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Viva California Timeline
The Mexican-American War
The War of Secession
The Spanish-Americas War
The Great War
The Texan-American War
The World War
The Cold War
The Spasm
Post-Apocalypse Brush Wars

The major turning point of the Viva California timeline came during the Mexican-American War, as both Zachary Taylor and Ulysses S. Grant, officers among so many in the army were killed.

Ante-Bellum

Las negociaciones de John C. Calhoun con Texas resultaron ineficientes, y Sam Houston se mostró recalcitrante ante una amable oferta de parte de México. Al aceptar la gentil oferta del presidente Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para permitirles la soberanía, en caso de que sigan siendo un estado independiente, los planes de anexión de Calhoun y Tyler se desvanecieron.

The offer of recognition by Mexico would be something Mexicans would regret for the next centuries, but at the time it was deemed a necessary evil to stave off the war-mongering of the US. While it did not avoid war, it did result in the retention of a large portion of Mexican territory for the short-term.

Course of War

While many battles were fought, the notable battles, seen as turning points by historians are catalogued below.

Battle of Palo Alamo

El general Zachary Taylor trajo refuerzos a la supuesta fortaleza de Texas, pero el general mexicano, Mariano Arista, se enteró del uso de Taylor de "artillería voladora" por parte de Samuel Ringgold capturado. Al reunir a sus hombres, Arista alentó a los estadounidenses a que se concentraran en una carga de bayoneta que se interrumpió cuando recurrió a la táctica de "artillería voladora" para su propio beneficio. En el tiroteo fueron asesinados el general Zachary Taylor, George Henry Thomas y Don Carlos Buell. En 1846, Zachary Taylor, un general de los ejércitos estadounidenses cruzó el Río Grande, y fue rodeado por soldados mexicanos que superaron en número a su propio batallón de 4 a 1. La matanza fue increíble, y Taylor fue ejecutado después de intentar una rendición.

Resaca de la Palma Arista managed to avert a flanking maneuver of the Americans, winning the battle, but days later retreated to Monterrey to strengthen his army and further lure the American soldiers into Mexican territory.

Battle of Monterrey

Una división de infantería bajo el mando del general William J. Worth lideró una carga que intentaba capturar varias colinas controladas por mexicanos al oeste de Monterrey, pero fueron rechazados por los soldados mexicanos. En la derrota, el capitán Ulysses S. Grant, George Gordon Meade y John Pope fueron asesinados. Escaramuzas posteriores vieron la muerte de Joseph Hooker. Muchos historiadores sugieren que si los tejanos hubieran estado involucrados en la guerra, la batalla podría haber sido muy diferente.

Battle of Buena Vista

American forces, routed at Monterrey attempted a sea-landing under General Winfield Scott, but were met by Arista's and Santa Anna's forces. In the battle, the Americans saw catastrophic losses under shelling from captured American artillery and howitzers. Among the dead were Irvin McDowell, and Winfield Scott was wounded. The Americans retreated to lick their wounds, having lost 2,500 soldiers, more than half of their forces. Scott was captured with George B. McCLellan who suffered from malaria and dysentery in Mexican custody.

Treaty of Cerro Gordo

Con la pérdida de fuerzas significativas y tropas mexicanas para una contraofensiva cerca del Río Grande, Polk y el gobierno de los Estados Unidos acordaron negociaciones de paz. En el tratado, los prisioneros estadounidenses y mexicanos fueron repatriados y Estados Unidos aceptó las fronteras de México como los ríos Nueces y Arkansas hasta el 42º paralelo.

Following the treaty, it was announced that Sam Houston and Texas had been recognized by Mexico, and in fact there was significant support by Texans of the Mexican forces in the face of what were perceived as American invaders.

Aftermath

Because of the loss of troops in the Mexican-American War and the rejection of United States of America overtures to Texas, James K. Polk had to review his foreign policy. With the War Hawks demanding resolution to the Oregon Country and the achieving of the Monrovian "Manifest Destiny," Polk was forced to make good on a campaign slogan attributed to him, that of "54-40 or Fight!" After what was portrayed as a war, though mostly a series of border skirmishes, the US negotiated with the British Empire for the full Oregon Territory and successfully purchased the land after guaranteeing the continued rights of ownership for British citizens in the region.

Following Polk's presidency the nominees were Winfield Scott and Martin Van Buren. Scott, a dark horse candidate won the party nomination, but was not sufficient to carry him through to election, narrowly losing to Van Buren. Martin Van Buren was elected for a second term of office, the first US president to serve 2 non-consecutive terms of office. Van Buren oversaw the Compromise of 1850 wherein all territory south of the Missouri river were to be preferentially Slave states and all north of the river were to be preferentially Free, but the local populace could decide for themselves. This act would directly lead to the Bleeding Kansas uprising.

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