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|Anthem|| Sarē Jahāṉ toṅ Changā|
ਸਰੇ ਜਹਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਚੰਗਾ (Punjabi)
Better than the rest of the world
|Capital (and largest city)||Lahore|
|Ethnic groups|| 94.5% Punjabi|
|Government type||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Prime Minister||Amrinder Singh Sidhu-Brar|
|Ethnic groups|| 94.5% Punjabi|
|Religions|| 63% Sikh|
|Established|| 1621 as the Sikh Confederacy|
1799 as the Sikh Empire
1931 as the Union of Kisani Socialist Republics
1980 as the Republic of Punjab
The territory that now constitutes the Punjab was previously home to several ancient cultures, one being the Indus Valley Civilisation, due to this the Punjab is seen as one of the cradles of civilisations. After the disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilisation came the emergence of the Indo-Aryans whom become the natives of the land. It then later home to kingdoms of various different ethnicites, including the Persians, Ancient Greeks of Alexander of Macedonia, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Arabs, various Turkic peoples, Mongols, Pashtuns.
The name of the nation is a compound of two Persian words, Panj (پنج), meaning five and Aab (اب), meaning water. The name refers to the five tributaries of the Indus River, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.
Historu after POD
The British and the Sikhs
TO BE WORKED ON
The first Anglo-Sikh Treaty was signed in 1806 after Maratha Maharajah Yashwantrao Holkar's crossed over into the Punjab in 1805 after he was defeated at Fateh garh and Dig in December 1804 by the British. Accompanied by his Rohilla ally, Amir Khan, and a Maratha force estimated at 15,000. Holkar arrived at Patiala (Raj Karega Khalsa|Patiala]], but on hearing the news that the British general, Lake, was in hot pursuit, both the refugees fled northward, entered the Jalandhar Doab, and ultimately reached Amritsar. Ranjit Singh, then camping near Multan, hastened to Amritsar to meet Holkar. He was hospitable and sympathetic toward the Maratha chief, but was shrewd enough not to espouse a forlorn cause and come into conflict with the British, especially when he was far from securely established on the throne.
Through diplomatic negotiation, he brought about reconciliation between Holkar and the British commander-in-chief. A treaty of friendship and amity was entered into by Ranjit Singh along with Fateh Singh Ahluwalia of Kapurthala with the East India Company on 1 January 1806 whereby it was agreed that. as long as these Sikh chiefs had no friendly connections with enemies of the British or committed no act of hostility, the British armies would never enter into the territories of the said chieftains, nor would the British government form any plan for the seizure or sequestration of their possession or property. The Anglo Sikh treaty of 1806 brought the Sikh chief into direct contact with the British government. Ranjit Singh`s reluctance to precipitate a clash with the British saved the infant State of Lahore from being overrun by Lake's armies. The Maharaja not only kept the Punjab from becoming a theatre of war between two foreign armies, but also saved the Maratha chief from utter ruin and had his territories beyond Delhi restored to him.
The Anglo-Sikh Treaty of 1809 followed after Napoleon`s victories in Europe had alarmed the British, who, fearing a French attack on the country through Afghanistan, decided to win the Sikhs over to their side and sent a young officer, Charles Theophilus Met caife, to Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s court with an offer of friendship. Metcaife met the Maharaja in his camp at Khem Karan, near Kasur, on 12 September 1808, taking with him a large number of presents sent by the Governor General of India. He told him how the English wished to have friendly relations with him and presented to him the draft of a treaty. Ranjit Singh did not credit the theory that the British had made the proposal to him because of the danger from Napoleon. On the other hand, he showed his willingness to cooperate with the British, provided the latter recognized his claim of paramountcy over all the Majha and Malva Sikhs. He suspected that the real object of the British was to put a seal on his southern boundary and draw a permanent line between his dominions and their own. He rejected Metcaife`s terms and made his own, seeking the British to recognize his authority over the Sikh country to the south of the Sutlej. Metcaife expressed his inability to make any changes in the draft of the treaty he had brought, but offered to forward Ranjit Singh`s proposal to the Governor General. Ranjit Singh suddenly struck camp and crossed the Sutlej. Metcaife followed him from place to place, without being able to secure another interview with him for any serious discussions. Ranjit Singh overran the territory on the left bank of the river, thus shrewdly imposing on his English guest the role of a witness to his cis Sutlej acquisitions. Ranjit Singh`s bold and skillful policy would have borne fruit, had not the situation in Europe changed.As the danger of Napoleon`s attack lessened, the British became arrogant in their attitude. On his return to Lahore, Ranjit Singh received a message from the Governor General that the British had taken the Sikh chiefs south of the Sutlej under their protection. The British sent a force under the command of Colonel David Ochterlony who, passing through Buria and Patiala, came very close to the Sutlej and stationed himself at Ludhiana. Ranjit Singh also started making warlike preparations. Diwan Mohkam Chand was asked to proceed with the troops and artillery from Kangra to Phillaur, on the Sutlej. The guns were mounted on the Fort of Gobindgarh in Amritsar and powder and supplies laid in. The chiefs and nobles were asked to keep their soldiers in readiness. A large body of troops gathered in Lahore in a few days' time. Meanwhile, Metcaife, who had followed Ranjit Singh to Lahore, presented a new treaty which was based on terms first offered by the British and the proposal made by Ranjit Singh. The treaty in this form was acceptable to the Sikh ruler. Although it stopped him from extending his influence beyond the Sutlej, he was left master of the territories, south of the river, which were in his possession before Metcaife's visit.The treaty was signed at Amritsar on 25 April 1809. It provided that the British government would count the Lahore Darbar among the most honourable powers and would in no way interfere with the Sikh ruler`s dominions to the north of the Sutlej. Both governments pledged friendship to each other. Ranjit Singh appointed Bakhshi Nand Singh Bhandari to stay at Ludhiana as his agent with the English. The English sent Khushwaqt Rai to Lahore as their representative at the Sikh court.Although the treaty of 1809 halted Ranjit Singh`s ambitions at the Sutlej and prevented the unification of the Majha and Malva Sikhs into a new commonwealth of the Khalsa, it gave the Sikh sovereign one clear advantage. Security on the southern frontier allowed him freely to consolidate his power in the Punjab, evolve a centralized system of government, build up a powerful army, and pursue unhampered his conquests in the north, northwest and southwest.
By the 1840s, Punjab was the only Indian state not be under European rule, and another treaty was signed with the British to not invade and annex Sindh, to the south of the Punjab, which acted as a buffer state between the Sikhs and the British, in a move which even many British regarded as cynical and ignoble the British later annexed Sindh in 1943. This did not gain the British any respect in the Punjab, and increased suspicions of British motives. Despite this, the Sikhs did not attack the British until Indian Rebellion in 1857 when the Sikhs aided the rebel forces to successfully remove British presence from India.
Communist Revolution and Khalistani Union of Communist States
Republic of Punjab
The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the Hot Season, from about mid April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49˚C (120˚F). The Monsoon Season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the Winter Season, when the temperature in January falls to 5˚C (41˚F) at night and 12˚C (54˚F) by day. During the transitional period from Winter to the Hot Season sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.
The Punjab is a secular nation. Since the emergence of the Indo-Aryans, Hinduism was always been present, not only in the current territory of the nation, but also in all of India. It was main religion of the Punjab, until the rise of Buddhism, which was cemented as the main religion of India Mauryan emperor Ashoka after his conversion to the religion. After the fall of the Mauryas, the emperors of empires that would fill its void in the Punjab, such as the Indo-Greeks and Indo-Scythians would also be Buddhist. However, various factors would lead to the decline of Buddhism, which would coincide with resurrection of Hinduism as the main religion of the region. One of the these factors would be the Muslim conquests of India, mainly carried out by Turkic peoples..... TBC
The first religions of Punjab were and . Buddhism declined after the death of Buddhist king , leaving Hinduism as the dominant religion of the region. In the 8th century Islam arrived and after centuries of Islamic rule gradually replaced Hinduism as the predominant religion. The majority of Muslims within the country are Sunni, whom mostly fall into the Sufi school due the large number of influential Sufi saints in the history of Punjab, however there is a large population of Shias. Sikhism was founded in Punjab in the 14th century by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Atheism also has strong presence in Punjab due the communist era.
The current religious demographics are, Sikhism 63%, Islam 29%, Hinduism 4%, Christianity 1%, Buddhism 1%, the 2% either don't identify themselves with a religion or follow another religion.
|Religious group||Percentage of the population||Population|
|Other or Freethinker||2%||931,320|
Kabaddi is the national sport of Punjab. It is a wrestling sport hailing from South Asia, and is also popular in the countries of Bengal, and Dravida. Seeing as Punjab was far more dominant in world affairs in this ATL, Kabaddi is a very popular sport in the world, being exposed internationally much quicker than in the OTL, and it's rules were also standardised much quicker. Punjab have been very dominant in the sport, winning every Kabaddi World Cup.
Introduced by the British trade, Association football is also very popular in Punjab, with the national team being very strong, winning the 2010, 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cup. Punjab's premier domestic football league Punjabi Pahili Liga is a very popular and respected league in world football. The current Ballon D'or holder is Punjab's Harmeet Singh.
Field hockey, also introduced by British trade, is another very popular sport. Punjab was a very dominant team in hockey, winning the inaugural 1971 Hockey World Cup, and the 1978, 1982 and 1994 World Cups. They also won the first three ASHF Asia Cups in 1982, 1985 and 1989. Despite all this success, their national team has been struggling in recent times.