10 January, 1850:Dom Pedro Afonso, heir to the throne of Brazil, survives his bout of fever at his family's estate at Petrópolis. As a result he continues to walk in the footsteps of his father Pedro II, who does not begin to reject the monarchy as an institution and train his son to uphold the mantle once he takes the throne.
13 March, 1870:Dom Ferdinand II, the previous King of Portugal and father of the current king Luíz I, takes the throne of Spain following its revolution. The concerns of Ferdinand and his government were assuaged by British and French support.
19 July, 1870: France declares war on Prussia, beginning the Franco-Prussian War.
1 September, 1870: Prussian forces defeat the French at the Battle of Sedan, ending the Second French Empire. Napoleon III flees to exile in Britain while a provisional government is declared.
20 September, 1870: Following the collapse of the French Empire, Italian forces capture Rome, completing Italian unification.
18 January, 1871: The German Empire is declared in the palace of Versailles, completing German unification.
8 February, 1871: Pro-Monarchist forces win the majority of the legislative elections in France. They soon agree to a compromise on which royal candidate takes the throne, but faces opposition from the Comte de Chambord and the republican factions.
26 March, 1871: Formal establishment of the First Paris Commune.
30 May, 1871: Complete suppression of the First Paris Commune by French troops.
27 October, 1871: The Comte de Chambord agrees to a compromise regarding the flag of France and his own personal standard and thus takes the throne of France as Henry V.
1 March, 1872: Yellowstone National Park in the United States is declared the first national park in the world.
21 April, 1872: Outbreak of the Third Carlist War in Spain, pitting the Liberal government and Portugal against the Carlists.
12 August, 1873: The Russian Empire and the Khanate of Khiva sign a peace agreement, establishing the Khanate as a protectorate of Russia.
20 January, 1875: Conclusion of the Third Carlist War with a Liberal victory. Carlist pretenders are exiled to France.
7 September, 1875: At the Battle of Agurdat, Ethiopian forces under Yohannes IV defeat an Egyptian invasion.
16 November, 1875: Ethiopians defeat another Egyptian invasion at the Battle of Gundat.
1876: The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, which will claim 30 million lives and become the fifth worst famine in recorded history, begins after the droughts of the previous year.
20 February, 1876: Republicans and liberals gain the majority in French legislative elections. They vow to halt any of Henry V's semi-authoritarian ideals.
29 January, 1877: The Satsuma Rebellion breaks out in Japan by discontented samurai.
4 March, 1877: The inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes in the United States ends the period of post-Civil War reconstruction.
24 April, 1877: The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 breaks out in response to growing Balkan nationalism.
24 September, 1877: The Japanese government finally puts down the Satsuma Rebellion.
3 March, 1878: Conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877, which sees the independence of Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro, consolidation of Russian control in the Caucasus, and Austro-Hungarian and British occupation of Bosnia and Cyprus, respectively.
13 June, 1878: The Congress of Berlin meets for a month to discuss the division of territory in the Balkans.
5 April, 1879: Chile formally declares war on Bolivia and Peru, beginning the War of the Pacific.
4 March, 1881: James Garfield is sworn in as president of the United States.
2 July, 1881: Garfield is shot in an assassination attempt.
20 May, 1882: Formation of the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
11 July, 1882: A British bombardment of Alexandria begins the Anglo-Egyptian War.
13 September, 1882: Conclusion of the Anglo-Egyptian War with the British occupation of Egypt.
24 August, 1883: Henry V of France dies, leaving the throne to his more liberal heir and cousin, who takes the throne as Louis-Phillippe II. Constitutional changes follow, liberalizing the system further.
15 November, 1884: The Conference of Berlin is held to divide up Africa under European colonial regimes.
4 March, 1885: Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as president of the United States.
14 November, 1885: Outbreak of the Serbo-Bulgarian War.
28 November, 1885: Conclusion of the Serbo-Bulgarian War, in Bulgaria's favor.
15 December, 1885: King Ferdinand VIII of Spain dies a natural death, leaving the throne to his son Luíz I of Portugal. He titles himself as Emperor of Iberia so as to not be outranked by his relatives in Brazil.
6 July, 1887: King Kalakaua of Hawaii is forced to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" by wealthy landowners, disenfranchising most of Hawaii's inhabitants.
13 May, 1888: The Brazilian parliament passes the Golden Law, which is signed by Dom Pedro Alfonso, abolishing slavery in Brazil. The upper classes and slaveholders are outraged.
9 March, 1888: Frederick III becomes emperor of the German Empire.
15 June, 1888: Wilhelm II becomes emperor of the German Empire.
4 March, 1889: Benjamin Harrison is inaugurated as president of the United States.
15 November, 1889: Republican and military opposition to the monarchy launch a coup in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. The Imperial government resists, starting the Brazilian Civil War.
1 January, 1890: Italy establishes their colony in Eritrea.
6 March, 1890: The final Republican holdouts in the Brazilian Civil War surrender, ending the conflict.
1 July, 1890: The United Kingdom and Germany sign the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, trading the two territories.
16 January, 1891: Civil war breaks out in Chile.
29 January, 1891: Liliuokalani becomes Queen of Hawaii.
15 May, 1891: Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical Rerum novarum, on the rights and duties of capital and labor, resulting in the creation of many Christian Democrat parties throughout Europe.
18 September, 1891: The Chilean Civil War ends.
6 March, 1892: "Exclusive Agreement": Rulers of the Trucial States (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain) sign an agreement, by which they become de facto British protectorates.
8 November, 1892: Grover Cleveland is elected President of the United States for the second of his two non-consecutive terms.
5 May, 1893: Panic of 1893: A crash on the New York Stock Exchange starts a depression.
13 October, 1893: The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1893 is signed, as the Kingdom of Siam cedes all of its territories east of the Mekong River to France, creating the territory of Laos.
4 January, 1894: A military alliance is established between the Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire.
1 August, 1894: War is declared between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, over their rival claims of influence on their common ally, the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
1 November, 1894: Russian emperor Alexander III is succeeded by his son, Nicholas II.
17 April, 1895: The Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed between China and Japan. This marks the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, and the defeated Qing Empire is forced to renounce its claims on Korea, and to concede the southern portion of Fengtien province, Taiwan, and the Pescadores Islands to Japan.
20 June, 1895: The Treaty of Amapala establishes a union of Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador, the Greater Republic of Central America.
1 March, 1896: An Ethiopian victory at the Battle of Adwa concludes the Italian-Ethiopian War in Ethiopia's favor.
30 September, 1896: Costa Rica signs the Treaty of Amapala, joining the Greater Republic of Central America.
4 March, 1897: William McKinley is inaugurated as president of the United States.
20 September, 1897: Conclusion of the Greco-Turkish War.
12 October, 1897: The Joseon Dynasty of Korea is reborn as the Korean Empire, a modernized and westernized state.
10 December, 1898: The Treaty of Paris ends the Iberian-American War, with the cession of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, and Portuguese Timor to the United States.
11 October, 1899: Outbreak of the Second Boer War between Great Britain and the Orange Free State and Transvaal.
2 November, 1899: Official beginning of the Boxer Rebellion in China.
1 January, 1901: British colonies federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.
22 January, 1901: Queen Victoria of Great Britain dies and is succeeded by Edward VII.
14 September, 1901: William McKinley dies following an assassination attempt eight days earlier. Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt becomes president.
20 May, 1902: Cuba gains its formal independence.
31 May, 1902: The end of the Second Boer War with a British victory.
December 1902: The Venezuelan Crisis occurs as Britain, Germany, and Italy blockade Venezuela over unpaid debts.
13 February, 1903: Following negotiations with the United States, the blockade of Venezuela ends.
3 November, 1903: Panama declares its independence from Colombia.
17 December, 1903: First documented instance of controlled and powered mechanical heavier-than-air flight.
8 February, 1904: A surprise Japanese attack on the Manchurian port of Port Arthur begins the Russo-Japanese War.
7 September, 1904: Following a British expedition into Tibet, Tibetan officials sign the Treaty of Lhasa, effectively turning Tibet into a British protectorate.
22 January, 1905: "Bloody Sunday" in Russia, where Russian troops fire upon peaceful protesters in Saint Petersburg, beginning the Russian Revolution of 1905.
4 March, 1905: Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in for his first full term as president of the United States.
31 March, 1905: The visit of German Emperor Wilhelm II to Tangier triggers the Tangier or First Morocco Crisis, asserting that Germany has as much right to colonize Morocco as France.
7 June, 1905: Norway declares its independence from Sweden.
5 September, 1905: In a peace agreement negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt, Russia and Japan sign the Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the Russo-Japanese War. Japan gains influence in Manchuria and possession of the southern half of the island of Sakhalin.
30 October, 1905: Russian Tsar Nicolas II is forced to declare the October Manifesto, which guarantees Russia a constitution and duma.
17 November, 1905: Korea effectively becomes a protectorate of Japan.
18 November, 1905: Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King of Norway.
12 January, 1906: Persian revolutionaries force the Shah to grant Persia a constitution and a legislature, the Majlis.
31 August, 1907: Britain and Russia sign an alliance, giving birth to the Triple Entente.
8 December, 1907: Oscar II of Sweden dies and is succeeded by his son Gustaf V.
30 June, 1908: The Tunguska event, believed to be an air burst from a large meteoroid or comet fragment, occurs.
3 July, 1908: Beginning of the Young Turk Revolution in the Ottoman Empire.
13 July, 1908: The Fourth Olympic Games opens in London.
24 July, 1908: The Constitution of 1876 is restored in the Ottoman Empire.
5 October, 1908: Bulgaria formally declares independence from the Ottoman Empire.
6 October, 1908: Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia, setting off the Bosnian Crisis.
2 December, 1908: Chinese Emperor Puyi ascends to the throne at the age of two.
4 March, 1909: William Taft is inaugurated as president of the United States.
27 April, 1909: Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire is overthrown and replaced by his brother Mehmed V.
23 December, 1909: Leopold II of Belgium dies and is succeeded by his son Albert I.