1990

January

  • 20–24 January
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – At the 14th (Extraordinary) Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the party voted in favour of introducing a multi-party system. The first free multi-party elections at federal and republic level were announced for 8 and 9 June the same year.
The proposals by the Slovenian delegation led by Milan Kučan, which would increase the confederation of both party and state, was adopted through a majority vote (with delegates from Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Macedonia voting in favor). The federal government would retained exclusive jurisdiction over foreign affairs, federal defense, federal economy and reserves, and national resources and held joint jurisdiction in a number of other matters, while each republic would have extensive self-determination and control over internal and financial matters, including the right to secession.

February

  • 11 February
    • Czechoslovakia Belgrade, Yugoslavia – Yugoslav Foreign Minister Budimir Lončar formally sends and offer to Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Karel Schwarzenberg and the Czechoslovak government to advise on the Yugoslav transition from a Communist one-party system to a multi-party political system and act as observers for the upcoming elections.
The Czechoslovak government agreed to the request three days later and will over the following weeks coordinate with the European Communities (EC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and neighbouring Austria and Italy.

March

April

May

June

  • 8–9 June
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – The first free multi-party elections were held in Yugoslavia at federal level alongside elections for the parliaments of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Voter turnout was 96.2%.
At the federal level, the Democratic Union of Yugoslavia (SDJ) led by Prime Minister Ante Marković emerged as the largest bloc, with majorities in both the Federal Chamber a Chamber of Republics and Provinces – something that no Yugoslav party or alliance had previously achieved in a free election. In total the SDJ won 46.6% of the votes and 181 seats out of 350. The League of Communists came in second with 43.1% of the votes and 152 seats. Marković thus renewed his mandate to govern.
In Serbia, the League of Communists (SKS) won the election with 46.09% of the votes and 127 of 250 seats. The Democratic Union of Serbia (SDS) received 25.79% of the votes while the nationalist Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) came in third with 15.79% and seats. Various smaller parties such as the Democratic Fellowship of Vojvodina Hungarians (DVZM, 2.64% and 7 seats), Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (SDA, 1.67% and 4 seats), the Peasants Party of Serbia (SSS), also managed to gain represenation. Dragiša Pavlović of the SKS was appointed prime minister.
In Croatia, though the League of Communists of Croatia – Party of Democratic Reform (SKH-SDP) was widely expected to win the election, the election resulted in a narrow victory for the Croatian Democratic Union (HDS) led by Stjepan Mesić. The HDS won 41.50% of the votes and 148 of 356 seats, while the SKH-SDP came in second with 39.70% and 141 seats. The Coalition of People's Accord came in second with 10.99% of the votes. Mesić was appointed the prime minister by the new parliament.
In Slovenia, a five-party coalition comprising the Slovenian Democratic Union (SDZ), the Liberal Democrats (LDS), the Slovenian Peasant Union (SKZ), the Christian Democrats (SKD) and the Greens (ZS), won 58.4‬% of the votes and 50‬ of 80 seats. Despite their attempts to court popularity, the Communists (ZKS) only won 30.1% and 25 seats. Lojze Peterle of the SDZ was tasked with forming a government.
In Bosnia and Hercegovina, the election was virtually a census. The Democratic Union of Bosnia and Hercegovina (SDBiH) won 32.66% of the vote and 42 seats. The Muslim Bosniak Party of Democratic Action (SDA) won 23.15% and 30 seats, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) won 18.23% and 24 seats and the Croatian Democratic Party (HDS) won 12.35% and 16 seats. The League of Communists won 11.76% and 15 seats. A coalition government was formed in which the SDBiH and all three ethnically-based parties were represented and the Muslim Alija Izetbegović became prime minister.
In Macedonia, the League of Communists of Macedonia (SKM) emerged as the largest party with 29.9% of the votes and 38 of 120 seats. The Democratic Union of Macedonia came in second with 27.7% of the votes and 31 seats. The nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) won 16.1% of the votes and 17 seats, while the Liberal Party of Macedonia got 13.3% and 11 seats. The election result made it difficult to form a government, and eventually a technocratic government was formed headed by Kiro Gligorov of the SKM.
In Montenegro, the League of Communists of Montenegro (SKCG) 56.29% of the votes and 83 seats. The Democratic Union of Montenegro (SDCG) headed by Ljubiša Stanković came in second with 24.54% and 29 seats while the People's Party came in third with 13.31% of the votes and 13 seats. Momir Bulatović of the SKCG was elected prime minister.

July

August

September

October

November

  • 3-4 November
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – At the 15th (Extraordinary) Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the party voted in favour of renaming the party to League of Socialists of Yugoslavia (SSJ). The party also announced it would rework the party platform to take the party into a more social democratic direction.

December

1991

January

  • 1 January
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – A drafting committee started work on the New Union Treaty (Russian: Новый союзный договор, romanized: Novyy soyuznyy dogovor). The treaty would replace the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus would have reform the Soviet Union into a new entity named the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics. Six of the fifteen Soviet republics did not participate in the drafting of the treaty: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Georgia and Armenia.
  • 17 January
    • United NationsUnited States Persian GulfGulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq. The U.S.-led UN coalition would until 23 February fly over 100,000 sorties, dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure.

February

The purpose of the Visegrád Group was to promote close cooperation between the three Central European countries on military, cultural, economic, political and energy matters. Czechoslovakia would also assist Poland and Hungary in their transition from Communist regimes to free, pluralist and democratic societies.
Visegrád was chosen as the location for the 1991 meeting as an intentional allusion to the medieval Congress of Visegrád in 1335 between John I of Bohemia, Charles I of Hungary and Casimir III of Poland.
  • 22 February
    • United NationsSoviet Union Baghdad, Iraq – Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council. The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces.
  • 24 February
    • United NationsUnited States Kuwait and IraqGulf War: The ground campaign of Operation Desert Storm is initiated as British, French and American armored forces crossed the Iraq–Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers. These forces are eventually followed by other coalition forces.
  • 27 February
    • United NationsUnited States Baghdad, Iraq – On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat.
The coalition's advance was much swifter than theys had expected. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within 240 km of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • 28 February
    • United NationsUnited States Washington, D.C., United StatesGulf War: One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, President George H.W. Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated. Kuwait is liberated from Iraqi occupation. While the Iraqi Army suffered 20,000-35,000 casualties and 150,000 captured, coalition casualties are light (1,155 killed and wounded).

March

  • 6 March
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The New Union proposal was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and sent to the Supreme Soviets of each republic for approval. Agreement could not be reached on the distribution of power between the Union and the Republics and the proposal was not approved. As an additional restrictive element, some autonomous republics expressed the desire to raise their status and to be a party to the new Soviet treaty.
  • 17 March
    • Soviet Union Soviet Union – In a popular referendum was held in nine of the Soviet republics (Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Turkmenia, and Tajikistan), 77.8% of the population voted in favour of maintaining the federal system of the Soviet Union, including a majority in all of the nine republics. The vote was boycotted by the authorities in Armenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia (though not the breakaway province of Abkhazia and in South Ossetia), and Moldova (though not Transnistria or Gagauzia), turnout was 80% across the rest of the Soviet Union.

April

  • 23 April
    • Soviet Union Novo-Ogaryovo, Soviet Union – An agreement between the Soviet central government and the nine republics, the so-called "9+1" agreement, was signed in Novo-Ogaryovo. The New Union Treaty would have converted the Soviet Union into a federation of independent republics with a common president, foreign policy, and military.

June

  • 27 June
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – The Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR adopted a resolution on postponing the discussion of the draft for the New Union Treaty to September of the same year. The reason for the postponement was to consider the draft's compliance with the provisions and principles in the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.


August

  • 20 August
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Russian SFSR, the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR signed the in a ceremony in Moscow. Besides Gorbachev, the treaty was signed by Boris Yeltsin (President of the RSFSR), Nursultan Nazarbayev (President of the Kazakh SSR) and Islam Karimov (President of the Uzbek SSR). Subsequently the Union Treaty of 1922 became null and void and established a new state known as the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (Russian: Союз Советских Суверенных Республик, romanized: Soyuz Sovetskikh Suverennykh Respublik).
The agreement also promised the drafting of a new constitution and elections six no later than six months after the conclusion of the treaty or the formation of the Supreme Council of the Union. The Constitution of the Union was to enter into force after approval by all the states that formed the Union.
    • EstoniaSoviet Union Tallinn, Estonia – At 11:02 PM, during a live broadcast carried out by Estonian Television, the Estonian Supreme Soviet voted on the declaration of its Restoration of Independence, whose judicial foundation stemmed back to the statehood that existed from 1918 to the occupation in 1944.
  • 21 August
    • LatviaSoviet Union Riga, Latvia – Latvia declared that the transition period to full independence declared on 4 May 1990 had come to an end. Therefore, Latvia was proclaimed a fully independent nation whose judicial foundation stemmed back to the statehood that existed before the occupation in 1944.
  • 27 August
    • Soviet Union Chișinău, Moldavian SSR – The Supreme Soviet of Moldova declared the independence of Moldova from the Soviet Union.
Gagauzia and Transnistria, which had declared their independence from the Moldavian SSR on 19 August 1990 and 2 September 1990 respectively, opposed the move and subsequently announced their application to be reattached to the Soviet Union as independent federal republics. Gagauzia and Transnistria feared that a union between Moldova and Romania was inevitable and would result in the Russian-speaking population being excluded from most aspects of public life.

September

  • 3 September
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Byelorussian SSR became the fourth republic to sign the New Union Treaty.
  • 3 September
    • Soviet UnionEstoniaLatviaLithuania Moscow, Soviet UnionSinging Revolution: The Soviet Union formally recognized the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • 17 September
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Azerbaijan SSR and the Tajik SSR signed the New Union Treaty.

October

  • 1 October
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Turkmen SSR and the Kyrgyz SSR signed the New Union Treaty.
  • 14 October
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – The Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR adopted a resolution on calling a referendum over the issue of declaring independence from the Soviet Union. The referendum was scheduled for 1 December 1991.

November

December

  • 1 December
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – In the Ukrainian independence referendum, a majority of 58.2% of voters voted in favor of remaining in the Union of Soviet Sovereign States and rejected independence from the Soviet Union.
As a result, the President of the Ukrainian SSR, Leonid Kravchuk, announced that Ukraine would sign the New Union Treaty on 10 December.
  • 18 December
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Ukrainian SSR signed the new New Union Treaty as the last remaining republic.

1992

January

  • 3 January
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Constitutional Conference of the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics opened in Moscow in order to complete a draft of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Sovereign States.

February

March

April

  • 25 April
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Constitutional Conference of the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics finalized the draft for a new Constitution.
  • 29 April
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Supreme Soviet voted in voted in favor of the draft Constitution.
Later that day, President Gorbachev addressed the nation directly on television where he announced the election to the Supreme Soviet and a popular referendum for the new constitution to be held on 29 June.

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1993

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1994

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1995

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1996

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1997

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1998

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1999

January

February

March

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September

October

November

December

See also


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