural sector, allowed for Juárez to remain in office, being elected for a fourth term. He enacts a number of policies giving increasing rights to local farmers and miners. These reforms result in a number of caciques rising in southern Mexico. These Mayan caciques form militias, nominally to protect their interests against future foreign incursions. The agricultural boom trickles into Mexico's textile industry. Textiles, which form a backbone of Mexico's economy, are sold for cheap prices to the United States, Cuba, and many Central American and South American states. This boom in textiles requires large-scale infrastructure remodeling, however, and Mexico's relative lack of industrial prowess prevents this textile boom from creating too large an economic bubble. French methods of spinning textiles teach some more industrious Mexicans with the resources to start such facilities to industrialize the process of textile weaving. This practice, which has traditionally been performed at home, especially by indigenous cultures, becomes increasingly automated. This need for automation puts more demand on the mining sector of Mexico for the resources needed for the facilities. In addition, the rail line to Veracruz results in an unprecedented need for iron, which results in a massive boom in the iron industry. The Mexican GDP rises significantly because of this. However, given the past few years, many Mexican economists remain skeptical. Indeed, the life expectancy of Mexicans has decreased since its independence from Spain. This is largely due to the numerous wars, internal rebellions, and the resultant famines. However, at this time things are looking up for both the people of Mexico and Her economy. The railroad to Veracruz enters its final stage, while preliminary tracks are laid down in Tamaulipas and Guerrero. A flood of former Confederates enters Mexico from the United States, many of whom settle down in Tamaulipas and Chihuahua. Free from restrictions from the United States and given relatively-free range in Mexico, these settlers begin to conglomerate in agricultural regions. They, too, form militias in the event of American aggression. As they seem to be relatively harmless, Mexico intends to allow these communities to grow. The government offers a number of land grants to settlers in Baja California. The Mexican military continues to swell this year, as this new economic boom encourages young Mexicans everywhere to pick up arms in the event of another foreign incursion. The navy is especially improved, as Mexico especially would like to avoid a repeat incident with the likes of France. The Italian invasion of France is celebrated. A street ballad: Canción de Nápoles becomes popular among Mexicans, though many other popular songs - the kind not appropriate for polite company - are written about France's defeat at the hands of Italy.
  • Império do Brasil: Pedro would himself tutor and introduce to government affairs his daughter Isabel in preparation to her Regency period, also working to appear more with her and her Husband in public and in court to improve their popularity. The Emperor’s deliberations with his ministers from last year to current would conclude the need for an aggressive policy of industrialisation, to be able to compete with the industrial explosion in Europe and USA. To achieve this objective a large legislative package of industrial incentive and economic liberalisation policies would be organised. The project would be presented by His Imperial Majesty as means to greatly reduce luxury goods costs and increase export revenue of coffee, by improving infrastructure, and so would be favourable to the politically dominant agrarian elite. Among the many laws planned for the proposal would be fiscal incentives, temporary subsidises, incentives for investment and entrepreneurship, easier regulations, expansion of education, etc. The reform would begin implementation in the current year focusing on bureaucratic changes and span some years more. Preparing for his year-long voyage Pedro would, always thinking about the nation, decide to take Imperial diplomats and hundreds of intellectuals along with him. The Emperor would depart late, in September and arrive in Lisbon where he would meet his relative King Luis of Portugal, his stepmother Amélia and visit the tomb of his father Pedro I and historical sites in the country. Further, a trade deal and immigration treaty would be proposed [PORTUGAL RESPONSE]. After that, he would visit The UK, France, Switzerland and Italy. While in Great Britain Pedro would meet Queen Victoria and Prime Minister William and negotiate better relations and a commercial agreement for coffee exports [UK RESPONSE] While in France and Italy trade and immigration agreements would also be negotiated [FRANCE, ITALY RESPONSE NEEDED]
    • British Mod Response: A commercial agreement for coffee exports is agreed upon. The United Kingdom looks forward to better relations with Brazil.
  • The German Empire: following the defeat of the French at the Siege of Paris early on this year, a new constitution was signed and put into place which would include all German states that have so far worked in this mighty effort against their mighty and great foe. As a result, the German Empire would be declared effectively the following year when the constitution would go into effect. This decision was made prior last year in December by the Reichstag with the offer of the Emperor's title being given to the Prussian King. As the day for the Imperial Proclamation to be decided, it would be the 18th of January to coincide with the coronation of Frederick III von Brandenburg's coronation of Frederick I in 1701 which would found the Kingdom of Prussia. With Kaiser Wilhelm declared at Versailles, treaty discussions would begin following the celebration. German troops remained about in. Northern France with troops in Dijon and people back at home hearing the news that would shake up the world. The Treaty of Paris would begin to be laid out and the terms would be presented the following year with hostile actions ceasing and the French army at least for the Germans, defeated as they engage in war with the Italians. Developments continue with infrastructure seeing greater growth and development abroad with the spread of industrialization abroad. The Berlin-Munich railway begins construction as a broad and complex railway network is seen as the ambition of the German Railway Owners as profits from them go sky high. Chinese Investment is also given and rather than the German's hold an alliance with the Chinese, it is seen for the time being that the states remain non-aligned and rather we offer economic investments with silk and other Chinese products being seen as things to profit from as a result with the request of purchasing of a Chinese Port in Qingdao for about two million Reichsmarks. Advisors are sent off to Japan in order to assist in their needs. Furthermore, Germany looks forward to a mutual trade agreement with the land of the rising sun.
    • Chinese Diplomacy: China would allow the purchase of Qingdao if in addition to the two million Reichsmark, Germany also invests more in the Chinese economy and provides military assistance, in the form of advisers, ships, and equipment.
    • Dominion of Canada: After agreeing with Britain, Canada will annex British Columbia and will become a part of the Confederation. Canada economy would also grow as we began to expand our industry. Many people from Europe begun to move to Canada (most were refugees from the Franco-Prussian war) We also began to expand our military, more people would join the army ranks

1872

The Crackdown on the Ku Klux Klan by the government is successful with it decimating the Klan and basically causing it to become defunct.

The German armies manage to defeat the French and capture Paris, with Napoleon the Third being captured and imprisoned in an unknown location.

A group of former Paraguayan soldiers who survived the War of the Triple Alliance group up and form a militia group of around 500 and flee to the jungles where they wage guerrilla war against the Argentine and Brazilian governments and what they perceived to be an occupation of their homeland. They have little support from the local populace.

The Italians manage to beat back the French in the west, while they defeat the garrisoned French army in Rome and march triumphantly into Rome.

The Third Carlist War begins in Spain.

The New Zealand Wars end between the British colonial government and Maori tribes.

Britain buys some forts from the Dutch in West Africa.

A large solar storm happens, the Northern Lights are seen as Far south as Cuba.

  • Qing Empire: Although the Japanese takeover of Ryukyu is massive loss of face, in the imperial court the Empress Dowager Cixi wants to avoid any major conflict. China will therefore tacitly allow the Japanese to have the Ryukyu kingdom. Still, the Empress Dowager does order 10,000 Chinese troops to be deployed to Korea as a security force. Officially, these will be there to protect the Korean government, but are also there to prevent the rise of Japanese influence. As the suzerain of Korea the Chinese government is fully within its rights to do this. China also supports the government of Queen Min as long as it does not seek to disturb the current relationship between the two countries. But instead of international affairs, the court turns its attention to the internal turmoil. The Tongzhi Restoration continues under the Empress Dowager's authority, allowing some modernisation to occur. She appoints Prince Gong, the statesman and diplomat, as the Grand Chancellor of the empire. He decides to continue the Restoration and advocates for the Qing Empire to constructively engage with the European great powers, and to a lesser extent Japan. He is opposed by the conservative factions but has the Emperor's and Empress Dowager's support. Prince Gong begins laying the legal framework for the creation of a new government, hoping to eventually create an Imperial Constitution that will create a modern state in China, looking to the German Confederation as an inspiration. An administrative reform is also planned to streamline the bureaucracy and increase efficiency, with the aim of raising the budget and tax revenue. A railway system is planned to be built to connect major cities of China, especially those in the south, with Beijing and the northern areas. A number of modern arsenals and weapons factories are opened in some major Chinese cities with European help, being able to produce rifles, some light artillery. China also places an order from German shipyards for six ironclad battleships (German or mod response). The imperial armies are mobilised to deal with the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan. Zeng Goufan and Li Hongzhang are tasked with putting down the rebels as the dynasty's best generals. Some 40,000 troops are deployed to Yunnan, most of them provincial forces from the Guangxi and Yunnan Armies, but with some modernised troops of Li Hongzhang's Huai Army deployed from the capital to assist. A marriage is arranged between Emperor Tongzhi and Empress Xiaozheyi.
    • German Dip: the order is accepted and will be completed by mid to late 1878
  • United States: Brigham Young of Utah is arrest on charges of polygamy, and is guilty as he had 25 wives. Yellowstone National Park is created. The Amnesty Act of 1872 is passed granting amnesty to former Confederate soldiers. 27 people are killed in a 7.9 earthquake in Eastern California. We agree to sell the ironclads to Argentina. Two men on the Wyoming-Colorado border forge a false diamond rush. Meanwhile in Asia, acting under Federal OK, Admiral Rodger agrees to help the Japanese with the Chinese problem, especially after the Korean expedition. the first Grant Class ironclads are set to be commissioned by 1874. Because of the victory in the Korean Expedition, We ask for a trade between the US and Korea to be opened (Candies respond). New breech loading cannons are outfitted onto ironclads. The US navy is also set to be expanded with a string of naval bases running from Boston to Tampa Bay. President Grant is reelected over Horace Greely. A woman named Susan B. Anthony is arrested trying to vote. The Great Boston Fire happens over a course of two days. The Modoc War erupts in Northern California and Oregon against Modoc Indians. P.B.S. Pinchback becomes the first black governor of a state, that being Louisiana.
  • Kingdom of Siam: The development of our navy continues, with a naval academy made in Pattaya and a shipyard in Tha Kam, south of Bangkok. We wish to purchase four ironclads from the United States to create a truly modern navy(USA RESPONSE REQUESTED). However, even with these advances, a major problem looms. The state of Siam is still semi-feudal, being a collection of city-states and princedoms all pledging allegiance to Bangkok. In the Chao Phraya Basin, this is not much of a problem, as Bangkok directly controls these lands. However, this is not the case in Laos and the far reaches of our nation, as authority rests on the shoulders of local princes However, an immediate annexation of tributary states would cause great turmoil and would weaken our country. To make the execution of reforms easier in the future, a better education system for officials and people from the upper-class is made so that implementation of these reforms will be quicker and easier. Weapon and Arsenal factories are opened in strategic locations across the nation, producing rifles and artillery. The traditional methods of Torture for offenders are not to be used anymore, as they are deemed inhumane. A western judicial system is established. A railway is opened connecting Bangkok and Korat (Nakon Ratchasima) with the help of European powers. Reforms are made to make the bureaucracy more efficient, hoping to increase the budget and tax revenue to fund projects such as railroads. To further fund these projects, many nobles are to have their share of state revenue decreased, especially that of the Front Palace, as 1/3 of all state revenue goes to him directly.
  • Vietnam: Emperor Tu Duc continues his campaign of westernization. He works to root out the massive corruption that plagues the Nguyen court. Missionaries are also allowed in the country, and a policy of religious tolerance is installed. Minorities, especially those in the south, are given more rights in an attempt to gain their favor. The Sip Song Chau Tai are given partial autonomy in an attempt to win over their favor. The Yellow Flags raiding in the upper Red River Valley are given an ultimatum: they can stop their activities and move out of Vietnamese territory, and nothing will happen to them as long as they stop plundering Vietnamese territory. If they do not heed this warning, Tu Duc threatens to wage war against the Yellow Flags. He also sends a warning to the Red Flags in Northern Laos, as they also pose a threat to the Tonkin region. If they dare move into Vietnam, they will be struck down. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) After much consideration, Tu Duc sends diplomats to Japan, declaring interest in trade between the two nations. (JAPAN RESPONSE PLEASE) The military is continuously westernized as well. Western mercenaries are hired to provide western-style military training to the Vietnamese military. The Vietnamese army is also organized in a method similar to western nations. In an attempt to hasten Vietnam's modernization, Tu Duc sends diplomats to the United States and Great Britain, proposing trade between Vietnam and both nations. Besides trading goods, he also wishes to purchase modern arms, ships, and equipment from both nations. (USA AND BRITAIN RESPONSES NEEDED, MOD RESPONSE FOR USA IF ORWELL DOESN'T RESPOND) Tu Duc also requests of King Rama V of Siam to give him some western-style boats, hoping to build up a western-style navy. (SIAM RESPONSE NEEDED) Seeing the importance of such actions, Tu Duc, looking to the massive reforms to the north, attempts to emulate them. He carries out many reforms to westernize the Vietnamese government and lay the groundwork for Vietnam's own Imperial Constitution, which will create a modern Vietnamese nation. He also installs administrative reforms to improve the bureaucracy and its efficiency, hoping to raise the budget and tax revenue. Tu Duc requests to hire advisors from the United States and Great Britain to aid in his westernization of the country. (USA AND BRITAIN RESPONSES NEEDED, MOD RESPONSE FOR USA IF ORWELL DOESN'T RESPOND) He also requests Japan to aid him in building a railway in his nation. (JAPANESE RESPONSE NEEDED)
    • Siam response: We will lend you five steam powered gunboats for the development of your navy.
    • British Mod Response: The British respond by sending advisors to the Vietnamese court. Britain also agrees to the sale of modern arms and equipment to Vietnam. The British request the establishment of a trading post in the northern part of the country. (Think about the French)
      • Vietnam Response: We allow the British to have basing rights, fleet docking rights, and refueling rights in said port. However, the port will remain under Vietnamese control.
      • British Mod Response: Britain agrees.
  • Persia: The shah agrees to negotiate a possible treaty with Russia under the following conditions: the meeting will be at the border in the Caucasus with Russia and the tsar will attend in person.(RUSSIAN RESPONSE NEEDED). Factories are ordered to produce more rifles and war equipment in preparation for a possible campaign.
  • República de Argentina: The 125 or so rebels operating in the Province of Paraguay are hunted down and swiftly executed by a force of over 2,000 troops garrisoned in the province. Local villagers are offered significant rewards for information, and as the people are generally exhausted of war and the rebels have little support they oblige. Fighting rages over the Chacos region between troop sunder the command of Colonel Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz and natives, but after a daring “tentacle” maneuver the Argentine forces capture, kill, or disarm nearly all the native population. With most of the region secure a series of border forts are built at the town of Ibibobo, San Antonio del Parapeti, and just south of Puerto Quijarro. The Army Surveyors Corps are quickly retasked to surveying Chacos, and preparing the vast fertile plain for settlement by rapidly arriving immigrants from Europe. The steam of immigrants from the old world turns into a flood as the economically prosperous Argentina’s international outreach pulls investment, poor immigrants, and skilled laborers seeking a better life. Tens of thousands arrive in 1871 alone, largely from Italy, but also from the UK, Spain, and France. With the Carlist War in Spain, propaganda supporting immigration to Argentina is increased in the country and a particularly large exodus of people fed-up with the monarchy, the civil wars, and the lack of economic opportunities. In Argentina, the economy continues its surging growth. Fueled by rising agricultural exports, productivity becomes the main concern of government economists. Industrial equipment is imported from Europe and the United States to introduce mechanization to farms in and around the Plata Basin. Furthermore, transportation to the south and interior is made a top priority and a standardized rail gauge at the 1,435 mm used in the United Kingdom and the United States. More schools are constructed in the rural areas and poorer neighborhoods of urban Argentina. The government reaches out to the Remington Company in the United States asking to purchase tooling and a licence to produce Remington M1867s in Argentina. Assuming the Americans agree to the proposal the guns will be chambered for 9x55 mm cartridges and manufactured in Buenos Aires. (Orwell, Please) The plan also calls for the development of a more cavalry-friendly version of the gun with a lever-pull to open both the hammer and block allowing the cavalryman an extra hand to keep on the barrel and the reins of his horse. 
    • US rep: Remington is burdened enough with the federal order and cannot supply breech loaders to any other nation until the federal order is complete by summer of 1873.
  • British Raj: The Railways and canal projects started in the past years are continued and slightly expanded. The newly formed Department of Agriculture begins to expand the network of canals in the Ganges river valley and the Brahmaputra river valley to put more land under irrigation and make it independent of rainfall for irrigation. The same Department is also charged with the creation of new grain storage units across the Raj including godowns and silos. The University of Allahabad begins construction. The Governor-General, the Earl of Mayo is assassinated. Thomas Baring, 1st earl of Northbrook becomes the Governor-General.
  • Empire of Russia: Long live Tsar Alexander II! Victory over Khiva is celebrated by the emperor and his nobles. While at the same time 25,000 soldiers are readied on the Bukhara border. Where Russian diplomats give the Emir the a letter stating "If you emir of the Bukhara, keep Russian companies from creating jobs and civilising your lands. And keep your anti-Russian policies in place. So we request that you surrender your lands to the Russian crown where you are allowed to keep your privileges and rights as a Grand Duke of Bukhara, where just like with the Khivans Russia will allow the Muslim faith in his lands. The Duke will also be allowed to have his own languages, Duma and police force. (Mod response). While at the same time, Russia invites Serbia and Montenegro to the Slavic Congress in  Kiev while we also ask Austria and the Ottomans to allow the Macedonians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Croatians, Czechs and Galicians to come to congress too.(player response) . While at the same time the Emperor ensures the invited that Polish and Ruthenian representatives will be allowed to openly speak their minds at the congress too. To discus the future state of Slavic autonomy and unity. With this the tsar also gets a commission ready to discuss the possible creation of a second Polish grand duchy, and a white Ruthenian duchy. While at the same times plans are drawn for new railroads far across the empire. With the current situation in Korea and China soldiers are told to ready their defences and know the exact borders and prevent any soldier from crossing the border while Civilians are allowed to cross but need to be disarmed.
    • Bukharan Mod Response: The Emir of Bukhara refuses to submit to the Russian demands. (Rest will come as a mod event).
  • Nippon: Having secured the Ryukyus, Tokyo formally annexes the islands as the Okinawa prefecture. Military modernization and expansion continues with the full implementation of mandatory conscription. Impressed with Germany's victory over France, German advisors are invited to Japan to teach. The first railway from Tokyo to Yokohama is built (OTL), with another one from Osaka, to Kyoto beginning construction. The land and tax reforms are passed with private ownership being legalized, and ownership being simplified and notarized with deeds being issued. land value is appraised to establish market value. Taxes are simplified, lowered slightly, and to be paid in currency. The Currency Act is passed consolidating the various coins into the new Japanese Yen, which is defined by 1.5 grams of gold and 24.26 grams of silver. Some small model textile factories are commissioned to be built by the government, while construction of a new arsenal in Tokyo begins. Five more Ironclads are commissioned from the Americans. The Education reform act is passed and the first public schools and first public libraries are opened, The Shogunate academy is turned into the Tokyo Imperial University, while learning to write, read, and basic math are made mandatory for conscripts. Stipends for samurai are progressively moved to government bonds. Samurai also encouraged to invest their bonds or stipends to help fuel national growth, some larger financial groups start to emerge acting as modern banks though not officially under that name at present The Iwakura mission begins with a tour of the USA. Hundreds of Japanese students also begin going abroad to study. A Japanese envoy to Qing and Joseon are also sent. Alarmed by the Russian movements on the continent The Hokkaido Garrison is augmented while plans for an expedition to Karafuto is planned to reinforce Japan's claims over the island.
    • German Dip: seeing interests in investments into Japan, the invitation is accepted.
  • Kingdom of Italy: The war with France goes well, when Nizza is occupied by Italian men and the triumph in Rome. This leads the army to more confidence and proves, that a well organized army and communication is key. All communication is now done by horseback or, if it is sure that a more urban area is attacked, via bicycle. SECRET The next goal is an invasion of Corsica, because the Corsican inhabitants are viewed as ethnic Italians, oppressed by the French. The invasion is set up for September, but the plans are already drawn out after the Battle of Rome. Around 9,000 men and 25 ships (nine of them are cargo) are mobilized to launch an invasion in two waves. To clear the waters, decoys are set up around North Africa, attacking the city of Oran and putting more pressure on the region. The already patrolling heavy ships will keep the Tyrrhenian Sea cleared. END SECRET The first attack is launched in late August with a surprise attack in the cover of night, the second attack is launched three days later with another thousand men near Bastia. The men are ordered to capture Bastia as fast as possible and convincing the locals, that Italy will do everything to keep French influence from the island. Some red shirt officers are already send over in April to establish a few safe houses in Ajaccio and Bastia while spreading propaganda, making the Corsicans welcoming the Italian liberators (MOD RESPONSE, PLEASE). Trade relations with the nations of Latin America are welcomed.
    • Mod Response: There is a certain amount of resentment against the Italian troops entering Corsica. The propaganda campaign was only slightly successful. However, the Italian administration is able to contain the resentment as many welcome the Italians as liberators.
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire: We establish the ministry of culture to promote and regulate the cultures of the empire and espouse a common culture of brotherhood and tolerance. The imperial army continues to build up on the Austria-Turkey border with drills being conducted. We send a diplomat to Greece requesting the furthering of diplomatic relations and permission to send a naval detachment to dock at Patras and elsewhere (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). Naval drills are conducted in the Adriatic Sea. We commission two dreadnoughts to be developed for the Imperial Navy. The 20,000 Austrian troops sent to Serbia are ordered to head over to Ottoman-Serbian border and to garrison there and to also train Serbian troops.
    • Greek Mod Response: Greece accepts the request to further diplomatic relations. Greece also gives the Austro-Hungarian Navy docking rights for their ships in all ports of Greece.
  • Principality of Serbia: Super phosphate fertilisers are imported from Britain while further land reform is pushed through and work continues on building a railway from Aleksinac to Belgrade. The Ministry of Agriculture run in part by the British continues to withhold tax breaks from those who don't move over the Norfolk crop rotation system. Coal mining begins in Kolubara for export. The Army contracts out horse breeding to suppliers to massively increase their supply of horses for transport and communication. Construction and improvement of fortresses at Zajecar, Uzice and Sabac.
  • Korea: The government humbly receives the 10,000-man expedition sent by the Qing, with King Gojong reaffirming Korea's status as a Chinese tributary. Private foreign advisors (~500) are hired by the government to aid in the modernization effort. They are given accommodations in Seoul, where a foreigners’ quarter is established. As ties with the West are consolidated, several officials are sent to study newly-established Qing facilities – whilst foreign missionaries are encouraged to establish private educational institutions, due to the inability of the Korean government to sponsor a trip overseas. The approach is still successful, as the schools established by the foreign missionaries serve as a model for the future educational system. Hangul is promulgated as the sole official script, with all texts that are previously written in Hanja being transliterated. However, an important problem persists – the lack of a reliable international partner. A small modern arsenal is constructed in Seoul, with a stockpile of only a few thousand modern firearms. There are future plans to expand it (as well as augment the navy), specifically establish a small munitions plant and a steel plant to jump start domestic production. Under the leadership of Queen Min, Korea has numerous administrative reforms. The total number of executive bodies is raised to eight, with ministries regulating imperial examinations and foreign affairs being established. The caste system is fully abolished – though substantial social stratification remains. The imperial examinations system, which is used to determine the bureaucracy, remains – though it is expected that the curriculum would be revised to fit modern expectations for governance. Emphasis is placed into expanding Korea’s trading profile. Centralization is encouraged through the establishment of labor-intensive workshops utilizing traditional looms. Foreign missionaries teach merchants and craftsmen modern production methods, with a few nascent factories being fitted with industrial machinery (mainly in the capital region). Main exports include lucrative commodities such as tea, silk and cotton textiles, celadon and lacquerware ceramics.
  • Império do Brasil: The policy of settlement of veteran soldiers in Paraguay would see much sucess and tens of thousands of brazillians would settle vacant lands and take Paraguayan widows to marriage. Paraguay would continue to be reorganized under a temporary military govenor and Paraguayan assets seized in the war and local taxes would be used to rebuild needed infraestructure in the new province. about 1,500 still active veterans of the Triple Alliance War would be organised and, still familiarized with the terrain and the guerilla warfare in the late stage of the conflict, sent to hunt down the Paraguayan insurrectionists with help of other local garissons numbering some thousands. Information would be requested to the conflict exhausted locals and brazillian settlers. Continuing his trip, Pedro II would travel from Palermo to Athens and visit the Greek sights, also meeting King George I. From there he would go to Egypt, meet the Khedive and tour the wonders of the ancient county, for which the erudite Emperor would  share great interest for. After Egypt Pedro would visit Austria and meet the Habsburg part of his family and then go tour Germany where he would also congratulate the newly crowned Kaiser Wilhelm and his chancellor Bismarck for their unification of the nation. Finally he would go to Belgium and then return to Brazil. Cordial relations and Commercial and Immigration agreements would be negotiated with the Germans and Austrians [GERMANY AND AUSTRIA RESPONSE]. Throughout his voyage Pedro II would leave a marking impression in the public for his simplicity and humility, the Emperor would wear common clothes, travel in public transportation and walk among and talk with the common folk regularly. His and his diplomats’ actions would attract many immigrants to Brazil in the in the coming years. The imperial diplomats would also negotiate with European businessmen and corporations, incentivizing them to invest in the growing Brazilian industry and bring over their businesses. The many Brazilian Intellectuals brought with Pedro would have studied the many countries visited and upon his departure they would stay in Europe to further study in the universities in Portugal, France, UK, Germany and Italy. Moreover, mirroring what Japan did, circa 5,000 Europeans and also Americans would start being hired to teach in Brazil and improve the dire educational situation in the country. While Pedro was away the regency of Princess Isabel, with her having been tutored by him, would see success with the Free Womb Law that grants freedom to children born to slaves approved, despite initial reluctance by the agrarian elite. The Emperor would return in July 1872 to Rio de Janeiro. After his return the regent princess Isabel and her husband would not be again isolated from political life. In Europe, Pedro II would have analysed the education and economic systems there and upon his return realise the full extent of Brazil’s lacks. With this a massive educational reform based in the Prussian Volksschule and the British school boards models would be organised, aiming to establish free and universal education for the common folk. The Creation of hundreds of school boards would be issued throughout the country, these boards would then organise the construction of Elementary schools, the raising of funds from local taxes and administer the institutions once operational. A new tax would be created in municipal and provincial levels to fund the education and the Imperial government would also provide loans as funding. Attendance between the ages of 5-13 would be compulsory whenever possible. The curriculum would be nationally standardised per grade and involve reading and writing, math and other sciences to lesser extent, it would further include the teaching of discipline and the creation of a sense of national pride and identity. The European scholars being hired and coming over would be first employed to teach teachers in normal schools, which would also be expanded in number, and universities
  • The German Empire: as negotiations persist behind the scenes and the Italian Army persists to prove themselves worthy of glory, a final draft for the combined demands of the Italians and Germans are presented in a treaty that is planned to be signed the following year. In the meantime, the new constitution continues to prove to be a success and as a result, the government continues to function as usual. The Railway from Berlin to Munich sees completion while new railway companies continue to invest in local and national rails. Large Investments begin to pour into the Imperial German Navy as to expand its force with recruitments beginning to rise. The Construction of four new ironclads under the newly designed Frederick-Class begins. As infrastructure and agriculture continues to improve, so does the expansion of industrialization across Germany grows with Steel Mills and Textiles and clothing grow especially with greater imports from abroad. The German Army acts quite friendly to the French under the occupation of sections of territory in the nation. This is mainly in part due to the orders to act generously to the French with some taking actions of public service and others assisting in the cleanup of areas torn by battles and even others assisting in the identification of bodies and giving those who had lost loved ones, their condolences. This policy has proven to be quite effective in ensuring that the French people could learn first hand of German treatment and in the process, effect their opinion as a result. The German African Co. and East Indian Co. look forward to expansion of territory within East and Southern Asia while also looking forward to the establishment of German Settlements within Africa. An agreement is made to assist in the establishment of a German settlement in the Gabon-Congo region of Africa following the return of an expedition team led by Freidrich Hans Becker. Education is seen as something to truly be taken seriously as before with the push for more institutions of education and the expansions of libraries and Archives are made with a better recording of events.

1873

Argentina’s efforts against the ragtag group of rebels in Argentine borders are successful and the group's Argentine branch ceases to exist.

With Napoleon III captured, a new provisional government is formed with Adolphe Thiers being named its head. He sends Germany a message of surrender.

The Italians successfully invade and occupy Corsica.

RMS Atlantic sinks off the coast of Nova Scotia killing 547. Worlds first Kennel clubs is established in Britain. Britain in a war in Ghana ends the slave trade there. The area around Port Moresby is claimed for Britain.

Austrian explorers discovers OTL Franz Joseph Land (Colgan your choice of naming).

International Meteorological Organization is founded.

The Third Carlist War rages on with no end in sight.

A coalition of Central Asian states is formed against Russia, They send diplomats to Persia, Afghanistan, and the British for help and support.

  • Qing Empire: Under Prince Gong, the Tongzhi Restoration continues. The central government undergoes a new reform, with the traditional departments and ministries of the Grand Council abolished to be replaced by a new Imperial Cabinet. According to Empress Dowager Cixi, Prince Gong is to be the first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet. The Zongli Yamen, in charge of relations with foreigners, is abolished and replaced by the Waiwubu (Foreign Ministry), a foreign office based on the ministries of the Europeans. The new cabinet ministries are intended to streamline the administration and improve the government's efficiency, while bringing it in line with European standards. They include: Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Army, Navy, Education, Finance, Industry, Communications, and Justice. They are established but are expected to take several years before they are functioning fully as intended to reform the entire government. By order of the new Education Ministry, the famed imperial examinations are to be changed and reformed with a new system. Instead of the classics of Chinese literature, students will study Western subjects, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, navigation, European law and history, among others. The classics will now only be one portion, with the majority of subjects being the practical new ones. The imperial exam degrees themselves will also be reduced and combined to make a simpler and more straightforward system. The Education Ministry's budget has been raised to open new schools to facilitate this. Military examinations will continue as well but with slight changes, testing physical strength along with knowledge of Western subjects as the imperial exams. They will be required to be considered for entry into the new Naval Academy established at Tianjin and Central Military Academy in Beijing. European officers and mercenaries are hired to serve as instructors. All of these reforms mainly exist on paper as of this year are expected to not fully take effect until the mid 1890s at least, and the government lowers the Imperial Household Department's budget significantly to cut costs and allocates more funding to the Education Ministry for the reforms. European instructors are hired and paid a large sum to work in new schools. Additionally, the most talented Chinese students are given scholarships to study in European or American universities by the government. Army and naval cadets are sent to study in the Prussian War Academy and the Royal Naval College Dartmouth, respectively. The Navy Ministry negotiates the purchase of ironclad warships from German shipyards, which are expected to be delivered in late 1870s. The Chinese army is still fighting against rebellions throughout the country.
  • Dominion of Canada: Wanting to trade with the United States, The Prime minister would ask Britain if they would allow Canada to trade with America (United States and Mod Response) Canada also wants to encourage people from Europe to move to Canada.
    • Mod Response: Britain allows Canada to trade with the United States.
  • Republic of Chile: Observing the rapidly-changing political landscape both in its own neighborhood and around the world, Chile seeks to extend its diplomacy abroad. It gladly establishes diplomatic relations with the nascent German and Italian nations. In an attempt to increase immigration, Chile pushes several reforms aimed at attracting European immigrants. German and Italian nationals are targeted in particular. Looking south toward a potential avenue for both economic and territorial expansion, the government encourages Chilean nationals and newly-arrived immigrants alike to purchase plots of land in Araucania (at rather low prices from the federal government) and claim the land for Chile. Considerable military forces are sent along with them to discourage Mapuche raids. We reach out to Argentina, officially recognizing the Peace of Montevideo, and request the negotiation of trade agreements with our eastern neighbor (Argentina, please). Meanwhile, in the port of Valparaiso, the construction of new dockyards (for both military and shipping purposes) begins, coupled with a wave of naval expansion. With this new naval buildup, the government begins to take interest in the Pacific outcroppings that lie to our west, but refrain from any diplomatic outreach for the time being.
    • Argentina: We agree to open trade negotiations, and recommend that our countries jointly construct a trans-Andean rail line to connect our capital cities.
    • Chile: The Chilean government graciously accepts.
  • United States: E Remington and Sons invent the first practical typewriter in New York state. President Grant is sworn into office for his second term. The Coinage Act is vetoed by President Grant keeping the US in a bi-metal system. Levi Strauss patents some jeans. The first Grant-class ironclads are launched and set sail. The army will be entirely refitted with Remington breech loaders. A near panic on Wall Street is avoided. The Modoc War ends. A Women's crusade against alcohol occurs in Ohio. The US accepts the Canadian request for trade. (More to Come)
    • Chile Diplomacy: Chile requests the purchase of four US ironclads for a negotiable price.
    • Dominion of Canada: The prime minister is Eager for trade and relation between Canada and America
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We would like to improve our relations with the United States given that we are not that far from each other and in that regard we ask them for closer economic relations and to establish an embassy at Washington DC and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We offer Americans the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. Also we offer American investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network.
  • República de Argentina: With Gran Chacos under Argentine nominal rule, the region is flooded with settlers from Europe. With them spread modern educational systems sponsored by the government. Furthermore, the government emulates the United States in launching the construction of a rail line to the Bolivian city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra from the port town of Clorinda. The town, just opposite from Asuncion in Brazil has grown in importance in Argentina as it is the stop-off point on the Argentine bank of the Paraguay River before continuing south. With immigrants from both across the border and internationally the town has quickly grown to a bustling city of some 25,000 inhabitants. President Sarmiento places greater emphasis on attracting immigrants, hoping to reach 100,000 new European settlers in a single year. To accomplish this more supporting propaganda is released in Europe, and France in particular seeing their defeat and the proposed Treaty of Paris. Immigration totals reach 20,000 in 1873 alone. The economy continues its surging growth. With rail gauges standardized and rail-integration a government priority a series of half-national and half-private rail companies are established to constructed rail-heads across northern Patagonia and to connect the Chacos region to Buenos Aires. Furthermore, existing rail lines are to be extended into Cuyo to connect to mines, farms and ranches. The goal is to have 40,000 km of rail completed by 1890. Of particular interest to the government is the construction of more significant port cities to the south of Buenos Aires. Bahía Blanca is chosen as the best place to begin construction on a major port facility, but first the region must be secured. Colonel Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz and 4,000 cavalrymen ride south and begin what becomes known as the “Conquest of the Desert.” Using his tentacle strategy the troops encircle, capture, and disarm over 8,000 natives. These are placed onto pre-specified tracts of land and registered under the Argentine state apparatus. The campaigns will continue until 1875 at the current pace. Industrial equipment is imported from Europe and the United States to introduce mechanization to farms in and around the Plata Basin. More schools are constructed in the rural areas and poorer neighborhoods of urban Argentina. In an effort to improve the quality of education, curricula are revised to include a set standard of basic mathematics, reading, writing, and then technical classes or agricultural classes, depending on the region. Dozens of small land-grant colleges are opened teaching subjects such as Engineering, Mechanics, Agricultural Business, Economics, Forestry, Physics and Mathematics, and Classics. The government reaches out to Sweden to study the tooling on their M1867 rifles. Assuming designs and tooling can be purchased, a national armory, La Armería Nacional de Argentina, will be built to assemble lever-action varrients on the M1867 employing a camming lever to open both the hammer and bolt. This system will prevent patent infringement claims from Remington while also allowing better use from horseback. (Mods Please) Following the Treaty of Paris Argentine Diplomats in Germany quickly make an offer to the German Empire asking to purchase the formerly French Alma and Provence-classes of ironclads, as well as Krupp cannons to arm the La Plata-class and to re-arm the Alma and Provence-classes to a set of standardized rounds and cannons. This will include 370 17cm naval guns to be the standard for both sets of ships. (German Response)
    • Sweden says yeah. - Mod
    • Chile: Taking note of the recent Argentine expeditions, Chile suggests conferring in Punta Arenas to formally partition the southern lands, preventing a future conflict over the region. (SECRET) Chile notes its willingness to concede Patagonian territory in exchange for other concessions, such as military or diplomatic support for expansion into the north or the western islets. (END SECRET)
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We would like to improve our relations with Argentina given that we are not that far from each other and in that regard we ask them for closer economic relations, seeing them as ideal trade partners and to establish an embassy at Buenos Aires and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We offer Argentinians the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. Also we offer Argentinean investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network. Given their increasing cooperation and in that mood of improving relations between the two nations, we extend the same offer to Chile.
    • Chilean Response: Chile accepts the Zuid-afrikaansche offer.
    • German Response: The German Government agrees seeing that it would be better to make a profit especially from nations that are friendly to The Empire
  • Principality of Serbia: Super phosphate fertilisers are imported from Britain while further land reform is pushed through and work continues on building a railway from Aleksinac to Belgrade. The Ministry of Agriculture run in part by the British continues to withhold tax breaks from those who don't move over the Norfolk crop rotation system. Coal mining is in Kolubara and begins in Kostolac for export. Contractors continue to increase production of horses for the army. Construction and improvement of fortresses at Zajecar, Uzice and Sabac. We request to buy on credit 80,000 single shot breech loading rifles and 800 muzzle loading rifled artillery from anyone with surplus equipment. Milan I of Serbia asks to marry some member of the Prussian royal family. 
    • German Response: the marriage is given approval with Princess Elisabeth Anna accepting the proposal.
    • Italian Dip: Italian gun manufacturers are interested in supplying the Serbian army with rifles for a small renumeration.
    • Serbian Dip: Yeah, OK.
  • Kingdom of Italy: With a victorious war in France and many new lands in Italian hands, the new regions and colonies are established. In the west, the formerly French Departements of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Alpes-de-Hautes-Provence are included into the Province of Piemont and Liguria (only Alpes-Maritimes) respectively. In Corsica, the Corse Republic is established on December 9th as an Italian protectorate. The Island is self governing, has its own parliament, police force and President, but relies on Italy when it comes to foreign relations, the military and the trade of some commodities. A new flag is also created, depicting the "moor's head" on an evenly split green and white background. The Mediterranean fleet was partially seized, with five minor battleships being confiscated. The city of Algier is renamed Algeri, with a special desert troop being trained, including native Arabs. The German Empire is recognized officially. An economic reform is made, including major tax brakes for investors in the heavy industry sector. This includes mining, civil manufacturing and the military sector. Especially German, American and British investors are invited and Italy presents its potential to them (AMERICAN/GERMAN/BRITISH RESPONSE). The railroad system is expanded further, with an extension of the railway on Corsica and into the south. Nizza is as well connected to the network. Similar to the Serbian model, farmers can get a small tax break if they use modern farming techniques. The Algerian oil fields have now some oil refineries to make an immediate export for the valuable petroleum. The King, now on a power high, seeks to expand the nation further, yet he is blocked by the parliament, worrying the costs of more expansionist adventures. A large dispute emerges, where the King and the conservative faction want to expand Italy's might to keep France and the Ottomans out of the sphere, while the Liberals seek for a future in that no conflict with the French happens again. They propose to only partially recognize the German gains of eastern France, reducing it to just Alsace-Lorraine and parts of Franche-Comté due to the large German population there. Everything else is proposed to be "disputed", but these proposals are put down by the parliament. The news of a rising Britain in Africa is taken with worry, some pushing for a similar move. Trade with west African Wolof kingdoms starts, with Italians establishing a provisional port at the mouth of the Gambia river, to trade with the locals, most notably the Kingdom of Jolof. This port, however, was built without the explicit consent of the local authorities.
    • German Response: Germany is willing to incentivize business investments into southern Italy and also assist in a National Railway Project within Italy. Additionally, the German Central Bank is willing to loan money to the Italians for their use in assisting in national development.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We ask the Kingdom of Italy for closer economic relations, to establish an embassy at Rome and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We offer Italians the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. Also, we offer Italian investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network.
    • Italian Dip:Italy agrees to deepen economic ties, and allows the South Africans to open up an embassy either in Rome or the new capital of Naples. Limit ed immigration is encouraged.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We ask Kingdom of Italy to excuse us for not following recent developments regarding the new Italian capital of Naples, our isolation from the rest of the world has made contact difficult until now, but we hope to venture into a new era and embrace the rest of the world. We thank Italy for allowing us to establish an embassy in Naples and for allowing limited immigration that is graciously welcomed by us.
  • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek: Newly elected President Thomas François Burgers introduces the Burgerspond, the first universal currency of the ZAR, portraying only himself on the coins. These coins were struck at Heaton's Mint in Birmingham, England, deciding that when he was there on a visit, without previously consulting the Volksraad, announcing it after his return. However, this turns to be an unpopular decision as a large number of people objected to the issue of Burgerspond, believed the notion of a sitting president without much to his record minting coins named after and portraying him, instead of using a former president to be preposterous, likening him to a dictator. Not only that but his disregard for the Volksraad and the fact that he gave the minting job to an English company were also very controversial. This and a few more unpopular actions plummeted his approval ratings to an all time low for an incumbent president. Commandant-General Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger, who had been his most vigilant opposition so far, having come around from defeatism and thoughts of resignation after his rival Burgers got elected to enjoying vast popular support, with folks urging him to depose President Burgers from office and proclaim elections. To make things worst President Thomas Burgers backed down on the issue trying to appease Comdt-General Paul Kruger he redesigned the Burgerspond to Kurgerspond, portraying Kruger in the coins from now on, which made Comdt-General Kruger furious, the way President Burgers handled it seemed like an under the table transaction between him and Comdt-General Kruger, forcing him to go with the current, depose him and proclaim new elections to avoid the blow on his reputation, while choosing not to run himself. Former President Marthinus Wessel Pretorius wins the 1873 election, after conducting a campaign based on the virtues of unification with Orange Free State, creating consensus on both sides of the border and countering arguments on British stance on this, in something people would call a controversial campaign, but well received by the masses. After his electoral victory he asks the Orange Free State for unification, promising to step down and proclaim fresh elections if the unified state comes to existence. [MOD RESPONSE] The Commando system undergoes a restructuring, generals are appointed by the government from now on, which can choose whether it wishes to consult the kommandants or not, the same applies for the kommandants and the veldkornet, but corporals continue to be elected by the members of the commando, since the corporalships are regurally filled by relatives. Stricter discipline is enforced across Commando. Some drills and preparation also take place. The Homestead Act is also announced, offering any white person, both miners residing in the land and newcomers the opportunity to get their own homestead, a farmstead that they can build their homeson. However, given that South African soil is difficult to cultivate, Boers farmers are given enormous tax breaks shall they assist newcomers and teach them the secrets of their soil, enable them to successfully cultivate their new farmsteads. The state also assists with relocation, providing shelter to reside while the settlers are building their new homes, as well as blankets, food, medical assistance should they require it. Citizenship grant is expedited to be provided along with the homestead grant. More than 5,000 new settlers make Transvaal their home, increasing our populace to 130,000 people according to estaimates as no census has taken place yet. President Pretorius also takes interest in some drafts made by former President Burgers regarding establishing a network of railroads linked to ports to boost the growth of our state via exports. This grand project of an inteconnected railroad network is announced contrary to the drafts this project would be creating three railroad lines connecting our state to port cities instead of one, all starting from our capital Pretoria, the first reaching the coastal city of Durban in the British colony of Natal, asking the British to work together to develop the infrastructure in the area and the second reaching the port city of Lourenco Marques on Portuguese Mozambique, also asking a railway concession from the Portuguese to create the Delagoa Bay Line as given in OTL. This railroad network could include the Orange Free State should they reject unification as a means of strengthening our bonds through improving trade between our nations. A call is made to investors to join this great and lucrative initiative. This would be a private public partnership, limiting possible British participation to a maximum of 20% of the venture, allowing for further British investment only if the target is not met. [MOD RESPONSE] The third planned line to Cape Town is not going to be developed at this phase, rather a decade later at best.
    • Mod Response: The Orange State refuses to the unification proposal. However, they are ready for greater economic and diplomatic cooperation. The Orange Free State accepts the proposal of a unified rail network. Portugal offers the railway concession. The railway projects invite moderate investor interest.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We accept the Orange Free State's decision to reject unification and embrace their decision for greater economic and diplomatic cooperation as well as the unified rail network.
  • Nippon:' Implementation of the 'Land and tax reforms continues. industrialization continues as more small factories are built around the areas of Osaka, and Tokyo, Construction of the Nagasaki Arsenal is completed, while work on the Tokyo one continues. Modernization of the military continues. Purchase of American Breech loaded rifles increases now. Expansion of the Navy starts to enter its next phase now as the various former daimyo's personal fleets have been scuttled or integrated into the Imperial Navy. troops are sent to Karafuto, and the Kurils to secure the islands. The Diplomatic mission continues on to Europe visiting Great Britain, France, Germany where the newly crowned emperor is congratulated by Okubo and other members of the government. The Mission makes plans to return via the Canal. Students continue their studies abroad.
  • With the establishment of formal trading and diplomatic relations with Russia (though the expedition sent to the Russians only returns this year), a surge in external trade occurs. The government finances the expansion of the Seoul Arsenal, which now has the capacity to manufacture ~5,000 rifled muskets (plus ammunition) annually. However, the bulk of arms used continue to be imported — native match-locks are used solely by the police force. A limited form of conscription is implemented (in which only a proportion of an age group would be drafted), with a permanent standing army of ~22,500 “modernized” troops established. However, they still rely on traditional tactics, though a group of a hundred top military officials are sent to Russia to study Western military thought. A small steel plant is established in Kaeseong, but due to the lack of expertise, it is largely experimental. Industrial machinery — specifically steam engines and looms — are imported en-masse. As a result, a textiles industry based on the exportation of lucrative silk and cotton fabrics emerges. Other important exports include tea, lacquerware and celadon porcelain. The first rail car line are established in Seoul and Busan, though they are largely negligible, with total distance being under ten kilometers. A railway line connecting Seoul and Kaesong is planned, with construction starting in 1875. King Gojong announces a speech declaring the start of the Gwangmu (“illustrious”) era, and emphasizes that Korea must adopt the technology and systems of the West — but it shall remain culturally autonomous, and a bulkwork of Confucianism. King Gojong standardizes the national symbols, and nationalizes the metric system. Officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, however, are required to wear Western (mainly Russian-style) attire. Queen Myeongseong continues to lead the increasingly visible progressive faction of the imperial court, though doubts over her large role in governance emerge, including her sex and her alleged usage of her status to give her relatives political posts. Another point of contention is the legalization of Christianity and the large influence of foreign missionaries, largely in the provinces of Hwanghae and Gangwon, where a Catholic minority resides. This anti-Christian sentiment, however, is only generally applied to Catholics due to the religious primacy of the Pope. Orthodox and Protestant groups enjoy a wider degree of acceptance, and garner substantial following in urban areas. Discussion on a “five-year plan” starting in 1875 commences to direct national development. A census is conducted indicating the population to be 17.4 million, with Seoul having 300,000 residents.
  • The German Empire: Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the investments seen into Port Said and Suez skyrocket as the Suez Canal is seen as the Golden Gates of the German Empire and its colonial ambition. The German Suez Canal Co., under the direct funds of the German Government, offers Isma'il Pasha a deal to sell his share for 4,000,000 Reichsmark (MOD RESPONSE). Another policy is adopted by The German Government to regulate The Central Bank. New Holstein is founded in OTL Gabon by Friedrich Becker. In light of this, The German African Co. sees an increase of investment and incentives are placed for merchants and regular citizens alike to be sent to settle the region and expand upon the new settlement of New Holstein. A proposal is also brought up to the German Government of allowing those who have been imprisoned but for lesser charges to be sent over to raise the settlement rates but for now, only a trade post have been set up although plans for expansion inward and the clearing of land has been planned. A small unit of about 800 men are to be transported to the settlement in fears of perhaps native raids. In the meantime, multiple contacts with the people are made and as a result, the native peoples see the German Presence as less of a threat especially with gifts being brought along. The newly claimed territories of France see much needed repairs and reconstruction with most of the reparations given back to The German Empire from France is placed into investments of developing the region with railway companies plotting on the establishment of a railway that could transport one from Dijon to Berlin. This decision made between The New Fritz and Heinz Railway Co. would lead to a greater goal with cooperation and investments by the German Central Bank to fund a National Railway System which in turn, would allow for easy and speedy transport as never seen before. Coal mining in Western Germany helps stimulate the economy and with such large numbers of new jobs and economic growth being brought about from the New Reich, things could only seem to be moving in a better direction in the future. Military Strategist abroad begin to question what should be done with the new expanded border into French Territory. The Champenoise and German Language begins to be taught alongside each other by the adopted Educational Reform placed by the Governor of Champagne. Alsace-Lorraine with an already sizeable German Presence sees even more Germans move into the region as Economic Migrants. The minority populations of the Franche-Comte-Bourgogne also see the same treatment with a greater level of local representation in the region and also German being taught as a side language with infrastructural repairs and constructions of new institutions brought upon by The Central Bank of Germany's investments which prove to be put into good use once more.
    • German Guyana: As the French Flag is laid down, so does the German Flag rise. Chlodwig Carl Viktor is placed as governor of German Guyana and with that, the German Rule over the territory begins with Infrastructural development taken place at the capital Kayenne with more roadways and the establishment of an expanded port and dockyard for German Ships. Bananas and Sugar see a great rise in demand from the new territory as a craze erupts with a lower price for SugarCane based Sugar and Bananas which previously had to be purchased from other nations for a higher price. With this, the territory instantly profits with more land being cleared for farming. Gold also sees a demand as a highly valued luxury item. As more German Merchants and Businesses take hold of the region, so does the need for speaking the German Language itself rises. Literacy Rates in the territory happen to be low after s census is held earlier this year and a plan to educate the people in schools established for the youth across Guiana leads to the teaching of writing in German and Speaking the language altogether.
    • German India: with the transfer of the French Indian Territory, it is decided that the territory will be taken full advantage of with the ports of Pondicherry and Chandernagor being used by the German East India Co. to provide spices to be sent back to Germany therefore to raise the amount of profit. The British Raj in this case is seen as a great partner to work with in order to achieve the ambition of not only having a profitable port but also easier and much smoother transport of Indian goods especially due in part from the proximity of the two states. The Imperial Indian Army is established to provide the region self defense.
    • British Raj Response: The British Raj is open to trade and diplomatic cooperation with German India.
    • OOC Dev: You'll have to call that the Imperial Indian Army (German) then I'll call my army the Imperial Indian Army (British).
    • German Cochinchina: As another territory gained from the war, it is seen that agricultural expansion continues with Produce and items of the like becoming extremely valuable to the economy with the German East Indian Company pushing for greater profits Asia through trade with the center of the Indian East Indian Co. set in Cochinchina. Construction of new dockyards begin as the plans for an East Asian Imperial German Fleet is set in motion. Locals are taught especially in now German Owned Businesses basic German as communication through German takes over the necessity to know French. Proper Road Construction begins as well and a road network stretching from Phnom Penh to Can Tho begins. As more land is cleared, German Rail Companies begin to consider introducing railways to Cochinchina.
      • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We would like to improve our relations with the German Empire given that we share cultural bonds and in that regard we ask them for closer economic relations, seeing them as ideal trade partners and to establish an embassy at Berlin and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We offer Germans the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. Also we offer German investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network. We also ask the German Empire to provide us with 20 Krupp artilery units (ten C64 field guns and other ten C67 field guns), 10,000 Mauser 1871 Infantry Rifles, 10,000 Saxon M1873 Army revolvers, ammo and bayonets. Not being able to afford the cost for these with currency we propose to the German Empire that they exchange them not for currency but for our bonds. We also offer the preferred trade partner status to Germany that includes trading privilages and preferential treatment to German citizens as well as an offer to jointly develop the most lucrative mines in our country. We also ask for a military alliance.
      • German Response: seeing all the benefits that could be reaped from such an agreement especially with the businesses and economic boom still in progression, the proposals are agreed upon and the German Empire will look forward to working closely with the ZAR.
      • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: Thanks the German Empire from strengthening the bonds that unite our great nations and our people. German brethren immigration is graciously welcomed.
      • Chilean Dip: Citing already-existing cultural connections with Prussia and the whole of Germany, we ask the German government for similar cooperative agreements with Chile. Such agreements include the mutual establishment of embassies in one another's capitals, the status of Chile as a preferential trade partner, incentives for Germans to settle in Chile (including a plan for 5,000 Germans to form a new Chilean community in Araucania), a similar order for German army supplies, and the commission of a new ironclad. However, we stop short of requesting a formal military alliance.
    • German Response: it is agreed upon.
    • Mod Response: Ismail Pasha refuses to sell his shares. He is, however, open to cooperation with the Germans.
  • Russian Empire: Long live Tsar Alexander! His majesty congratulates William with his victory. Calling on their family bonds they have as civilised people. But the tsar does ask if there is a posibilty to get French Caledonia and their captured guns, artillery and other equipment in exchange for money and the allowance for Germans to inhabit all of the olga area(German response). With the situation in Central Asia the number of soldiers there is enlarged up 10,000 (this is a small bit bigger then OTL but not much) while at the same the Khivan army is made ready for the possible defence of the lands and are employed to do a lot of the construction, this in return for patches of land in Bukhara for them to live on and full Russian citizenship and other rights. Also with the Berdan 1868 they begin to enter into more regular production and with more people looking into the Berdan M 1870. and into mass-producing it too. Also, the tsar begins to encourage peasants to live in city with the promoted ones being Warsaw for Poles, and for the Ruthenians, Minsk and the most promoted city Aleksandrovka and Odessa as industrial hearth of the Empire. With the promise that industrial workers in important fields will be exempt of concription and those in lesser industries having their conscriptioned one-third shorter. While the Russian government also encourages more Welshmen to come to Aleksandrovka, and even allow people from the rest of the Anglo-sphere to come to the city and promises that when the town reaches anglo population 15,000 they will be allowed governance in English per treaty where they can in the city educate in English and use English in their clerical service and in return will accept the authority of the Tsar and Russia. With the attack of Japanese forces on Sakhalin the Soldiers dig in in defence of the island. With one of the stories from the attack coming from a Volga German where he wrote "Dear Helena, I come to write you about the current situation on this island, to tell you that at the moment that I write this paper I am still alive. I wish I could tell and show you how much I miss the Volga and you. These lands on their own are already harsh and unbearable but now the Jap has to attack as well. Our amonition has been running a bit low and only a week ago my dear friend Anatoliy has died of frostbite. I cannot say enjoy this with the food rations going down, but at least the fighting here is minimal with the climate killing and wounding more then any Jap ever would. Only I have to admit it was a great feeling when we were getting attacked by the Japsnese. Who began to play from what I know anthem with lyrics. Where after our Commander Commanded us to Sing "Hey, Slavs"with the trumpeter playing it, too. After we played our song and our morale became absolute the Japanese retreated while playing another march of some kind. And with this story I say to you good-bye. Greetings, your Hugo."
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We would like to improve our relations with the Russian Empire given that we are not that far from each other and in that regard we ask them for closer economic relations, seeing them as ideal trade partners and to establish an embassy at Moscow and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We offer Russians the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. Also, we offer Russian investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network.
    • German Dip: The Kaiser and the rest of the government welcomes such a proposal and would agree to it immediately. The possibility of annexing French New Caledonia though is seen as something that cannot be undertaken due to the treaty not highlighting said region although thid would lead to room for other alternatives in order to secure the territory.
    • Russian Diplomacy: Our government accepts the trade posibilities And informs the South Africans that emigration from Russia is allowed but will not be promoted by the Russian Empire at this point. The diplomats also inform the republic that the capital is and always will be the city of great Tsar Peter.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We ask the Russian Empire to excuse us for not following recent developments regarding the new Russian capital of Saint Petersburg, our isolation from the rest of the world has made contact difficult until now, but we hope to venture into a new era and embrace the rest of the world. We thank the Russians for allowing immigration to our nation.
  • Vietnam: The Red and Yellow Flags are looking to pick a fight, so a fight they shall get. At the Battle of Pho Lu, 20,000 forces, including Tai guerrilla fighters and the Black Flag Army, attack the Yellow Flags, crushing them and completely dissolving the Yellow Flag bandit gang. Emperor Tu Duc requests King Rama V to help him fight the Red Flags next year. (SIAM RESPONSE NEEDED, MOD RESPONSE IF SIAM PLAYER DOESN'T RESPOND) Meanwhile, the reforms throughout the nation continue. With the help of the American and British advisors in the royal court, factories are built, and a railway running through the nation is built. The modern weapons and equipment acquired from the US and Britain and the steam-powered gunboats from Siam begin to be produced within Vietnam. The number of gunboats in the Vietnamese navy is increased. Reforms are also made, many borrowed from China. A Vietnamese Imperial Cabinet is founded, and the Bộ Ngoại Giao (Foreign Ministry) is created, with a similar model to the Chinese model to the north. The Education Ministry is also created, and a western-style education system is implemented based on Chinese reforms. An education system based on the Siamese and new Chinese model is created, primarily teaching Vietnamese. The examination system for government service is also modernized, and those taking the exam must study Western subjects. Military examination is made similar to the Chinese model with both physical examination and study of Western subjects, and the military forces are armed with the modern weapons acquired from Vietnam.
    • Siam Response: We agree as the red flags are a threat to our nation's security as well.
  • Império do Brasil: Dom Pedro’s voyage to Europe last year would bring great improvements to the Empire, directly with the signing of favourable treaties with the European Powers and with the good impressions created with them and their people. And also indirectly, with the education and economical changes inspired by the continent’s systems. All of these, most importantly the commercial agreements, would start alleviating the burden of Paraguay War debts by increasing revenue. The Economic and Education reforms would continue implementation and Pedro would pay close attention to their pace, making sure the legislature gets approved in the General Assembly. Through 1873 acts would be passed further easing private investment and creation of businesses, taking force with the increasing trend of liberal policies. Hoping to create a strong base of investors and entrepreneurs the government would create propaganda campaigns specifically targeting the agrarian elites, the coffee and sugar barons, promoting the investment of excess capital in the growing industrial sector and promising through that the increase of agricultural revenue and the lowering of desired goods' prices. The Imperial Government would also directly help coordinate private infrastructure projects by providing legal and technical assistance, vastly boosting the railway construction projects. Furthermore the foreign investors attracted during and by the Emperor´s Voyage would be encourage to invest in existing brazilian enterprises. Pushing a policy of "whitening" and wanting to replace the faded slave workforce, the Imperial Parliament (General Assembly) would heavily motivate European Immigration and the Law of Lands would be altered to allow for unoccupied lands to be granted to immigrants, basing itself in the Homestead act. The education policy changes would be extended to schools for the military and elite, instilling an undying sense of nationalism and loyalty to the Empire and Emperor in both institutions and forming children of elite with principles of entrepreneurship and ethics. Members of the elite would also be heavily encouraged to send their offspring, at least one male, to study in foreign universities. Lastly, Pedro would begin planning a more decisive gradual abolishment plan for slavery in the country.


  • Austro-Hungarian Empire:We establish the ministry of culture to promote and regulate the cultures of the empire and espouse a common culture of brotherhood and tolerance. The imperial army continues to build up on the Austria-Turkey border with drills being conducted. ‘’’We send a diplomat to Greece requesting the furthering of diplomatic relations and permission to send a naval detachment to dock at Patras and elsewhere (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED).’’’ Naval drills are conducted in the Adriatic Sea. We commission two dreadnoughts to be developed for the Imperial Navy.

1874

Note for the players: All the mod responses have been answered. Before posting in the present turn please check for the mod responses in the previous one. Thank you.

The Provisional Government in France signs the Treaty of Paris. The next day the Third French Republic is declared and the provisional government becomes the official government of the republic. Adolphe Thiers is elected President of the Republic.

Ismali Pasha sells his share of the Suez Canal to Germany.

Resistance to the German annexation of northeastern France by the French speaking residents becomes a huge thing with numerous resistance cells being organized and committing raids against military bases and outposts.

In China, conservative elements of society and the conservative faction in the government begin to protest against the modernization of China and demand an end to the policy.

The Central Asian Coalition declares war on Russia having acquired secret support from the British. The British sent them military advisers and equipment to aid them in their campaign against Russia. The war comes to be known as "The Central Asian War". The Central Asian Coalition invites the Persians to join their campaign as Persia was also being harassed by the Russians with regards to territorial claims.

The Sultan of Khiva starts a rebellion using his palace guards and with the support of the people and the Central Asian Coalition. He is able to raise an army of 5000 from those loyal to him.

The Dorsland Trekkers departs on a series of expeditions to Angola

  • Queen Myeongseong unravels a plot to assassinate her and to oust King Gojong. As a result, both have prominent members of the conservative faction – including former regent Duke Heungseon Daewongun (to the reluctance of his son) – executed under charges of treason. Additionally, to improve Korea's international image, the Napoleonic Code is adopted. Ironically, the recent events have caused resistance against modernization – mainly within the aristocracy – to solidify. Choe Ikhyeon, who had helped in ousting the late regent, and who formerly played a prominent role in the royal court, becomes the new figurehead of the conservative faction. The most major important point of contention is the regime's recent legalization of Catholicism, which has placed a ban on the practice of ancestor worship and also emphasizes the religious primacy of the Pope. As a compromise, the Queen attempts to place a limit on the number of Catholic missionaries and bans them from proselytizing in the provinces. The conservative faction remains ambivalent, however, to Orthodox and Protestant Christians – especially as the latter tend to syncretize Confucian and shamanic rites into their religious services. Queen Myeongseong and her allies, grouped together as the "Sadae faction", remain the most influential political group due to their platform of supporting China in foreign affairs while promoting gradual (and partial) Westernization. Top military officials are sent to Qing China to study their arsenals, while another diplomatic expedition to sent to Japan to normalize relations and to observe their own modernization process. (CHINA AND JAPAN RESPONSE). Meanwhile, Western teachers of technical and scientific subjects are invited to Korea. As a result, the number of government advisors continues to surge to ~3,000 - many of whom being missionaries or merchants. A modern educational curriculum is established, with missionaries supplying modern scientific and mathematical knowledge – supplementing native traditions in literature, history, and philosophy (Confucianism). An edict is announced declaring school compulsory until Grade IX. However, attendance rate remains low at one-half. This is due to in part to an initial shortage in teachers and the lack of educational facilities (the majority or rural schools are single-room buildings). The former is remedied by employing licentiates to teach the pupils. The Hanseong National University (HNU) is established, with many staff being foreigners – while bureaucrats serve as interpreters. The foreign missionaries also establish Western-style schools, but they are private. This also includes the first western medical institution. With the reutrn of the "Moscow Expedition", a military academy is established. Top priority remains economic modernization. A modern bank is established. A tariff is set to ~5% (except Russia, which enjoys preferential trade). Industrial machinery (steam engine, loom) is imported en-masse and applied to Korean facotries to improve productivity. Main exports are silk and cotton textiles, tea, lacquerware, celadon porcelain, as well as gold and ginseng.
    • Chinese Diplomacy: The Qing court welcomes Korean officials to learn from China, as per the tradition. The Koreans are allowed to tour and examine some of China's recently constructed arsenals.
    • Nip Dip: The Japanese agree and offer to establish embassies in each others capitals.
  • The Chinese Empire: The opposition to the Tongzhi Restoration by the reactionary Manchu nobles at the Qing court was expected by Empress Dowager Cixi, who has tried to balance the reforms and the conservatives, understanding China's modernisation is necessary while at the same time defending Confucian traditions. Western technology and organisation will be adopted, but the Confucian ideology will remain. She warns the reactionary nobles that any attempts to move against Prince Gong would be considered treason and punished by death. At the same time, she told the Imperial Prime Minister that many of his policies were too abrupt and drastic, and a more gradual approach was needed. Imperial examinations will remain unchanged for the time being as more is time needed to be taken for Western subjects to be taught in schools. But the Imperial Cabinet and the office of Prime Minister would remain, as the traditional bureaucracy on the national and provincial level was too corrupt to be relied on. The Grand Council would serve as a privy council to the Emperor, and in practice to Cixi, because the young emperor was not interested in affairs of state. The Bureaucratic Affairs Department is established under direct supervision of the empress dowager and Prince Gong, which is given wide sweeping powers to investigate, detain, and if need be execute corrupt officials. Members of the central administration in Peking as well as provincial governors are monitored by the Department. One of her trusted advisers, Prince Qing, is made the head of the new organisation as the Imperial Commissioner for Bureaucratic Affairs. This is intended to begin the process of weeding out corruption in the government. The Education Ministry would continue to open new schools in cities and rural areas that would teach science and math along Western lines. School education was not compulsory but encouraged by the government, which subsidized the cost of the new schools to allow more people to attend. Western subjects will be introduced gradually and will eventually be included in imperial examinations, it is expected by 1900 the change will be made. Meanwhile, Prince Gong intends to continue the important modernisation of the military. Army Minister Zuo Zongtang, Navy Minister Prince Chun, and Foreign Minister Li Hongzao play leading roles in this effort. While the vast majority of the imperial armies consist of the Green Standard troops, equipped with swords and spears, and smaller numbers of untrained Manchu Bannermen, Zuo Zontang establishes new army units in the Zhili Province. Using revenue from the Imperial Customs Service he intends to form units that will be completely trained, equipped, and organised in the European-style. The new force becomes the Beiyang (Northern Ocean) Army. Initially 50,000 troops from the veteran formations that fought under Zuo's command in putting down various rebellions will become part of the Beiyang Army, organised in five divisions. They are given uniforms based on those of the German Army, modern rifles, a logistical support network, regular pay, and their officers are the first returning class from the Prussian War Academy. Additionally, European officers are hired to oversee their training. This new force will serve as the dynasty's elite unit, a model for the rest of the Qing forces to eventually follow, and will be expanded later. Prince Chun plans on creating a parallel Beiyang Fleet at the port of Weihaiwei once the German-built ironclad battleships arrive in 1878, and begins recruiting potential officers. Cadets are still sent to study abroad, along with regular students. The prestige of military service and the traditional Confucian disdain for soldiers are gradually changing. Arsenals are continued to be established in Chinese cities, with a capability to provide at least the Beiyang troops with modern equipment. While these reforms are taking place, most of the 400 million subjects of the Qing Emperor largely continue living the way they have been livng for thousands of years, and mostly remain an agrarian economy.
  • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek: The Krugerspond, the official currency of ZAR is tied up to our vast reserves of gold, strengthening its value. A mint is constructed in Pretoria, seeking self-sufficiency and not reliance from foreigners regarding the minting of our currency. President Pretorius understands the loss of life that would come as a result of this new Dorsland Trek, since it requires crossing the Kalahari desert, given that the trekkers are hellbent to proceed on this adventure, unravels his plan to prevent any potential loss of life while at the same time exploit this great opportunity commercially and for the state's expansion toward the sea. An entire kommando (= battalion) is sent to escort the first Dorsland Trekkers, made out of volunteer families that joined up to settle as corporalships according to the plan in semi-fortified outposts made up along route the trekkers are following the Kalahari desert, Okavango swamps all the way to unclaimed region south of Angola that borders the Portuguese. These brave male and female kommandos are granted the commercial rights of their borderline kommando outposts. Further kommandos are sent along the route to escort Trekkers when requested. Their job is to sell water, food and any other supplies to travelers, patrol their surroundings and enforce the law in these brave new lands. Given that Kalahari desert is a tough place, oasis or temperate places are picked to establish kommando outposts to ensure their sustainability. Civilization is spreading along that route. Our allies, the German Empire are requested to assist us in our efforts to deal with this grave humanitarian crisis. [German Empire Response] Dorsland Trekkers are encouraged to stay and settle the newly colonized region bordering Angola, instead of Portuguese Angola, appealing to their patriotism, given the rights and the treatment that will receive from the Portuguese will not be the same, citizenship in our territory is guaranteed. [Mod Response] An ideal location south of the Angolan borders is discovered, far away from the sea, near some hot springs and the city of Grootfontein is founded and settled with Dorsland Trekkers. A chapel headed by a pastor, a marshal's office headed by a marshal, a fortified small military outpost garrisoned by a corporalship and a court as well as the infrastructure are built in the new city in Namibia. Taxation in this new colony is temporarily abolished to give further incentives for more settlers to move in. A Comdt-General Kruger restructures the kommando system even further, instilling discipline onto the kommandos and training them to use the new Mauser 1871 Infantry Rifles, Saxon M1873 Army revolvers, bayonets and the mobile C64 four pounder and the heavier C67 six pounder Krupp guns with the help of German military training personnel. Military organisational reforms are carried out by Comdt-General Kruger with the kommando system organised into corps (40,000 men), divisions (10,000), regiments (2000 men), kommandos (400 men), wards (100 men) and then corporalships (20 men) with artillery attached at battalion and divisional level. The corporalships maintain their intimate structure as he insists that it gives our soldiers greater courage fighting side by side with their relatives. The Homestead Act continues, achieving further success offering any white person, both miners residing in the land and newcomers the opportunity to get their own homestead, a farmstead that they can build their homes on. However, given that South African soil is difficult to cultivate, Boers farmers are given enormous tax breaks shall they assist newcomers and teach them the secrets of their soil, enable them to successfully cultivate their new farmsteads. The state also assists with relocation, providing shelter to reside while the settlers are building their new homes, as well as blankets, food, medical assistance should they require it. Citizenship grant is expedited to be provided along with the homestead grant. More than 5,000 new settlers make Transvaal their home, increasing our populace to 135.000 people according to estimates as no census has taken place yet. After the interconnected railroad network project attracted medium support from the investors, work on the interconnected railroad network project begins as the funds gathered are used to start materializing the project. Heavy emphasis is given in the Portugal railroad concession, the Pretoria–Delagoa Bay Line (which follows the same path as in OTL) which is expected to be completed by the end of 1878 and inaugurated by the start of 1879. The interior railroad connections of our nation and the fellow nation of the Orange Free State are being worked over but at slower rates. Its first phase is expected to finish by the end of 1880 and get inaugurated by the start of 1881. The Southeast Line linking our nation with Durban (which follows the same path as in OTL) is the one with the least emphasis given on and is expected to finish by 1888 and be inaugurated by the start of 1889. This grand project is celebrated as a great success for the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek by President Pretorius in his address to the nation. The relations continue to improve with the Orange Free State as well as trade between our two brethren nations flourishes. A military alliance offer is extended to the Orange Free State. [Mod Response]
    • Mod Response: The Dorsland trekkers agree to the proposal. The Orange Free State accepts the offer of a military alliance.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We ask the Empire of Brazil for closer economic relations, to establish an embassy at Rio de Janeiro and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital Pretoria. We would like to get coffee and in exhcange we can provide the Empire of Brazil with a plethora of minerals (gold, diamonds, coal, chrome, platinum, paladium, copper, iron) and agricultural products (grapefruits, cerials, maze, green maze). We offer Brazilian investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network. [Empire of Brazil Response]
  • República de Argentina: Colonization of Gran Chacos continues at a breakneck pace, as does the construction of the rail line to Santa Cruz de la Sierra from the port town of Clorinda. The booming economy in this region, which has proven to be rich in fertile farm and ranch land, attracts thousands of migrants from Europe. The majority of these migrants are young families fleeing poverty and war in Europe. In northern Chacos another two border forts are constructed. The construction of railroads accelerates, quickly raising the length of lines to over 5,000 km. A rail line toward Bahía Blanca is begun to facilitate the construction of the new port there. The “Conquest of the Desert” continues in full swing, the troops intentionally focus on securing the far west before the more coastal regions. Meanwhile, the navy establishes an outpost on Tierra del Fuego at a site known as Rio Grande. Industrial equipment is imported from Europe and the United States to introduce mechanization to farms in and around the Plata Basin. More schools are constructed in the rural areas and poorer neighborhoods of urban Argentina. With the completion of the La Plata-class, the Alma-class, and the Pampas-class, the Argentine navy now boasts some 21 modern ships featuring over 350 guns. Politically 1874 is an important year. President Sarmiento steps down in October and is replaced by President Avellaneda. Quick to reform the banking sector, Avellaneda institutes liberalization policies that encourage the export of cereal crops, refrigerated meat, and a nascent wine industry. Credit is moderately de-regulated and the economy benefits. The policies to attract migrants are increased, and thanks to Argentina’s fertile soil, relatively strong economy, and lack of slavery many tens of thousands of migrants arrive from Europe. Chile’s secret offer to cooperate is considered by President Sarmiento who decides to pass the issue to his successor rather than face it in his final year. President Avellaneda is hesitant to work with the Chileans too closely, but continues the previous year’s rail project. In secret he offers Chile a deal under which all of Patagonia will go to Argentina while Argentina will assist Chile with its claims in the north. (Chilean Player)The offer from the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek is partially accepted. Argentina, like the ZAR is a recipient of immigrants and does not currently export a great many settlers, thus this is unnecessary. However, Argentina is interested in the mineral wealth available in ZAR and agrees to engage in trade, specifically for coal (ZAR Response).
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We graciously accept Argentina's offer, agreeing to supply them with all coal production designated for exportation. However, given our vast untapped coal potential and the fact that we lack capital, we offer Argentina if they wish to get access to bigger volumes, the possibility to develop the mining ventures either jointly or provide them with the mining rights. That would also provide Argentina with earnings from the mining activity in the future.
    • Chilean diplomacy: Chile, desiring an outlet to the Atlantic and a land connection to Punta Arenas, presents a counteroffer to Argentina: Chile receives all of Patagonia west of the Andes mountains, the Tierra del Fuego, and the Magellanes Basin. In exchange, Argentina is guaranteed free passage through the Straits of Magellan and held exempt from any tariffs that Chile may impose on travel through the strait. (SECRET) Argentina will hold no obligations to assist Chile with its northern ambitions. (END SECRET)
  • Chile: 1874 proved an eventful year for Chile. At home, the government pushes sweeping nation-wide educational reform, modeled after the recently-adopted Brazilian system. While initally faced with the usual difficulties of such dramatic transition, the new system appears effective, at least in the core capital region. Efforts to attract more European immigrants to Chile continue. The targeting of German and Italian immigrants persists, but we extend an offer of immigration to the French-speaking people living in the lands recently annexed by Germany, inviting them to make a new home in Chile. Homesteading in Araucania continues, now spreading into Patagonia west of the Andes. Residents of Punta Arenas are encouraged to purchase homesteads in the region and fan out from the town. Santiago undergoes redistricting this year, with the largest contiguous German neighborhoods reorganized into the Pequeña Berlina ("Little Berlin") district. German culture is encouraged to flourish in the district, helping create to a blend of German and Spanish architectural styles unique to Santiago. In the heart of Pequeña-berlina, construction of a new military school, the Bismarck-Santiago Military Academy (named in honor of the German chancellor), begins, with completion of its first phase set for 1877. We request that the German government allow us to travel to Germany to study their military technology and tactics for the new military academy, while also reiterating last year's offers (GERMAN RESPONSE). Provincial governments begin surveying their lands' potential for coal mining and other industrial exploitation. Construction of the Andean railway continues, while new rail lines are also constructed to connect the various cities of the Chilean homeland. A railway from Araucania to Punta Arenas is planned, but construction has not yet begun. In Valparaiso, the construction of dockyards and other naval infrastructure continues, with the Almirante Cochrane, Chile's first ironclad, having been launched this January. However, we raise our request to the United States to purchase five ironclads for a negotiable price (ORWELL respond, please). By summer, eager to test out Chile's naval prowess and project power into the Pacific, the Chilean government authorizes a military expedition to annex Isla de Pascua (Easter Island), which is currently held by Jean-Baptiste Dutrou-Bornier, who runs the island as a sheep ranch under his illegitimate reign of terror. The Almirante Cochrane, two corvettes, two schooners, and a transport ship carrying 50 well-equipped soldiers and a Chilean flag are sent to confront Dutrou-Bornier. Alejandro Ari'ipaea Salmón (AKA Alexander Salmon, Jr.) is invited to take charge of Isla de Pascua should the expedition succeed. Upon arriving at Mataveri, the troops were quick to disembark and announce their arrival to the native Rapanui, hoping to gain their support in deposing Dutrou-Bornier, while the ships' guns remained trained on Dutrou-Bornier's residence. The troops quickly find Dutrou-Bornier, presenting him with his two options: his first option is to sign the document in front of him, in which he sells all his property on the island to the Chilean government for 45,000 pesos but is allowed to flee to Tahiti. His second option is to refuse, which would lead to his arrest, the liquidization of his assets on Isla de Pascua by the Chilean government, a long boat ride back to Chile, and an eventual trial for a plethora of charges, ranging from weapons-dealing in Peru back in the 1860s to various crimes against the Rapanui people (OOC: all this stuff this guy did is true, look him up, it's worth the read) (MOD RESPONSE for Dutrou-Bornier's response). Dutrou-Bornier is reminded that attempting to contact France is off the table, as all routes off the island have been sealed by the Chilean naval force, and the island remains so isolated that sailing to any outside territory would be nigh impossible anyway. Fearing for his life and freedom, Dutrou-Bornier chooses the first option, selling his assets on Isla de Pascua to the Chilean government without the firing of a single shot. With this, Isla de Pascua is formally incorporated into a new province of Chile, and Alejandro Ari'ipaea Salmón travels to Hanga Roa to begin his term as first Chilean governor of the island. The native Rapanui are allowed to either emigrate or remain on Isla de Pascua and become Chilean citizens. Other than the designation of Mataveri for construction a new naval station and the planned building of a provincial government building, Salmón promises to maintain a relatively hands-off policy toward the Rapanui.
    • Mod Response: Fearing for his life and freedom, Dutrou Bornier chooses the first option.
  • Vietnam: Upon the agreement of King Rama V, the Vietnamese and Siamese forces converge in Dien Bien Phu to attack the Red Flags, creating a total army of 45,000 soldiers (including reinforcements for the Vietnamese army). The combined Vietnamese-Siamese forces obliterate the Red Flag gang, taking out the last gang which poses an immediate threat to Vietnam. Emperor Tu Duc sends diplomats to Germany, proposing trade between the two nations and requesting the purchase of four ironclad ships. (GERMAN RESPONSE NEEDED) (MORE TO COME
  • Siam: Along with the Naval Academy, a Military Academy in Bangkok is established. A modern curriculum is established, teaching science and mathematics, with a traditional education in history and literature. However, attendance is  low due to a lack of teachers and teaching facilities. The Ironclads are added to the Navy. Due to a series of events the Front Palace (Viceroy) is stripped of his position, though he is allowed to retain his estate. The position Crown Prince of Siam is made as a replacement to the role Front Palace. The Crown Price has less control though, which centralises that state. A system of provinces called Monthon replaces the feudal system, though implementation will take up to 30 years. This is because of the fact that this system will completely change land administration and the fact that local rulers still wield considerable power. (Note, joint invasion of red flag army included in Vietnam turn).
  • Kingdom of Ashanti: Due to certain agreements and arrangements held within the kingdom, King Kofi Karikari has agreed not to go to war with Britain. However, past resentment still stands, and our poor king is dying. One of the king's possibly final requests is to deliver a messaging offering a decree to the Dutch in the area to travel to back to mainland Europe in hopes for support in Fort Elmina as to not let Britain purchase or invade said land even still. They know that the Dutch still have their own claim staked along what Europe is calling "the Gold Coast" for the while, and wish for it not to be bought out by tyrants. The Asante people have had a long history of violence with the British in the past and would rather not spark a conflict which could end their reign over the areas nearby and/or force them into working as what they would call colonial slave labor. If the Dutch can't do it, the same request has been offered for the Danish to reclaim the area. If they cannot fulfill this request by the time the year is done, we will try to temporarily conjoin with the Fante Confederacy and then sabotage imports to the British coastline to show our dominance over the area.
  • Principality of Serbia: Work continues on building a railway from Aleksinac to Belgrade. Agriculture has seen marginal improvements and continues to gain as reforms are rolled out. Contractors continue to increase production of horses for the army. Construction and improvement of fortresses at Zajecar, Uzice and Sabac. Military organisational reforms are carried out with the reserve units organised into corps (40,000 men), divisions (13,500), brigades (3,400 men), battalions (830 men), companies (200 men) and then platoon (42 men) with artillery attached at battalion and divisional level. We request to buy on credit 80,000 single shot breech loading rifles and 800 muzzle loading rifled artillery from anyone with surplus equipment. Milan I of Serbia asks to marry some member of the Prussian royal family and for 700 officers to assist our armed forces. 
  • Dominion of Canada: With Germany gaining Guiana, Canada began to expand its military and naval forces in case a war broke out between Britain and Germany as Germany is now closed to us. Canada would also begin to fund more military project. Also in the news, Many people from Europe are moving to Canada and our economy is growing. Canada wants Chinese and Japanese people to immigrate to Canada. Diplomats are sent to both China and Japan to ask if they would allow their people to move to our land (China and Japan response needed).
  • Kingdom of Italy: As German investments and Algerian oil boost the Italian economy, the state itself draws plans for the extension of the infrastructure and the administrative efficiency. Many small towns slowly grow to become new urban centers as foreign investors and local enterprisers steadily replace the largely agricultural south in favor of urbanized industrial locations. This leads to two occurrences: first, the local farmers end up in a situation similar to the British in the beginning of the industrial age, as they slowly lose more and more people to work in the factories. The second one is, that those who are industrial workers start to organize themselves in various local unions and associations in the vein of Ferdinand Lassalle and Wilhelm Liebknecht in Germany, who founded the ADAV and the SPD. Due to their large size now (as the number of factory workers has more than doubled in just the last five years), they demand a reform of the electoral system that is not based on the wealth of a citizen, as it was previously decided over the amount of direct taxes a male adult pays. Additionally, they demand a guarantee for worker's rights and the right for free speech. The first group of these associations was the Associazione del Operai Italiani, the Association of Italian workers. Though the parliament has barely any real organized parties as of now, just movements, the organization is quickly becoming prominent especially in the north of the nation, centered around Venice and Milan. In the south, the interest groups for farmers and artisans are included, often mixed with christian motives. The Federazione dei Operi e Contadini Christiani (FOCC) is the largest of the christian unions. Despite the internal demands of the populous, the conservative faction of the parliament pushes for an extension of the colonial possessions. The navy is sent with a diplomat to the Jolof, where they will meet their king and propose him to become an Italian protectorate (MOD RESPONSE, PLEASE). The plan is to make the local leader drunk and convincing them. In Algeria, the colonial government sets up its own police force with the consent of the government in Naples. It includes native Arab forces. The region has now Italian as its official language and (even though only in larger cities, and only to the wealthier) school lessons are only taught in Italian. Infrastructure is expanded there, with some new roads being built and a railway is planned along the coast. A large mining company is set up as a sub-branch of the oil companies in Algeria, interested in Gold mining in South Africa and Russia (SOUTH AFRICAN/ RUSSIAN RESPONSE, PLEASE)
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: President Pretorius is delighted with this development, given our efforts to attract foreign investment. He personally visits Italy to finalize the details of this deal, signifying the beginning of this cooperation with the Kingdom of Italy.
  • Nippon: The Iwakura mission returns to Japan, just in time as tensions with the Russians are rising. With the Japanese forces being forced to retreat before they managed to push the small Russian contingent off the Island of Sakhalin. During the operations, maintaining lines of communications, and supply lines were extremely difficult. Meanwhile, casualties are high amongst newer units  sent to fight. With aqbout 4,000 dead out of force of 10,000. The victory - while small - brings the glaring inadequecies with the way Saigo has handled foreign relations and how much reforms are still needed, before Japan would be able to take on a Western power. The debate in Tokyo over what course of action to take heats up with Saigo and his followers demanding a follow up of the war by attacking Vladivostok noting Russia's troubles in Central Asia, while Okubo - fresh from his journeys to the west - argues for a more diplomatic approach, and knowing full well that if Japan tried to go into a war now it would be defeated and likely lose a lot of its recent gains. Seizing on the gains made  in the Sakhalin campaign Okubo Secretly sends out diplomats to the Russians to discuss a peace treaty and a means to resolving land disputes.. Okubo also islaotes Saigo politically within the Meiji Oligarchy,Okubo in conjunction with Iwakura, Itagaki Taisuke, Okuma Shigenobu amongst others spearhead the deamnds for a meetingo f the Meiji Oligarchs to determine the structure of government. These men form the Contitutional/Western faction while Saigo, and his dwindling number of allies refuse to attend. Ultimately after losing to Okubo's political maneuvering the Costitutionalists commit to writing up a constitution and adopting firm government policies. Taking note of the issues displayed during the Sakhalin campaign drilling and training is improved upon now with German advisors alongside American and British. With the first few classes of Japanese officers who studied in Germany, the USA, and Britain returning more indepth reforms begin with the creationm of a General Staff along German lines being created, and with a more flexible command structure. Noting the major successes of German Artillery and logistics these are made some of the key features for future government plans. A requesting s made to the americans to begin purchasing the Winchester 73 lever repeating rifle in larger number, as advocated by those who studied in the USA noting its success against cavalry, ion the indian campaigns.  The Imperial Army is expanded to 140,000 troops (about 90,000 are modernized units.) Also noting Japan's status as an Island nation and remembering the Blackship fiasco that opened up Japan to the west, It is advocated that a strong navy be built, and once Army reforms have been finished that expansion of the navy begin in earnest. for now Medium and small steampowered corvettes, Ironclads, and frigates are employed with increasing numbers and following the British example an imperial marine corps is created and trained to act as an amphibious force. Foreign Engineers are heavily employed now to help train Japanese and to help in the ever increasing number of public infrastructure projects, and construction of model factories. The first of these Model factories are finished and sold at a low price to promote economic activity and private entrepreneurship. Plans to set up electrical and telegraph lines in Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagasaki by 1877 are also made. Most of these model factories  mainly textiles (cotton and Silk). are purchased by former samurai, and merchants who pooling their resources form the first Zaibatsus. Two of these entities Sumimoto, and Mitsui dating back to before the reformation and Yasuda and Mitsubishi having fully developed in the last few years. These large financial groups also begin making deals with the government to finance the government development project in exchange for majority holdings in these projects. This pattern is reinformed by the now mandatory conversion of stipends to government bonds. As Japanese start returning from studying abroad those who studied engineering, medecine, and, law, physics, and other natural sciences find employment rather quickly either under government contracts by new companies starting up. Education reforms continue with compulsary education being fully implemented and with four more national Universities being opened up in Osaka, Kyoto, Nagasaki, and Kochi. With the schools focusing largely on practical sciences such as engineering, chemistry, medicine, biology, mathematics, and on the social sciences with western political thought, and philosophy being discussed in great length in comparison to traditional Japanese schools of thought based largely on confusion values. Construction of the expanded and modernized  ports in Osaka, and Tokyo are completed. Construction of a railroad between Osaka and Tokyo begins. A request is made to purchase Krupp breechloaded artillery on credit is made to Germany.
  • United States: The inventor Joseph Glidden patents something known as Barbed Wire. The Philadelphia Zoo opens becoming the world's first zoo. Winchester agrees to the Japanese offer. The federal government offers to sell Chile to coastal Ironclads they can modify for ocean use. All previous trade offers to the US from past years are accepted. Some gold hungry pioneer's travel to the ZAR and establish small settlements as of the South African homestead offer. A lot of pro-German sentiment occurs in the Midwest due to the finalization of the Treaty of Paris.
    • Chile: Chile accepts the sale.
  • Austria-Hungary: We begin funding the agrarian sector in Galicia, a region which is the poorest in the empire and funding infrastructure there as well. Tax breaks are offered to farmers across the Empire, including Galicia, which the local government there gifts farmers with new equipment. New schools are built in Galicia that teach in both Polish and German. The lands inhabited by the Italians begin to be colonized by German-speaking Italians and large Germanization program for the region takes place to integrate it into the rest of Austria. Minorities under Austrian administration are granted more rights and autonomy, while minorities under Hungarian administration remain oppressed. The expansion of the Austrian fleet continues. We continue to build up our forces and defenses on the Ottoman border.
  • The German Empire: The Empire begins to expand its navy quite significantly with Albrecht von Stosch being appointed as Admiral. Seeing the need to keep up with the rest of its rivals, The German Imperial Naval Academy, Machine Engineer Corps, Medical Corps and Torpedo Engineer Corps are all established as official entities with Wilhelmshaven and Kiel being set up to be the main bases of the Fleet within Europe. Separate Fleet Bases are planned to be set up in Cochinchina and India with a docking station setup in Naples. Research into submersibles continue with submarine tests. The Reichstag passes legislation for a ten-year plan that would include the construction of 16 "battleships", 14 armoured corvettes, 25 light corvettes, 14 monitors, five floating batteries, ten avisos, 24 gunboats, and 32 torpedo boats costing about 440 million goldmarks with one-third of which is paid by reparations and gains from the booming economy and sales made internationally making such large investments much more easier and affordable in terms of how much money the Central Bank may be able to use. As a result, The German Empire is referred to as the beating heart of The European Economy as its wealth grows. In turn, foreign investments are arranged especially within Africa with New Holstein settlements expanding. The observations are recorded though that the tribes of New Holstein although remaining at peace with the Germans, seem to have confrontations of their own against one another. The Army in New Holstein is ordered to remain neutral as getting involved now with the development of the colony could jeopardize the project. In the meantime, German Colonists began to pour into the ZAR as especially along the new route established along namibia with the aid of The German Central Bank giving loans to fund the development of villages and communities. The Hugo-Muller Textile Co. decide to place factories overseas with expansion into the ZAR after a deal had been made by the purchase of land in Pretoria. As a result construction commences this year and operations will begin the following year. German Railroad companies invest in a project to introduce railways into the ZAR due to the fact that the National Railway Project had already been going smoothly and the bold idea of expanding into an International project amongst friendly states would become a move worth profiting from. Officers are sent to both Japan and The ZAR. A proposal is brought upon assisting in the process of developing a navy to defend The ZAR and in turn, the German Empire would receive compensation. The value of the shares in the Suez rise as it becomes quite useful. German Ships begin to dock in both Suez and Port Said. A proposal is sent to the Ottoman Empire seeing the European Hub now slowly becoming under the domination of Germany that is Alexandria, to construct a public transportational railway from Tunisia to Alexandria and beck to Cairo and Port Said. In exchange, knowing the state of the rebellious island of Crete, The German Empire offers to purchase the island of Crete for 12.56 million reichsmark (MOD RESPONSE). With reported resistance by the French Speaking regions of Dijon and Frenche Comte, the Imperial Army moves in to take out the resistance by means of arrests and execution of those who had led treasonous acts by the orders of the local elected officials and representatives to further show off what these resistance fighters truly are, terrorists. The Railway to and from Dijon starting in Memel is well underway.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We thank the German Empire for their assistance and accept their offer of naval protection.
    • Chilean Dip: We request that the German government allow an emmisary to travel to Germany to study their military technology and tactics. We also ask if they would like to invest in the new Bismarck-Santiago Military Academy in our country.
  • Russian Empire: With the backstab from Khiva we inform the Grand Duke that due to this action even when the rebellion is dealt with that his duchy will be disolved. But the Emperor also says in a speech that all who join against the rebellion will be able to keep what they took and will get the spoils of the war. These troops are warned that if they ever go into Persian lands, and do not disarm that they will lose their rank and will be punished severely. Soldiers of all kinds also when they meet the Persian border shall have to do an honour guard and play the Persian imperial anthem. Our emperor even invites the Persian Majesty to join in the conflict, the diplomats promise for joining in the conflict that Russia cannot give land but it can give industry and advisors to improve the Persian Military (Persian Response). Many of the soldiers fighting in Central Asia around two-fifths are Cossack soldiers who are almost all of the cavalry. They are promised for their service a slight increase of their autonomy to a county and eventually a Duchy in the northern Caucasus. With the number of soldiers send to the Central Asia being in the realm of 35,000 soldiers. With this war it is the first time the Berdan is used en masse by soldiers, and it doesn't disappoint. Although most of this year is not yet fighting by gathering resources and building up defencive and offencive structures. One of their other jobs is the laying and upkeeping of the infrastucture of the areas they pass through. While at the same time as this, an offer for peace has been offered to the Empire of Japan (player response). While at the same time, the immigrants mostly from Germany slowly begin to settle in the Volga area where they do enjoy their own language. In Aleksandrovka the population slowly grows with the steel mill in the city. Even though the city is officially Russian most who live there are ethnic Welsh, Scots and Englishmen - and one Australian with the name Billy Baggins.
  • Império do Brasil: 1874 Would see continued economic growth, coffee exports would be at their highest after the commercial with Germany, Britain, France, Austria and Italy are all in effect. Furthermore the boom of the industrial sector, furthered by vast government incentives would begin showing effect. The Empire´s incentives, programs and propaganda would create many new industrialists out of the very rich coffee barons and cause a cultural switch, as industrialism would start to be admired as an advanced and honourable European practice. The most immediate consequence of the new imperial policies would be a monumental increase in the construction of railways throughout Brazil, these would all be privately funding due to the strain on national coffers but would receive assitance bureaucratically and logistically. The Empire would also create large strategic projects that would be state sponsered but use private capital, mainly to connect large distances, the first of these projects would aim to connect Salvador to Rio by rail and by extension covering a lot of Minas Gerais and Bahia. Before the projects begin the Track gauges would be standardised at 1,435 mm to provide uniform transport connecting the nation. The foreign intelectuals being hired following the 1872 programme would also greatly improve the efficiency of National Railroads and other industries due to many of them being experienced engineers. The growing demand for Steel and Coal for the Rails and Trains would stimulate the growth of the mineral extraction and metalurgy industries. 1874 would also see the inauguration of Brazil´s first submarine telegraph cable, connecting its regional capitals between themselves and Europe through lisbon, the undergoing would have been funded by the Baron of Mauã, who would receive title of Viscount and be congratulated by the Emperor for his achievment. Mauã who would be about to go bankrupt in OTL would be fairing as well as ever due to the encouragment and protection of the industrial sector directly by the Imperial government preventing the damage he suffered and greatly benefit the industrialist. The Empire´s diplomats would agree to all proposals made by the ZAR and a profitable trade relation would be initiated, furthermore the very rich Viscount of Mauã would capitalize on the boer offer and invest in the South African mining and open some businesses in the country. Extending on the improving relations with the newly formed German Empire, Pedro II would offer to the nation and its people the possibility to invest in the growing industrial sector of Brazil. Furthermore the Empire would request from the Germans a loan of 14 million pounds sterling worth with interest rate of 2%.[GERMAN RESPONSE] Lastly, Princess Isabel would get pregnant early this year, having already had a very difficult labour that resulted in abortion, experienced European doctors would be hired to help the birth of the child. in November a healthy son would be born after a long labour, he would be named João Pedro de Alcântara and become the presumed heir of the Imperial Throne.

1875

In Vietnam, the conservative faction of the royal court protests against and defies the recent modernization policy of the nation, and secretly plot to overthrow the emperor.

South America experiences a drought this year, the countries that are hit the hardest are Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Bolivia.

The Russian forces manage to defeat the Khivan rebellion and take most of the Central Asian khanates, the armies of coalition sue for peace.

The Third Carlist War ends with Alfonso XII crowned as King of Spain.

The first indoor ice hockey game is played in Montreal.

The Ottoman's declare partial bankruptcy and places its finances in the hands of some Europeans.

Some Swiss guy working for the Ethiopians beats back an Egyptian invasion of the country.

  • Persia: After heavy considerations, the shah joins the Central Asian war on Russia's side. The army begins to mobilize and two field armies (48 divisions) are placed on the border with the CAC (Central Asian Coalition). The shah himself appears at the front lines holding a passionate speech about the war.
  • The Sultanate of Morocco: is currently founding a new dynasty. They prepare for an imperial dynasty hoping to building army The Sultanate sends a diplomat to berlin. Over the period of a week, discussion over the future development of Morocco is brought up as we request any form of assistance that can be given with our goal of modernization set in place (German Empire Response).
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Dip: We ask the Sultanate of Morocco for closer economic relations, to establish an embassy at their capital Fez and offer them the possibility to establish their embassy in our capital, Pretoria. We also offer the Sultanate of Morocco an alliance. We can provide the Sultanate of Morocco with a plethora of minerals (gold, diamonds, coal, chrome, platinum, paladium, copper, iron) and agricultural products (grapefruit, cereals, maze, green maze). We offer Moroccans the opportunity to settle in ZAR and be given their own homestead, in line with the homestead act. We offer Moroccan investors the opportunity to invest in lucrative new mining ventures and our planned grand railroad network.
    • The Sultanate of Morocco: The nation accept the offer for the economic relation, for their embassy.
    • French Diplomacy : With the German Empire ignoring the Moroccans request the Third French Republic steps in and offers Morocco assistance in their goals of Modernization.
  • The Chinese Empire: The Qing government continues the gradual pace of reform set last year. New schools are being created that teach a curriculum of technical subjects throughout the country, and a university in each provincial capital is being set up. Military schools are also planned for each province, along with a few naval schools in the coastal regions. The Imperial University of Peking is established to provide an education that includes both the classics as well as Western subjects. Li Hongzhang oversees the translation of many European books on science and engineering, which are to be used as textbooks. European instructors are paid large sums of money to work in China for the schools. The government encourages students to study abroad as well and sponsors them. Modern arsenals capable of making weapons are being developed throughout the country. The Fuzhou Arsenal, which has a dockyard, constructs ships for the new imperial navy, including torpedo boats and armored corvettes. These are protected ships with a mix of wood and iron, as well as steam engines. Larger ships will still have to be purchased from European countries. The government makes an effort to restore the provinces devastated by rebellions, and promotes some industrialization. Moreover, agriculture is developed in order to increase the gain from the existing land to support the country's large population. A new department in the Ministry of Industry is created to oversee agricultural development. The same body is also starting a new program to increase the mining operations in China. Coal mines in Manchuria, Shanxi, and Sichuan, iron ore mines in Sichuan, and copper mines in Yunnan are are to be expanded with European help. Porcelain and silk also remain among China's top exports. Internationally, China wants to increase its relations with the great powers, so a Qing diplomatic mission tours Europe, led by Li Hongzhang, Beiyang Trade Minister, visiting Berlin, London, Paris, Rome, Amsterdam, and Madrid. Li and his delegation ask to purchase protected cruisers, artillery pieces, and rifles from Britain and France, and also for their companies to help build a rail line from Beijing to Tianjin and Jiuliancheng [MOD RESPONSE].
    • Mod Response:The British refuse to sell military equipment to the Qing. They also refuse to help build the railway line.
    • OOC Dev: France is player controlled and you should write "French Response" as well.
    • 'French Response : 'With our nation facing the Communard Threat and being in the process of reconstruction after the Franco-Prussian War, the French Republic refuses the Chinese request.
  • República de Argentina: The unexpected drought slows the speed of colonization but does little to slow the waves of immigrants from Europe. Farmers in the north struggle the worst, but with emergency tax-breaks even the worst impacted farmers survive. The rail line to Santa Cruz de la Sierra reaches the first firmly Bolivian town on the border. It is at this point, south of San Antonio del Parapeti, that Bolivia is asked for permission to continue the rail line to Santa Cruz de la Sierra. (Mods Please) Meanwhile, the rail line toward Bahía Blanca enters its second year of construction with large sections laid. The “Conquest of the Desert” continues in full swing, the troops intentionally focus on securing the far west before the more coastal regions. Now south of the Rio Deseado the soldiers establish a fort on a cove at the northern edge of Lake Buenos Aires. Industrial equipment is imported from Europe and the United States to introduce mechanization to farms in and around the Plata Basin. More schools are constructed in the rural areas and poorer neighborhoods of urban Argentina. The policies to attract migrants are increased, and thanks to Argentina’s fertile soil, relatively strong economy, and lack of slavery many tens of thousands of migrants arrive from Europe. Production of the Remington-Benitez Model 1975 Rifle begins in Buenos Aires with an initial order for 50,000 units. A talented mechanic, Santiago Benitez, led the development of the rifle, including the exact specifications for the cams in the breechblock and hammer. The design proves equally strong as the original, but slightly more expensive to produce. However, the rifle proves to have a slightly faster rate of fire, especially from horseback. President Avellaneda also begins a restructuring of the Argentine armed forces for the next year. A delegation in Berlin asks to purchase some 64 Krupp 75 mm Light Mountain Guns for use as the main Argentine Field gun. (German Response)
    • Britain says no as Argentina claims the Falklands and refuses to withdraw the claim.
    • Mod Response: The Bolivians agree.
  • Vietnam: Emperor Tu Duc, attempting to placate the conservatives in the Vietnamese royal court, attempts to balance his agenda of reforms and the Confucian conservatives. He continues to modernize the nation of Vietnam, wishing to advance it to at least be able to compete with the western powers and Vietnam's historical rival, China. However, Tu Duc also attempts to preserve Confucian tradition. The plot to assassinate Tu Duc is uncovered, and the conspirators are publicly exposed and executed. With this, the popularity of the conservative faction is decreased. The mineral resources of Vietnam begin to be exploited at a similar if not identical scale to in the west, and coal and iron are extensively mined, among other important minerals. More factories are also built in Vietnam. The capital of Vietnam is moved to Hanoi, a larger city and the historical capital of many past Vietnamese dynasties. A palace of similar scale to the palace of Modernizing reforms continue to be made, albeit at a somewhat more gradual pace. The Imperial University of Hanoi is built, similarly to the model of the imperial university created in China. In the Imperial University of Hanoi, both traditional Vietnamese texts and classics and western subjects are taught. European textbooks are translated into Vietnamese, and European instructors are paid large sums of money to teach students. Modern arsenals capable of making relatively modern equipment are built throughout the country. The Haiphong Arsenal is capable of producing the most advanced boats that Vietnam has, though ironclads are still to be purchased from Europe. More steam-engine gunboats are produced for the Vietnamese navy. The damage done to the northwestern lands by the Red and Yellow Flags is repaired. Agriculture is also developed to increase crop yields in Vietnamese farmland. A new modern military force is created on the model of the Beiyang Army, called the Biển Đông (Eastern Sea) Army. The soldiers of the Biển Đông Army are given uniforms based on British army uniforms and armed with western weapons. Vietnam's Ministry of Bureaucratic Affairs is created to manage the bureaucracy and root out corruption. New schools are built in rural areas and cities, where both western subjects and classic subjects are taught. Emperor Tu Duc requests to purchase four ironclads from Germany. (GERMAN RESPONSE NEEDED)
  • Chile: Following the annexation of Isla de Pascua the previous year, the national prestige is boosted as Chile claims its place among the colonial powers of the world. However, Chile's newly awakened ambitions in the Pacific are not yet quenched. In a search for any unclaimed South Pacific lands ripe for the taking, the Chilean government finds three islands to the north of Pitcairn Island, yet lay untouched by the British: Henderson, Oeno, and Ducie Island. Noting the diverse wildlife on Henderson Island, the government outfits a scientific expedition to Henderson Island, with the condition that the three islands be claimed for Chile. Upon the expedition's arrival, the Chilean flag was planted on the beach of Henderson Island, officially claiming Henderson, Oeno, and Ducie Island for Chile. The islands are renamed respectively to San Juan Bautista, Isla de Salmón (in honor of Isla de Pascua's governor), and Luna Puesta, and are designated as part of the Isla de Pascua province. To ease any concerns the British may have about the Chilean presence in the uninhabitable islands so close to Pitcairn Island, the Chilean government assures colonial authorities in Pitcairn Island that Chile fully recognizes and respects British sovereignty over the isle. Meanwhile, back in the mainland, industrial and infrastructure development continues. The construction of railroads all across Chile continues, including the new construction of a railroad connecting Punta Arenas to the heartland. Coal mining continues in the heartland. In Valaparaiso, which has developed a strong shipbuilding industry and serves as Chile's main port, the ironclads recently purchased from the US have begun to be upgraded to become ocean-faring, expected to be complete by the next year. In Santiago, construction of the Bismarck-Santiago Military Academy continues, set to open next year. The city's defenses are brought up to date, with German immigrant engineers and officers invited to assist in the efforts. We reiterate our request that the German government allow an emissary to travel to Germany to study their military technology and tactics, and also ask again if they would like to invest in the construction of our Military Academy (GERMANY response). Meanwhile, following last year's offer to the French living in the annexed regions of Germany, thousands of French immigrants pour into Chile from these regions, fleeing the marching boots of the Imperial Army. Homesteading continues in southern Patagonia, with homesteads reaching far into western Patagonia and fanning out north from Punta Arenas. As per the agreement with the German government, a new settlement of an estimated 5,000 German immigrants is formed at the mouth of the Rio Gallegos: the new town of Weissestadt ("white town" in German). Noting the aggressive stance of Argentina toward Patagonia and their full intention to cut Chile completely out of the region, Chile launches a military expedition of its own from Punta Arenas, aimed at conquering the Magellanes Basin before the Argentines reach it. The expedition is not expected to last for more than a year, as many of the natives have already been severely weakened by the constant Argentine incursions. Punta Arenas is fortified with the latest military technology, including Krupp cannons purchased from Germany in years past, while communication lines are repaired and kept up to date. A Chilean schooner is sent down to the region, tasked with claiming the Tierra del FuegoArgentina is reminded of the deal that Chile offered to them last year, noting that Chile does not want war but does not seek to be passively cut off from access to the Atlantic (ARGENTINA response).
    • Isla de Pascua: Alejando Salmón's first term as governor continues to go smoothly. As the new provincial office and the naval station in Mataveri open this year, Chilean infrastructure makes tis debut on the isle. The Rapanui are happy to live their lives as Chilean citizens, with a rather hands-off approach from the provincial government. While Catholic missionaries operate on the island, the native's original faith is permitted through a policy of religious toleration. The annexations of San Juan Bautista, Isla de Salmón, and Luna Puesta to the province are well-received, but as these islands are far-flung and uninhabited, hardly affect Salmón's policies. Noting the flat, grass-dominated ecology of the island, Salmón puts aside some extra money aimed at importing various flora from outside in order to restore the relatively barren landscape. New trees suitable for growing in the region, such as Chilean palms, guava trees, and orange trees, are introduced, while plumerias and other tropical flowers are shipped in from Tahiti. The landscape of Isla de Pascua, once dominated by low-lying grasses and shrubs, has received a splash of color, which will hopefully improve with time.
  • United States: Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1875 banning racial discrimination of public accommodations and juries. Federal troops are deployed in Montana to counter Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. General Custer expects a fight to be coming by the next year as only minor skirmishes between blueshirts and Indians have occurred. With the new firepower doctrines, Custer decides to put emphasis on artillery and Gatling guns to cover his advance. Seeing advancements in European artillery, and goes into researching and improving breech loading artillery designs. Designs are drawn up going from 75 mm light artillery to 280 mm siege guns. Two Indian tribes in Arizona are forced out of their territory and won't return for another 25 years. Texas Ranger's undenounced to the Federal authority's and in cooperation with a river monitor named the USS Rio Bravo bombard the Mexican side of the border to send a message to Mexican border bandits and raiders.
    • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek response: The US encroachment on our claimed lands isn't well received and we advise the US to proceed with caution and not to advance further to the interior of South West Africa. Given that the US are here to stay we acknowledge that and reconcile with the notion that they are not going anywhere. Thus we propose to them New Nevada to act as a direct link between our nations, giving its ideal location if trade were to increase between our people the city would quickly turn into a prosperous trade hub, it could serve as a diplomatic link as well.
    • I took it off.
    • OK, then. ~Bear
  • Kingdom of Ashanti: Due to Kofikari's early death sometime within October of last year, the plan to attack the British forts around the Gold Coast was help up for a common vote of the people who should take an early reign next. In February after a long series of debates which almost led up to a full-on civil war (in technicality, due to a temporary conjoinment of the two nations), a solution is finally given months later. The details of what led up to this would unfortunately be lost by history, nor significant enough for the people to remember. What can be said is when a leader dies early right before a grand plan is enacted, well, let's just say it pretty much never comes with a good ending. Luckily, as said, a conflict fought for the decision of a new leader was narrowly avoided as King Kwasi Edo of the Akan was proposed to adapt Ashanti culture and only after being taught the practices sit upon the Dwa (Golden Stool) soon to be commemorated as the new leader of the Ashanti-Fante Kingdom. Although, this kingdom will probably become a democracy at some time in the near future if it lives to re-enact and hopefully succeeds in their plan to invade Fort Elmina now delayed until a time is deemed right by officials. The new king, however, also issues a second request off to Dutch sailors heading back to the Netherlands so they could deliver a message to their leader as to whether or not they would be interested in gaining their port back for free. (Possible mod response as to if the Dutch ever got the message.) Meanwhile, a strange vagabond messenger from the easternmost edge of the Kingdom of Jolof says to beware the Italians on lookout...
  • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek: After the German conglomerate Hugo-Muller Textile Co. decided to open their production facilities in Pretoria they have taken great publicity and as unsurprisingly an awful lot of local entrepreneurs take interest in investing in the industry, almost nonexistent until now. The local banks are unable to borrow them the cash required to proceed with their plans, as the amount of new application is staggering to say the least. Finally after lobbying the central government the banks gave in to their demands as the state provides them with much needed liquidity though joint ventures. Very low taxation in general is a great motivator and given our state's business friendly enviroment with little to none bureaucracy it doesn't take much time for our nation to turn into a tax heaven. Given recent investments made by the Brazilian Viscount of Mauã and the Italian owned Algerian oil companies of the Algerian oil companies mining sub-branch into new mining ventures, the German Railroad companies into our National Railway Project and Hugo-Muller's into a new textile factory into our capital Pretoria, growth has vastly accelerated into unprecedented levels of advancement. Our best estimates place it somewhere near 32% to 38% per year for this year. Colonization of South West Africa toward the sea continues unhindered. Another entire kommando (= battalion) is sent to be secure the Dorsland Trekkers route and reinforce the borderline outposts, focusing further on fortification works at them. These brave male and female kommandos are granted the commercial rights of their borderline kommando outposts. Further kommandos are sent along the route to escort Trekkers when requested. Their job is to sell water, food and any other supplies to travelers, patrol their surroundings and enforce the law in these brave new lands. In the way essentially they create small communities as their surroundings are developed by non-kommando personnel settlers, investing in the safety that the borderline outposts provide. Civilization is spreading along that route. An intensive settling of the region from the Okavango swamps all the way to the sea bordering the Portuguese with all of the Dorsland Trekkers choosing to remain and settle in the area, embracing the prospect to exploit the privileges we provide them, while also being able to conduct trade with the Portuguese. Also thousands of Germans choose to settle in the area after encouragement by our ally the German Empire as well as thousands of immigrants from other destinations such as Italians, Russians and Americans. Several other cities pop up along in the area from Okavango swamps all the way to the coasts of South West Africa as the area came to be called. Even though the landescape is rough with a mountain range cutting the interior from the coastline the passages are discovered after extensive exploration of the area and are recorded by the authorities in the area. The coastal city of Krugersberg is founded on the northern coasts nearby Portoguese territory (Interlaying OTL Terrace Bay and Torra Bay towns). A reliable port is being developed aiming to supply all of ZAR's imports by sea. A chapel, a marshal's office, an small military outpost and a court are constructed in this newly founded city. The infrastructure is also developed there. The city of Fransfontein is also founded and developed with similar buildings. Many settlers move into both cities. However, Krugersberg is growing with faster rates than any other city in the area, surpassing almost every other city, with the notable exception of Grootfontein. The city of Grootfontein flourishes and becames a major trade hub in the area as well as an administrational centre, with governmental agencies as well as kommando officials choosing the location as centre of their activities in South West Africa, unofficially becoming the administrational centre of the area. It doesn't come as a surprise the verification of this reality by the central government, with the city of Grootfontein officially designated as the administrational centre of the fast growing South West African colony. The chapel is renovated and extended to become a full grown church to accompany the needs of the city, the marshal's office gets stuffed and cells are constructed in its basement, the fortified small military outpost gets worked on and extended to have the capability to efficiently protect the town from any and all threats and the court as well as the infrastructure are expanded in Grootfontein. Taxation in the South West African colony is temporarily abolished for a ten-year period to give further incentives for more settlers to move in. German military advisors help Comdt-General Kruger in his work of restructurking even further the kommando system, instilling discipline onto the kommandos and training them to use the new Mauser 1871 Infantry Rifles, Saxon M1873 Army revolvers, bayonets and the mobile C64 four pounder and the heavier C67 six pounder Krupp guns. The Homestead Act continues, achieving further success offering any white person, both miners residing in the land and newcomers the opportunity to get their own homestead, a farmstead that they can build their homes on. However, given that South African soil is difficult to cultivate, Boers farmers are given enormous tax breaks shall they assist newcomers and teach them the secrets of their soil, enable them to successfully cultivate their new farmsteads. The state also assists with relocation, providing shelter to reside while the settlers are building their new homes, as well as blankets, food, medical assistance should they require it. Citizenship grant is expedited to be provided along with the homestead grant. More than 15.000 new settlers of all kinds of nationalities such as Germans, Italians, Russians and Americans make Transvaal their home, increasing our populace to 150.000 people according to estimates as no census has taken place yet. With recent investment by the German Railroad companies into our interconnected railroad network project after finishing the construction of the railroad system in Germany, having a large surplus, this cash is poured into speeding up the schedule and starting working on a few more planned lines inside the ZAR and the Orange Free State. Work on the interconnected railroad network project continues. Heavy emphasis is given in the Portugal railroad concession, the Pretoria–Delagoa Bay Line and thanks to the increased budget expected completion and time inauguration drops by two a year to the end of 1876. The interior railroad connections of our nation and the fellow nation of the Orange Free State starts being worked over more intensively expecting to finish its first phase and be inaugurated by the end of 1878, thats means two years sooner than expected. The Southeast Line linking our nation with Durban being worked over more intensively but still more loosely than the other two, is expected to finish and be inaugurated by the end of 1885. The relations continue to improve with the Orange Free State as well as trade between our two brethren nations flourishes. A request of vassalization is send to Griqualand West were they would be not only permitted but also assisted to retain their Griqua identity through guarranting Waterboer dynasty political control over the area with a treaty and an addition to our constitution as well as giving equal rights with the Europeans to the Griqua people, no longer they would be perceived as second rate citizens by Europeans. Given the consistant increasing pressure by the Bantu natives as well as the Europeans who by now outnumber the Griqua in their own state, we simply wish to offer the Griqua a peaceful alternative that would incorporate them into our realm as equal partners, given our common roots and the bonds of blood that unite our two nations. [Mod Response]
    • Mod Response: The Griqua refuse to become a vassal and demand that they be let alone.
  • Dominion of Canada: With a drought in South America happening, many people from South America would move to Canada. Also in news the first indoor hockey is seen in Montreal, Quebec. Now people can play hockey at any time in any season. Canada's economy also grows as more people from South America move to Canada. Canada is also increased its military and naval force. More people are joining the military
  • Third French Republic : With the horrific defeat suffered at the hands of Prussia and Italy and the lands lost to them, Aldophe Thiers has become increasingly unpopular for having given up all of France's hard won territories as many brave Frenchmen died for France's former colonial possessions and yet Thiers himself gave them up without negotiating a revision of the Treaty of Paris. In addition to Thiers’s decreasing popularity, civil unrest has begun to rise in Northern France including Paris as many Socialists and Workers begin to protest on the streets of Paris and other major cities in Northern France. Thiers not wanting to risk the spread of socialism in France sent 30,000 Troops to Paris to restore order only for them and another 10,000 Men to join the Socialists who in turn declared the Paris Commune. Having gathered their strength for the past three years, the Communards are able to establish an army of over 50,000 Men being able to face the French. Immediately facing a Civil War, and with the Communards already having gained influence over most of Northern France, Thiers resigns and is replaced by Patrice de MacMahon, Marshall of France. Immediately, MacMahon begins the enlistment of the veterans of the Franco-Prussian War and introduces Massive Conscription in order to face the Communards increasing the French Army to 200,000 Men as he orders the French Army to march in Northern France and avoid the regions around Paris to diminish the influence of the Communards. Meanwhile, efforts are made to rebuild the French Navy as French Dockyards are reformed and Upgraded in order to reduce the time of construction for future ships of the French Navy. Meanwhile, diplomats are sent to Japan to establish an embassy there as a Military Mission is sent to Japan to help them modernize their military. In addition to this Patrice de MacMahon organizes Le Comité des Affaires Coloniales Françaises, a Government Organization that will organize new Colonial Expeditions to establish new Colonies and establish a Third French Colonial Empire as MacMahon plans to restore the Military Prestige of France.
  • Korea: The number of foreign government advisors, the majority of whom are hired, professionals, remains high at ~3,000. However, foreign knowledge is also transmitted through foreign missionaries, who exploit the legalization of Christianity to penetrate the countryside. Over five hundred officials are sent to Russian universities to study Western institutions and thought, with the hope of emulating and/or modifying them in Korea. The "Gwangmu Plan", which is a nation-wide modernization program plan spanning the years 1875 to 1885, is formally enacted. A railway is built connecting Seoul and Kaeseong (about ~40km), while construction on a second railway line connecting Seoul and Busan – Korea's two largest cities – commences. The goal of 1,500km worth of railway by 1885 is established. To fuel this growth, coal, and iron mining increases. Additionally, construction on a steel mill and a munitions plant in Seoul commences (with a completion date of 1878), with the latter planned to have a construction capacity of 50,000 annually. Meanwhile, a telegraph line connecting China and Korea is laid down. A goal of a standing army of ~150,000 by 1880 (and double that by 1885) is established. Though as of the moment, even with the purchase of foreign firearms, the Korean army is only comprised of 50,000 "semi-modern" troops (that is, troops wielding Western firearms but fighting under traditional tactics). Due to the reliance on the importation of foreign firearms, there is a problem of lack of standardization, with the troops being armed with a wide variety of rifled muskets and breach-holders – correspondingly, paper and metallic cartridges are also used side-by-side. To solve this issue, the Korean government designates the Berdan rifle as a standard infantry issue, while having its carbine model being a standard cavalry issue – due to a limited quantity, its use, for now, is relegated to the elite corps. The port cities of Incheon and Busan are fortified, with the first set of naval batteries being laid out to defend against any enemy naval vessels. While no ships are purchased at the moment, a navy yard is built in Incheon, with plans to purchase gunboats, corvettes and protected cruisers in the future. There is a heavy investment in the economy, with burgeoning trade with the West resulting in the revitalization of the long-dormant economy and foreign-oriented commercialization. To heighten economic competitiveness, industrial machinery such as steam engines and mechanized looms are imported en-masse, thus improving productivity per worker and reducing the cost of production. Main exports are silk and cotton textiles, tea, as well as lacquerware and porcelain. Other minor exports include ginseng and gold.
  • Principality of Serbia: Work finishes on building a railway from Aleksinac to Belgrade. Agriculture has seen marginal improvements and continues to gain as reforms are rolled out. Contractors continue to increase production of horses for the army. Construction and improvement of fortresses at Zajecar, Uzice and Sabac. Heavy entrenchments are made at Aleksinac. Military organisational reforms are carried out with the reserve units organised into corps (40,000 men), divisions (13,500), brigades (3,400 men), battalions (830 men), companies (200 men) and then platoon (42 men) with artillery attached at battalion and divisional level. We request to buy on credit 80,000 single shot breech loading rifles and 800 muzzle loading rifled artillery from anyone with surplus equipment. Milan I of Serbia asks to marry some member of the Prussian royal family and for 700 officers to assist our armed forces. 
  • Russian Empire: Victory! Victory! Victory! The Empire has been successful long live Tsar,the Cossacks gave glory to the Rus. The Cossacks and Tsar both decide that they will continue the war against the Central Asians. As the war must not just be won They should know for ever to never anger The cossack horde. This is done due to the fear that the Central Asians will rise again when it is the least suited for the Empire. At the same time as the war in Central Asia continues, the war with Japan ends, but a peace treaty has not officially been signed yet, as the exact peace terms aren't yet agreed on. And the Russian Empire does wish for peace with the Japanese Empire(player Response) but this war does show that even if the technology of the army is good enough against tribesmen, it might not be enough against Othern Westernised powers. Many of the soldiers who have fought do begin to show some slight disgruntlement. As many see the current way of governing the lands of Mighty Russia - with the tsar even sharing the concern about the current form of governing in Empire of Saint Micheal. Alexander sends invitation letters to representatives of Germany, France, Netherlands, Italy and the United Kingdom to see which form of governing could be applied and work the best in Russia (Player and Mod Response). In Aleksandrovka more immigrants still arrive with cities like Helsinski and Riga also receiving some numbers of immigrants. In Helsinski and the rest of the Grand Duchy of Finland, Swedish Immigration is encouraged to settle in these areas with the exception of military service for first and second generation immigrants, a lowered tax rate of 50% for first three years and 75% for seven years afterward, whereafter the taxation will be the same as native Fins. Germans who bring industry to Russia are also allowed to still set up by the Volga Delta to the Caspian Sea. With Germans also being promised the ability to set up factories in Central Asia if they themself are able to defend the land and employ people Although this offer stands, the Germans are told to not cause any poverty or unrest to the area and to respect the property rights of the lower nobles and middle-class. Higher nobles, their faith not yet being agreed on, as some in Russia want their death of all Higher Bakhuran and Khivan nobles, while some opt for life in prison and some exile to Siberia - a small few even wanting to keep their positions of all who did not rebel and just taking away their titles of those who did rebel. France to help them the Russian government offers to buy Wallis and Futuna, Mayotte and New Caledonia for the price of 425,000 Francs (6.5 million Euros)(French Response). This is done to aid the French government financially and administratively by having them lease land to govern over and defend - as well as being compensation for the expected loss of land to the Japanese due to the Russo-Japanese skirmish. On a musical note, the tsar decides that the song "Hey Slavs" will now be played whenever Slavic diplomats and officials visit Russia. In addition the song will now be "The Anthem of Unity" which has the meaning that it will be of importance and played after The National anthem, "God save the Tsar" but not be required to do so.
    • French Response: We accept the Russian Offer as the Republic need funding to replace its losses and boost its economy.
  • Nip Dip?: Japan agrees to enter peace talks.
  • Nippon: Modernization and industrialization continue. Talks over the format of the constitution continue. Anti-Samurai laws are put on hold after Okubo intervenes in an effort to not antagonize the samurai class further. However, work on the new imperial army continues with cadets being drawn from both the samurai, and commoners. Enforcement of equality laws is improved, and prote3ction for the "untouchables" begins. Iwakura convinces Japan of the need to focus on major naval expansion and efforts to expand and improve ports and the construction of a dry dock begin as well.
  • Império do Brasil: The birth of Prince Dom João Pedro de Alcântara last year would be celebrated in Rio de Janeiro and Pedro II would find in his grandson new hope for the continuation of the Empire. The Emperor would spend his free time with the newborn, developing affection for the baby who might one day inherit his crown. The Educational Reform of the Emperor would continue steady implementation, already showing results as the rate of matriculated students rises significantly, a new law would also be added to the reform making it mandatory for members of the elite to educate their male sons in national or foreign universities. The Industrial surge created by the liberalisation and encouragment policies would continue roaring on and as the 2nd Industrial Revolution takes force the expansion of industry is massively boosted by ever cheaper and more efficient manufactury and construction technologies. Most importantly the evolution of pig iron smelting and the Bessemer and Siemens–Martin processes would allow for mass cheap production of Steel that would fuel the extensive building of railroads and machinery. As a protectionist measure against developed european industries, a 60% Tariff would be imposed over foreign industrialised goods that are also nationally produced as used to be law by the Alves Branco Tariff. The Brazilian Intellectuals that had stayed studying in Europe in the 1872 Mission with the Emperor would finally return and bring with them valuable assitance to the aggressive modernization programme. A large part of the national and hired scholars would now be tasked with coordinating the industrialisation efforts, they would create model factories and sell them at cheaper price to emerging industrialists and provide direct assistance with the implementation of technology and processes as means to kickstart a number of potentially large businesses. In this same year many German investors would begin pouring into Brazil, due to the friendly relations with Germany and the official opening and inivitation of their investment by Pedro in the previous year. The visible sucess and growing power of the more liberal and capitalistic barons in São Paulo who choose to embrace Industrialism furthered by Imperial propaganda would cause many barons of the traditionalist and slaver Vale do Paraíba to begin reconsidering their reluctancy toward industry, it would, however, also motivate a large reactionary movement to be formed by the most conservative plantation owners. 

1876

Former soldiers of the Central Asian coalition begin to engage in guerilla warfare and terrorist activities against the Russian government and military.

Rebel groups are formed in German acquired territories in France and engage in anti-German activities.

Industrial workers and sympathetic national guard members in Paris seize control of Paris, establishing a mutualist state, which forces the government to flee the capital.

Many in France decide to move to Argentina and other parts of South America as the nation’s economy is in a slump after the war.

An Argentinian trade-ship is accidentally sunk by a Chilean warship.

The April Uprising occurs in Ottoman Bulgaria. Turk troops kill 5,000 people in a massacre. Leaders of Europe converge on Berlin to negotiate a peace between the Turks and the rebels. The British reject the Berlin Memorandum.

Empress of India is bestowed upon Queen Victoria

King Leopold II of Belgium hosts the Brussels Geographic Conference on the subject of colonizing and exploring Africa

  • Chile: Chile's numerous development projects continue: coal mining remains a major industry, railroads continue to bring all of Chile closer together, shipbuilding and construction in Valparaiso continues, while the Bismarck-Santiago Military Academy nears completion, set to open next year. Immigrants continue to flock in from Europe, particularly Germans, Italians, and now Frenchmen hoping to escape civil unrest both in France proper and their former homelands annexed into Germany. The Central Naval Academy of Chile is established in Valparaiso, serving as the country's main naval academy. Engineers in Santiago have managed to reverse-engineer a German Krupp cannon and modify its design, creating a unique Chilean model cannon that can now be manufactured at home. Meanwhile, the Chilean government, noting the ideal climate the country has for grape-growing, invests in vineyards and raising a fledgling wine industry. The railway between Punta Arenas and the Chilean heartland is complete, connecting the two regions and cementing Chile's presence in Patagonia. Small Chilean divisions are sent to guard potential choke points in the railroad against "possible raids by the native Mapuche." The conquest of the Magellanes Basin is finished, with Chilean forces meeting those of Argentina's at the Rio Chico. The establishment of fortifications along the southern bank of the river, each with a Chilean flag flying proudly over it, serves to remind Argentina that the basin is Chilean territory and should not be encroached upon. Once again, Chile reminds Argentina of their 1874 offer to settle the border dispute, and that Chile does not want war but will defend their claims to southern Patagonia (ARGENTINA response). Homesteading continues in the country, with a focus on Patagonia, especially in the newly opened-up Magellanes Basin. This, compounded with the flow of immigrants coming in from Europe, allows Chilean Patagonia to populate and solidify Chile's claims to the land. Military divisions are stationed in the basin, centered on Weissestadt, in order to "protect against Mapuche raids." New towns are planned out in Patagonia as well, with a focus on attracting European immigrants to the region. Naval infrastructure is developed in Punta Arenas as well, in order to defend the city from the seas. Following the accidental sinking of the Argentine merchant ship, Chilean defenses nationwide, yet mostly focused on Patagonia, are doubly fortified and reinforced, in case Argentina takes the incident as a casus belli to push for their territorial ambitions(SECRET) Chilean officials approach the British consul in Santiago, requesting the formation of a secret defensive pact with the United Kingdom should Argentina attack. The Chilean officials bring up the fact that doing nothing would allow an enlarged, expansionist Argentina to assert itself in the region, which would inevitably attempt to conquer the Falkland Islands (MOD response for Britain) (END SECRET). Meanwhile, out in the Pacific, Chile approaches the king of Tahiti, asking if Tahiti would like to switch its allegiance from a French protectorate to a Chilean one. Seeing that France is currently embroiled in a vicious civil war, the king of Tahiti is informed that the French government could only do very little to stop Tahiti from making the switch. Furthermore, the Chilean diplomats state that conditions would be better for Tahitians under the suzerainty of a stable, democratic Chile, which has promised to give Tahiti autonomy over all domestic affairs. (MOD response for Tahiti). (UPDATE) Following the apparent declaration of war from the aggressive Argentines, Chile mobilizes for war. Military training undergoes several reforms which make training more efficient and more comprehensive, while armament manufacturers step up their production rates. Overland imports into Chile are prioritized in order to undermine Argentine plans for a blockade. Meanwhile, foreign agents that penetrate into Argentina are tasked with poking at the sparks of the Paraguayan independence movement, distributing propaganda for the liberation of Paraguay; springboarding from here, further efforts are undertaken to exploit Argentina's unique regionalism and stoke regional tensions with the central governmment. Meanwhile, following the unwarranted attack on our sovereign territory, Chile reaches out to Brazil to join in our war to prevent Argentine hegemony over the continent and restore the balance of power (BRAZIL repsonse). War propaganda efforts ecouraging people to enlist is floated as hundreds flock to the nearest station to defend their country. With many troops being sent down to Patagonia, an additional 10,000 troops take defensive poisitions in the Andes to protect the mountain passes.
    • Isla de Pascua: Salmón's term as governor continues with few troubles, as dozens of native Rapanui who had at some point emigrated choose to return to the island following the governor's invitation. The importing of flora continues from outside areas, even choosing to import some unique plants that are endemic to San Juan Bautista. Taking a page out of the central government's book, Salmón chooses to import grapes from the mainland to grow on a small vineyard on the island, giving birth to Isla de Pascua's small wne industry. This helps boost the local economy, giving incentive for even more Rapanui diaspora (and a small percentage of imigrants from the mainland) to come to the island.
    • Britain rejects the Chilean proposal of an alliance as it doesn’t want to get involved in South American affairs. -mod
  • Austria-Hungary: We continue the expansion of the navy, building three ironclads and four dreadnoughts, and we build more shipyards. We ban any sort of job discrimination toward minorities in the empire as part of an effort to counter the large scale oppression utilized by the Hungarians of minorities within their borders, and to just keep the empire more stable. The government begins to promote Austro-Slavism to counter the rise of pan-Slavist ideas within idea. (SECRET) We send agents into Ottoman Europe to form anti-Ottoman circles and encourage a revolt against the Ottoman Empire. We also meet with exiled independence organizations in secret and see if they can also push for revolt inside the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian-Ottoman border continues to be fortified and the defenses rise, the Austrian forces in Serbia also see reinforcements with artillery and other modern equipment for them to use and the Serbian army. We continue to promote culture and science within in the empire. Our agricultural funding continues with our policies from 1874 being continued. Our building up of Galicia’s economy, infrustructure and education continue as well, with new text books being set to all the schools in the region and more pressure toward the regional government to do more in these fields.
  • The Chinese Empire: The Imperial Cabinet under Prince Gong establishes a timetable for certain reforms, with the provincial universities set to open in 1880, military prep schools in 1878, and the Imperial University of Peking opening this year. Regular schools continue to be opened throughout the provinces. The Naval Academy in Tianjin has opened, and so has the Central Military Academy for the land forces, in Peking. Many European books on science and technical subjects have been translated into Chinese and Manchu to be used for students at the new schools. Students are also sponsored by the Qing government to study abroad. The Beiyang Army is formally established outside of Peking, consisting of 50,000 men, all trained and equipped in European style. The Tongzhi Emperor and members of his court inspect the new troops in a formal parade outside the Forbidden City. With the success of the Beiyang Army, an additional 40,000 troops will be selected to undergo training and join the force by 1880. They will are recruited from the Green Standard Armies, the Manchu Bannermen, and Li Hongzhang's New Armies. Some Muslim troops from western China are also included. An Imperial Guards Brigade is also formed this year with 4500 men to protect the Emperor's residences, also equipped with Western style uniforms and modern weaponry. Arsenals continue to be developed. Prince Chun is named High Commissioner of the Admiralty, and he plans for a naval expansion program. Wooden ships will be phased out and replaced with protected ones that have armoured decks, built at the Fuzhou and Weihaiwei naval yards, mainly torpedo boats and schooners. Prince Chun's naval armament program calls for the creation of 20 torpedo boats and 14 corvettes, to be completed and in service by 1890. Iron, coal, and copper mines continue to be expanded throughout the country. Agricultural output increases with the introduction of European technology to the process in some of the major farms. With Britain's and France's responses being negative, China asks Austria-Hungary to purchase some modern rifles, artillery pieces, a dreadnought [AUSTRIAN RESPONSE].
    • Austrian Response: We agree.
  • Persia: With the Central Asian war being over and persia being on the victorius side, a Royal military parade is scheduled to be held in the capital as celebrations. Work on rebuilding Persepolis is going as scheduled with many plans of how the ciy shall look being reviewed. Fortifications on the Persian-Ottoman border are stregthened and trhe troops receives new artillery and arms. Meanwhile, the shah offers the French Republic an alliance and an economic treaty, (FRENCH RESPONSE NEEDED).The shah meets with the Afghan Trade envoy and invites their king to visit Tehran.
  • Vietnam: Emperor Tu Duc continues forwarding his agenda of reform. The autonomous Tai region begins to be administered as a federally-administered tribal region, organized similarly to the structure of the Sip Song Chau Tai but with the Vietnamese government controlling it. It also becomes the subject of development, with schools being built in rural regions and a literacy program being taught. Both Vietnamese and a standard Tai dialect are taught in the Tai region. Reforms also continue to be made. Many military academies are built, most notably the Naval Academy of Haiphong and the Imperial Military Academy in Hanoi. The Biển Đông Army expands out of Hanoi and also increases in size. This year, the Imperial University at Hanoi is opened. An Imperial Guards Force is created to guard the Emperor and his residence, akin to the model of the Imperial Guards Brigade of China. The Naval Academy of Haiphong and the Imperial Military Academy are set to open by the turn of the decade. Wooden ships begin to be phased out in favor of more modern ships, built mainly at the naval decks of Haiphong and Quang Ninh. Agriculture also grows due to the use of western tools, and coal and iron mines are expanded. Production of steel is increased. (MORE TO BE ADDED?)
  • República de Argentina: There is outrage in Buenos Aires. The Chilean expansion east of the Andes is unacceptable. Furthermore, the Chilean armament program in purchasing ships and guns has resulted in the irresponsible and tragic sinking of the Argentine Flagged and Crewed Esmeralda, a refrigerated transport carrying several hundred tons of beef to European markets. Thus, after raising 10,000 troops, comprised largely of veterans and reservists, and deploying them to the two main passes between Argentina and Chile President Avellaneda sends a declaration of war to the upstart nation. The Argentine fleet, some 21 Ironclad warships all built within the last decade and featuring modern Krupp Naval Guns sail to intercept the scattered and weak Chilean fleet. (Will need a mod to rule on who wins the naval battle as the algo isn’t done yet). With victory assumed as the Chileans have two older coastal ironclads versus 21 more seaworthy ships. Following the presumed destruction of the Chilean fleet, the Argentine navy plans to rains abject destruction down upon the Chilean port facilities. The goal is simple: Chile is dependent economically on exports of valuable saltpetre and ore, disrupt this supply of minerals and the Chilean economy collapses and their war effort with it. Thus, the Argentine Anaconda tightens its grip. In Patagonia the situation is different. 15,000 Cavalry men under the command of Generalissimo Julio Argentino Roca launch an attack on the isolated Chilean positions. They begin their campaign by striking to the west first, attempting to cut the supply lines and outmaneuver their enemy. After cutting off the Chileans, Roca and his men decimate the poorly led, armed, and trained Chilean Army at the battle of the Santa Cruz. (See algo) Work temporarily halts on the Santa Cruz de la Sierra line but redoubled on the Bahía Blanca line which is finally finished in November of the year and used to supply materials, food, and equipment to the troops capturing the Austral Basin (Magallanes Basin). (Secret) Argentina secretly contacts the Government of the United Kingdom informing them of the Chilean proposal to enforce a tax on transit of the Straits of Magellan. Knowing that the UK would be opposed to this possibility should Chile be allowed to become a global naval power. Thus, Argentina asks military support against Chile to seize the capital and surrounding regions. In particular Argentina asks for a selection of discounted or cost-to-manufacture modern mountain and light field guns from the UK should they agree to support this aim. Finally, Argentina asks that the UK simply remain neutral in the war if they are considering becoming involved with the enemy. (Mod Response) Furthermore, Argentina delivers circumstantial proof of Chilean territorial ambitions on Bolivia to the Bolivian authorities. (Mod Notice)
    • Chile OOC: I have to disagree with your characterization of the Chilean forces as outdated and poorly led. While I do see your strategies as credible and applaud how you thought them out, I dare say that Chile's forces are sufficiently equipped and organized. You also mischaracterize the size and quality of the Chilean navy. While I do have the two coastal ironclads from the Americans, I do have a home-bult ironclad which is much more up-to-date, along with a variety of corvettes and schooners (if or how much this affects the naval battle I do not know). I also had no intention of simply isolating my recently-conquered positions. Having predicted this war, I put my estimates at a maximum of 20,000 (if you choose to enquire, I'll give my justifications for such a figure). Furthermore, a small correction in your message to Britain: Chile did not intend to place any tariffs on the Straits of Magellan for the time being, we only promised Argentina be exempt from such in our agreements should they be implemented in the future.
      • A few things: 
      1. Chile's troops are not experienced in actual warfare and they are up against veterans and professional soldiers.
      2. I only accounted for those that might have been in Patagonia proper, if you would like to have deployed all 20,000 be my guest, the war-algorithm can be adjusted to reflect that.
      3. The position in my turn does not reflect the objective reality, but a mix of "reality" and what would be presented by Argentine-leaning sources at the time. Thus while the Chilean staff, NCOs, and soldiers are probably competent (if green in full-scale warfare), I characterized them as poor in quality.
    • Chilean OOC: Indeed, I would like to modify the algorithm to show the 20,000 troops deployed, and that they form a consistent defensive line that can't be encircled without a breakthrough. I only have a few more questions. First, have Chile's recently-bult defensive fortifications been factored into the algorithm (my apologies if they already have, I'm not all too sure how the algorithm works)? Second, is Chile's updated equipment factored in as well (I purchased 10,000 German rifles and another 10,000 revolvers in 1873; my offer was a replica of Transvaal's that year)? Thanks for your patience, sorry if I've sounded demanding.
  • Kingdom of Spain: With the Carlists having been crushed under the able leadership of King Alfonso XII, the new monarch's rule has been solidified. But he seeks no retribution on Don Carlos and allows the Carlists to participate in government affairs in a limited way. The new King plans to restore order to Spain after decades of instability and to turn around the decline of the Spanish Empire. Under the new Spanish Constitution enacted this year, the country is a constitutional monarchy. Alfonso XII will allow both Liberal and Catholic conservative factions to hold the premiership in a rotation. Antonio Canovas del Castillo is confirmed as the Prime Minister after the 1876 general election leads to a Conservative victory in both the Senate and Congress of Deputies. With the war over, the King reduces the Ministry of War's budget and begins economic development in Spain. New technologies are used to improve efficiency of agriculture, and the government threatens to seize land from landowners if they do not take measures to improve their farm's output. Credit will be extended to peasants to buy land and equipment by the government on highly favourable terms as well, to provide additional incentive for landowners to improve. Subsidies will be granted to farms that are performing up to the new standards. Industrialisation is promoted as the government plans on building factories in some of the large cities. The Spanish Army is cut down in size, the notoriously large officer corps is reduced with over 10,000 officers retired on full pay. The remaining troops have their pay increased.
  • Emirate of Afghanistan: Sher Ali Khan leads the Emirate, working on establishing himself over the many ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Kabul is picked as the capital. An envoy is sent to Persia to establish trade between the states.
  • United States: "The Union Forever, Hurrah boys, Hurrah!" the United States enters its centennial marking 100 years of Union. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you." Alexander Graham Bell invents and patents the telephone. The first train crosses the continent from New York City to San Francisco. The Centennial Exposition occurs in Philadelphia. The Brooklyn Theater catches fire possibly killing more than 300. In Montana, going by superior firepower bringing along cannons and Gatling guns along with several more battalions to support the cavalry, George Custer wins a battle against Sioux and Cheyenne at Little Big Horn. Shortly before the battle the last major gathering of plains Indians occurs. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published in the States. Colorado is admitted as the 38th state. Rutherford B. Hayes wins the 1876 election. More to come, I'm waiting on a Mexico event from last turn. Colgan, make it happen.
  • Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek: An awful lot of locally based entrepreneurs steadily continue investing in the industry. The massive foreign investments pouring in have greatly strengthened our state over the last years. As a result growth has vastly accelerated into unprecedented levels. Our best estimates place it somewhere near 22% per year for this year. All thanks to very low taxation in general and our state's business friendly enviroment with little to none bureaucracy our nation is steadily turning into a tax heaven. Swiss banking practices are replicated as much as possible in our own banks, seeing Switzerland leading position worldwide in the financial sector. We also strive to improve our financial services and introduce a high level of confidentiality for our customers as well as improve the reputation of our banks as for their safety of our customer deposits. A new act is passed almost unanimously by the Volksraad, the tax system is reformed and the 5% flat tax is instituted nationwide. Another act passed almost unanimously by the Volksraad is of further deregulation, easing up the bureaucratic burden on businesses even more to encourage investments. These two acts are following up on our previous actions to turn our nation as business friendly as possible. Swiss banks are requested to open subsidiaries in our nation. Switzerland is also requested to help us amend our constitution in a way would improve our financial services/sector. [Mod Response] GNew irrigation and farming technics are researched and a request is send on Netherlands as the undisputed leader in this field to share such practices with us, while also Dutch farming corporations are invited to invest in their brotherly nation of ZAR. [Mod Response] A new university is opened in our capital Pretoria  Colonization of South West Africa toward the sea continues unhindered. Another entire kommando (= battalion) is sent to be secure the Dorsland Trekkers route and reinforce the borderline outposts, focusing further on fortification works at them. These brave male and female kommandos are granted the commercial rights of their borderline kommando outposts. Further kommandos are sent along the route to escort Trekkers when requested. Their job is to sell water, food and any other supplies to travelers, patrol their surroundings and enforce the law in these brave new lands. In the way essentially they create small communities as their surroundings are developed by non-kommando personnel settlers, investing in the safety that the borderline outposts provide. Civilization is spreading along that route. An intensive settling of the region from the Okavango swamps all the way to the sea bordering the Portuguese with all of the Dorsland Trekkers choosing to remain and settle in the area, embracing the prospect to exploit the privileges we provide them, while also being able to conduct trade with the Portuguese. Also thousands of Germans choose to settle in the area after encouragement by our ally the German Empire as well as thousands of immigrants from other destinations such as Italians, Russians and Americans. Several other cities pop up along in the area from Okavango swamps all the way to the coasts of South West Africa as the area came to be called. Even though the landescape is rough with a mountain range cutting the interior from the coastline the passages are discovered after extensive exploration of the area and are recorded by the authorities in the area. The coastal city of Krugersberg is founded on the northern coasts nearby Portoguese territory (Interlaying OTL Terrace Bay and Torra Bay towns). A reliable port is being developed aiming to supply all of ZAR's imports by sea. A chapel, a marshal's office, an small military outpost and a court are constructed in this newly founded city. The infrastructure is also developed there. The city of Fransfontein is also founded and developed with similar buildings. Many settlers move into both cities. However, Krugersberg is growing with faster rates than any other city in the area, surpassing almost every other city, with the notable exception of Grootfontein. The city of Grootfontein flourishes and becames a major trade hub in the area as well as an administrational centre, with governmental agencies as well as kommando officials choosing the location as centre of their activities in South West Africa, unofficially becoming the administrational centre of the area. It doesn't come as a surprise the verification of this reality by the central government, with the city of Grootfontein officially designated as the administrational centre of the fast growing South West African colony. The chapel is renovated and extended to become a full grown church to accompany the needs of the city, the marshal's office gets stuffed and cells are constructed in its basement, the fortified small military outpost gets worked on and extended to have the capability to efficiently protect the town from any and all threats and the court as well as the infrastructure are expanded in Grootfontein. Taxation in the South West African colony is temporarily abolished for a ten-year period to give further incentives for more settlers to move in.German military advisors help Comdt-General Kruger in his work of restructurking even further the kommando system, instilling discipline onto the kommandos and training them to use the new Mauser 1871 Infantry Rifles, Saxon M1873 Army revolvers, bayonets and the mobile C64 four pounder and the heavier C67 six pounder Krupp guns. The Homestead Act continues, achieving further success offering any white person, both miners residing in the land and newcomers the opportunity to get their own homestead, a farmstead that they can build their homes on. However, given that South African soil is difficult to cultivate, Boers farmers are given enormous tax breaks shall they assist newcomers and teach them the secrets of their soil, enable them to successfully cultivate their new farmsteads. The state also assists with relocation, providing shelter to reside while the settlers are building their new homes, as well as blankets, food, medical assistance should they require it. Citizenship grant is expedited to be provided along with the homestead grant. More than 15.000 new settlers of all kinds of nationalities such as Germans, Italians, Russians and Americans make Transvaal their home,increasing our populace to 150.000 people according to estimates as no census has taken place yet. With recent investment by the German Railroad companies into our interconnected railroad network project after finishing the construction of the railroad system in Germany, having a large surplus, this cash is poured into speeding up the schedule and starting working on a few more planned lines inside the ZAR and the Orange Free State. Work on the interconnected railroad network project continues. Heavy emphasis is given in the Portugal railroad concession, the Pretoria–Delagoa Bay Line and thanks to the increased budget expected completion and time inauguration drops by two a year to the end of 1876. The interior railroad connections of our nation and the fellow nation of the Orange Free State starts being worked over more intensively expecting to finish its first phase and be inaugurated by the end of 1878, thats means two years sooner than expected. The Southeast Line linking our nation with Durban being worked over more intensively but still more loosely than the other two, is expected to finish and be inaugurated by the end of 1885. The relations continue to improve with the Orange Free State as well as trade between our two brethren nations flourishes. (MORE TO COME, NOT FINALIZED VERSION)
  • Nippon: Industrialization continues as the government bwegins subsidizing private companies investing in the construction of factrories, railroads, and in the ezxtraction of natarul resources. The Mitsui group founds the Mitsjui bank, the first private bank in Japan. The Imperial Bank of Japan is unvieled a few months later. The process of conbverting the Stipends of Samurai into Government bonds is completed, and pay outs are started in the form of annual lotteries, while the option is made to convert these bonds into erpmenent invesments, some unwillingto wait for payouts decide to take this option. The Meiji Oligarchy continues to work out a formal form of government with Okubo and his allies starting bto stray a bit from the pure constitutionalist idea in favour of a semi authoritarian structure similar to Germany's as a means is preserving stability. The pubnlic discord between the constitutional/ists and Saigo continues to grow as Saigo attemopts to establish independent military schools, this alarms the central government. Expansion and modernization of the army continues. Construction of the dry docks. Mining operations in Northern Japan particularly uiron and coal mines recieve new attention as the government and private investors. Electric lines are formally introduced to Tokyo and Osaka, as well as the country's first telegraph lines greatly improving government communications. Japan offers to pay Russia for the concvession of the Kuril islands, and Sakhalin and to discuss better relations between the two countries. 
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