- 1 Background
- 2 American Civil War: 1861-1863
- 3 German Wars of Unification: 1861, 1866, 1870-1871
- 4 Italian War of Unification: 1866-1868
- 5 Finnish War of Succession: 1868-1871
- 6 Treaty of Rome
The war in the United States goes back decades to the founding of the country, and in 1794 when Eli Witney's cotton gin created a new boom for the slave trade. Many people had begun to question the morality of slavery, and the Abolitionist movement had made many political gains in recent years, but slavery still existed and expanded. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Compromise of 1850, and the Missouri Compromise all only stalled on the issue, until eventually came the election of 1860. The two main candidates, the Stephen Douglas of the Democratic Party, and candidate for the new Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln. Many southern states threatened succession if Lincoln was elected, but that didn't stop nearly every Northern state from voting for him. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina succeeded from the Union, and the Confederate States of America were formed on February 4, 1861, including South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. And on April 12, 1861, with the attack on Fort Sumter, the American Civil War began.
Meanwhile, the main political force in Europe occurred in 1848, when a series of revolutions swept throughout Europe, minus the Byzantine Empire, not ready for such conflict after its Civil War. People in France demanded the fall of the Ancien Regime and the creation of a French Republic. Protesters in Germany demanded national unity and freedom of the press. Multiple ethnic groups in Austria rose up because they felt they weren't being very well represented. Serfs rose up in Russia, and demanded political freedoms, including being able to earn enough money to free themselves. Protesters in Italy demanded national unity of their own, but many Italian leaders knew that this would certainly lead to war with the Byzantines. As the Revolutions of 1848 dragged on, politics in Europe began to change, when the dust settled, nationalism had become the driving force in European politics.
The Kingdom of France had collapsed and been replaced with the French Republic, Russia freed its serfs in 1861, and the Italians began thinking about the process of unification. But now that the Italians had set their goal, they knew one last thing was needed for their own unification an army, and an ally. Meanwhile, people in Finland, an area ruled by Sweden began questioning their master's rule, and began looking for their own way to unify and be independent.
American Civil War: 1861-1863
After the Confederate Army fired upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, all succeeded from the Union, and Abraham Lincoln ordered 75,000 volunteers to march into the Confederate States and quell the rebellion. Robert E. Lee was given a general's commission on both sides, but after weighing up his options, he knew the Union was going to be the likely victor in the war. Lee was promoted to Lieutenant General, and was given two main subservant officers, Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant and Brigadier General Sherman. Robert E. Lee's plan was to himself command the Army of the Potomac, and capture his home state, Virginia, ans North and South Carolina. Grant would command the Army of the Tennessee and take Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. And Sherman would command the Army of the Mississippi. But Lee's plan did not work out in one way, the Confederates became the first to go on the offensive.
P.G.T. Beauregard, Lieutenant General of the Confederate Army, planned to launch a campaign of offense, but knew first he would have to be defensive. Lee lead his army south into northern Virginia, where he launched a campaign to tale Richmond early in the war, and be able to restore his home state to order. However, due to poor logistics and lightly-trained troops, his campaign culminated with the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, where Beauregard stalled Lee's advance, and ultimately pushed Lee into Maryland to begin the Maryland Campaign.
By late 1861, Lee had been pushed out of Virginia, and back into Maryland, and the two armies finally engaged each other on March 12 at Harper's Ferry, where Confederate general Stonewall Jackson won a major victory, and forced Lee to retreat slightly east. But Lee did have one advantage, the Confederates believed Maryland was being forced to stay in the Union, and that Maryland would join the CSA if they were given the choice, and that the natives would supply them with food and ammunition. This proved a fatal mistake as the Confederates had little supply lines, and most Marylanders didn't want to help them. But finally at the Battle of South Mountain on March 24, Lee won his first major victory of the war, but only lightly pushed the Confederates back. Finally, on March 27, Lee was given his ultimate chance for victory near Sharpsburg, Maryland, at Antietam Creek.
At the battle, Union forces under Brigadier General Ambrose Burnside attacked across the southern bridge on the creek, where he met heavy Confederate defenses and sharpshooters under General James Longstreet, but when Burnside called in artillery fire on the Confederate positions, Longstreet retreated, and Burnside marched to assist Brigadier General Andrew Porter in attacking the Confederate center. Meanwhile, Lee himself marched multiple regiments to Stonewall Jackson's position around northern Sharpsburg. When Union forces finally broke through in the center, they had breached deeply into Confederate lines, and forces Beauregard to retreat, while Stonewall Jackson continued fighting, until he nearly was surrounded, and eventually he fled east. Lee had successfully defended Maryland, but the eastern portion still lay in Confederate hands, which soon proved to be a major pain in Lee's backside when in June of 1862, Beauregard, with his army replenished, march in Pennsylvania.
Beauregard launched his new campaign with well over a 100,000 troops, and Lee, with his army replenished from the Maryland Campaign, marched to stop him. General Jeb Stuart had failed previously to take DC amidst the Maryland Campaign, but now found himself advancing again into eastern Pennsylvania. By June 28, the Confederates had captured Chambersville and Carlisle, and now moved to capture the town of Gettysburg, a major railroad junction that would heavily decrease the number of Union troops being transported into the area if capture. The Confederates attacked Gettysburg on July 1, 1862, and ended up capturing most of the town, but the Union forces under Lee, hadn't been entirely defeated and formed up around Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, and Little Round Top. The Confederates attempted to attack in the front of the Union lines, ultimately culminating in Pickett's Charge on July 2, which ended in disaster for the Confederates. Meanwhile, Jeb Staurt trailed his cavalry south to flank the enemy from behind, but was met by a Union Brigadier General, George Armstrong Custer. Custer's cavalry regiment engaged Jeb Stuart, and when James Longstreet launched his final offensive on July, 3, he found a strong enemy, and the day ended with a Union counterattack and a Confederate retreat.
Lee chased the Confederates out of Pennsylvania and Maryland for 3 months until he finally entered Virginia again in October 1862, he they began marching to capture Richmond. The Confederates were fighting a losing war, and ultimately, on March 15, 1863, one week after the capture of Richmond, Lee received the surrender of P.G.T. Beauregard at Appomatax Courthouse, and began marching south to occupt North and South Carolina. The two states offered little resistance to Lee's army, and Lee captured Charleston on April 9, 1863, officially ending the American Civil War.
Grant marched his army down the Mississippi River into western Tennessee in June 1861 and made his first major engagement at Fort Henry, where 4,000 Confederate soldiers lost their fort in just one day to 15,000 Union soldiers and 7 ships. Then Grant marched his army, now numbering at 65,000, to Hardin County, Tennessee, where 45,000 Confederates under General Albert Sidney Johnston, there the Confederates march forward against the Union lines, but were met with a fierce resistance. The Union Army counterattacked and surrounded and outflanked the Confederates, who retreated south to Corinth. Finally, on June 29, 120,000 Union troops met 65,000 Confederates under Johnston were defeated, Johnston was killed and nearly 23,000 Confederates were killed, the rest captured.
Grant now had a huge advantage, and he took full use of it when he captured Memphis without firing a shot. He then marched south to meet up with Major General Nathaniel Banks who had already captured New Orleans and much of Louisiana. Now the two "snakes," as they were called, met up at the town of Vicksburg, which was heavily defended by Lieutenant General John Pemberton. Originally, only 35,000 Confederates defended the town, where Confederate forces were then reinforced to 70,000 soldiers. Now the Union forces moved from the south and the north, but couldn't dislodge the Confederates. Meanwhile they attacked by land, Banks moved 14,000 soldiers up by the Mississippi River, who attacked behind the Confederate defenses, and eventually forced the Confederates to surrender.
Grant now finished up his mopping-up operations in Mississippi and Louisiana, and by April 1863, no Confederate resistance remained in the area conquered by Grant.
Sherman had a more difficult campaign to run, he had to face Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky. Bragg invaded Kentucky in September of 1861, where Bragg faced limited success. His efforts faced ultimated defeat, however, at the Battle of Perryville on October 8, Bragg was defeated by Sherman's Army of the Tennessee, and forced Bragg to retreat to the Cumberland River. There at the Battle of Mill Springs, Union artillery and riverboats fired on Confederate forces in Mill Springs, which was followed by a river crossing ending in the capture of the town, and Bragg's final defeat in Tennessee. Union forces under Sherman now had to take down the Confederate army on their home turf, in Tennessee.
Sherman marched south against Nashville, where he confronted 30,000 Confederates under Lieutenant General John Bell Hood. A quick Union push forced the Confederates south out of Nashville, and into the railroads around the city. Union forces under George H. Thomas attacked the center left of Confederate forces, while James Wilson launched a deep blow behind the Confederate lines, while more Union forces pushed against Hood's center and right. Hood retreated south to Murfreesboro, where Sherman pursued him, and eventually, even Murfreesboro was captured, along with Hood himself.
With Tennessee taken, Sherman marched southeast into Georgia, and as he advanced he employed a strategy of total war to destroy the Confederacy's ability to make war. On July 22, 1862, Sherman reached the outskirts of Atlanta with 100,000 troops, and found a city almost entirely turned into a fortress. Sherman decided there was only one way to defeat this "fortress city," burn it. Sherman's forces engaged the city's defenses, and now began to open cannon fire on the city on July 24 with explosive shells. But on July 25, one of the shells blew up in the wrong place at the wrong time, and blew up a munitions dump, where an explosion lead to a fire, destroying 25% of the Confederate defenses, and 40% of the city. Union forces captured a city in flames and now had one last mission, to take Savannah, Georgia through a total war march to the sea.
Sherman March to the Sea began on November 22, 1862, with an army of 120,000 soldiers. However, he was met at every point by diehard Confederate armies, but regardless of their efforts, Savannah fell on December 21, 1862. Sherman now spent the rest of the war occupying Alabama and Georgia, but will forever be known for his infamous "March to the Sea."
German Wars of Unification: 1861, 1866, 1870-1871
The German War of Unification began as a direct result of the German Revolution of 1848, and with the ideas of Prussian Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. And after the failed First Schleiswig War in 1849 and a failed attempt at German unity, but the main problem was that that German Empire was only partially-unified. Bismarck knew the only way Germany would be a major world power would be to unite completely. First the Prussians would have to go to war with Denmark and Austria, as the heavily German-populated Schleswig-Holstein portion of Denmark and Austria still had political ties in Austria. The German Confederation assembly, the Federal Assembly, agreed to the war in a 43-2 vote, and all willing would participate. The Germans gathered 60,000 marched to form the 15th German Army, and now they moved to take Schleswig-Holstein. The German Army pushed hard into the Danish lines, and ended up routing the Danes within ours.
Second Schleiswig War
But as the German campaigned into Schleswig-Holstein, they wondered why they had encountered almost no Danish resistance, but when they reached Flensburg, they found their answer. The Danes had retreated back up into Flensburg, and turned it into a fortress defended by 23,000 soldiers. Danish guns fired upon the Germans marching towards their defenses in the town, bringing on heavy casualties. About 13,000 Germans died before the defenses were broken and Flensburg was taken, and the Germans, reinforced with 20,000 soldiers marched to Arhus, a city they were sure would end the war if captured.
The Battle of Arhus occurred on October 30 when Prussian forces attacked the city's outskirts, meanwhile, the Swedish Navy, which had been employed by Prussia to do so, attacked the city's port. Several attempts by the Danes in the city to break out failed, and the city surrendered on November 14, 1861, and now Prussia turned its focus to fighting Austria.
The Prussians had mastered a method of transportation called "march divided, fight united" where they would move troops through their developed railroad system then fight against the enemy as a united army, which they first employed upon declaring war in 1866. The Prussians and their German allies had gathered up 500,000 soldiers to fight the Austrians 600,000, which also included their own German allies. The Austrians first engaged the Prussians at Nachod on June 27, 1866, along the Austro-Prussian border, where a Prussian corps defeated an Austrians corps, paving the way for the main Prussian army to advance into Bohemia. The same day, further east, the Prussian I Corps along with their cavalry reserves, defeated the Austrian X Corps at Trutnov, leading to a quick Prussian advance into Bohemia.
Meanwhile, Prussian forces at Langensalza defeated 19,000 Bavarians, crushing the Bavarian army, who no longer fought the Prussians for the rest of the war.
At Mnichovo, just one day after Nachod and Trutnov, the Prussians crushed the Austrians at Munchengratz, and the same occured the next day at Gitschin. Eventually, on July 3, 1866, the Prussians engaged the Austrians at Koniggratz, where counterattacking Austrians where defeated at two points from Koniggratz, eventually ending in a decisive Prussian victory. Now with Austria's army defeated, they returned home to fight a new war in Italy and against the Byzantines.
France was the only power standing in the way of German unification, France in 1852 had been overrun in a coup d'etat by Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, Napoleon Bonaparte III, and had been turned into the French Empire, and once again exited from the Byzantium Pact. If France could be defeated and restored to a republican government, the new Germany could win much favor with the Byzantine Empire as France had allied itself with Austria, and at the time Austria was involved in a war in support of Italian unification. And, worst of all, Napoleon III had allied his country with Russia, a deep Byzantine enemy.
The Prussians marched easily through Alsace-Lorraine, where they fought many minor engagements against the French, but none as fierce as Mars-la-Tour. At Mars-la-Tour on August 16, 1870, 80,000 Prussians engaged 127,000 French soldiers, the Prussians suffered heavy casualties, including the loss of the 12th Cavalry Brigade in "von Bredow" Death Ride. Put the Prussians had pushed France out of the region by October with the Battle of Mars-la-Tour and the Siege of Metz, and now began to march to cut off the French army at Sedan.
On September 1, 1870, Napoleon III personally lead a 120,000-man French army against the Prussians and Bavarians at Sedan. The Prussians had surrounded the army at Sedan but the French continued to attempt to breakout, and attempted to break out at their flank at La Moncelle. French reinforcements came from the south and west, and engaged the Prussians in the early morning, but they were also unable to defeat them. Artillery was also called up, and Prussians soldiers were fired upon from higher ground, but was soon dislodged by Prussian cavalry and replaced by the Prussian artillery to fire on the town. Finally, at around 11:00 AM, the Prussians had destroyed the French with artillery, and their infantry continued to grow in numbers as more and more trains arrived outside Sedan with troops, the French surrendered, along with Napoleon III. The French Empire collapsed following the defeat at Sedan, and now the Prussians marched west towards their ultimate target, Paris.
The Siege of Paris began on September 19, 1870, when the city was surrounded by 20,000 Prussians soldiers, which soon grew to 240,000. Paris was defended by 200,000 regular soldiers, and by 200,000 militia soldiers, and held out until January 28, 1871. But by the time Paris had surrendered, they were no longer fighting Prussia, they were fighting the new and great German Empire. Wilhelm I had declared the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at the Versailles Palace south of Paris on January 18, 1871.
Italian War of Unification: 1866-1868
War in Venetia
In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia, with support from Austria and Russia, declared war on the Byzantine Empire. On June 24, 1866, at the fields of Custoza, the United Army of Italy, as it became known, 75,000 Byzantines defeated 120,000 Italians, but a majority of the Italian army escaped the Byzantines. Resulting in the Battle of Bezzecca, where 40,000 Italians defeated 20,000 Byzantines who had been sent to pursue their army, allowing for the Italians to launch a counteroffensive. At the Battle of Belluno, where 100,000 Italians defeated the Byzantine army, opening the war for the Italians to conquer the rest of Venetia. The Russians and Austrians now poured in support for the Italians, and within weeks, 700,000 Russians and Polish troops had marched into Italy to combat the 500,000 Byzantines who had been sent to fight the new Kingdom of Italy.
The first major fighting between these two rival armies was at Udine, where a massive Russian and Austrian infantry force charged at the Byzantine lines, only to be fighting a new weapon, the Gatling gun. The new weapons had been produced by the Byzantines since their design arrived from the US in 1864, and at the Battle of Udine, 200 Gatling guns shot straight into the Russians and Austrians. Of the 50,000 soldiers that charged the Byzantine lines, only about 30,000 were able to return to their lines after a retreat. With the Austrians and Russians stemied for the moment, the Byzantines began moving counter the Italians as they advanced against the Byzantine province, Neapiolis.
War in Byzantine Naples
Although the Russians and Austrians had been defeated in the north, the Byzantines had their hands full with the Italians in Neapiolis. Rome had been captured in early 1867, and now the Italian Army was on a roll, as the marched into Byzantine territory. 120,000 Byzantines had been called up in the province to defeat the Italian Army, now numbering at around 150,000 soldiers, and won multiple small skirmishes with them. But every time the Byzantines won, the Italians also came back with more men and more spirit. Italian nationalism had inspired these men to fight, and their spirit for independence and unity would not be quelled.
The two sides finally met in full force at Benevento, where 40,000 Italians defeated 35,000 Byzantines, and were able to press deep into the Byzantine province. The two sides spent almost a year fighting each other, with the Italians winning victory after victory, and finally on July 21, 1868, the Italians and Byzantines fought at the fields of Cosenza, where the Italians were able to charge against the Byzantine's front line, causing the distraught and low-moralled Byzantines to retreat, and when their cavalry charged the Italian right, the Byzantines retreated back to their homeland. The Emperor accepted Emmanuel II offer for peace, and the two sides met at Rome in 1868.
Finnish War of Succession: 1868-1871
The Finnish War of Succession began in 1868 when Finnish guerrillas captured the town of Oulu and a Swedish army of 25,000 was sent to crush their rebellion. The Finnish guerrillas, part of the Finnish nationalist group, Finnish National Front, asked for assistance from the Russian Empire, who brought in troops from Italy to help in their fight for independence. Sweden and Russia had established a rivalry ever since Denmark-Norway had lost its eminence in the North Sea and the two countries began to vie for the master of the north. The Russian Empire sent an army of 125,000 to support the Fins.
The Fins captured multiple small towns all along the north coast, including Pietarsarri and Vaasa, but their forces began collapsing as the Swedish Army marched to defeat them. But when Russian soldiers began appearing to defend the Finns, the Swedes decided meet the enemy army in full force.
A Swedish army of 150,000 entered Finland in March of 1869, and soon began to push the Russians and Finns back and deep into the country. By the beginning of 1871, a majority of the country lay in Swedish hands, but the Finns were stubborn, and continued to put up a fight.
On July 19, 1871, 125,000 Swedes met 200,000 Russians and Finns at Tampere in central Finland, where spirited Finnish soldiers proved the decisive force in a major victory for the Russians and Swedes. The Swedes began to fall back and continued to retreat until they reached the Swedish border, and when Russian soldiers began pushing into Sweden itself, Sweden decided to sue for peace. Once again nationalism had lead to the defeat of an established member of the Byzantium Pact, and ended Sweden's reign as master of the north.
Treaty of Rome
The following terms were agreed upon for the Treaty of Rome, signed on March 3, 1872, by all signatory parties:
- The following nations shall be recognized by the signers: the Kingdom of Italy, the German Empire, the Second French Republic, and the Republic of Finland
- Alsaice-Lorraine, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Frankfurt, Hesse, Nassau, and the Triste Strip shall be transferred to the German Empire
- Venetia, Neapiolis, Sicily, and Libya shall be transferred to the Kingdom of Italy
- 5 billion francs will be paid to the German Empire by the Second French Republic
The war had ended in disaster for the Byzantines, forced to give up three provinces to the Italians, two of which they didn't even fight on, but Emmanuel II demanded for Italy's new "empire." France soon rejoined the Byzantium Pact, but the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, is appointed Chairman of the Byzantium Pact, a position that has almost always been held by a Frenchman. Even though a majority of the Byzantium Pact had lost, the rivalries created in this war would change history for the next century.