19th Century

1867: (POD) The sinking of the General Sherman by Korean forces reaches the world press when a survivor tells of their ordeals in Korea while in captivity. This outraged public opinion, and caused the French expeditionary forces under Admiral Roze to be re-inforced by US, British, and Russian forces. Meanwhile, the negotiations by US and Russia to buy Alaska fell down.

1868: A campaign by US, French, Russian, and British forces, led by no other than General Sherman himself, forced the capitulation of the Joseon Dynasty forces in Korea. Despite heroic resistance of the Koreans, the King Gojong realized that he is outmatched and declares a peace. The Daewongun commits suicide. A peace treaty was signed by the King and the foreign powers, and most of Korea's ports are opened. Korea is to be occupied by French, American, British, and Russian forces for an indefinite amount of time. In the end, only the Russian presence remained.

1869: King Gojong issues his own Royal Charter Oath. It addressed the problems that caused Korea to be far behind the other Asian countries, and said that Confucianism in Korea is bankrupt and needed to be synthesized with Western [particularly Russian] values into a uniquely Korean form. It also encouraged the Korean people, whatever their station, to seek self- improvement and knowledge whenever it could be found. Though many scholars protested, they could do little about it.

1870: The westernization and reformist movement gains strength and influence in the Korean government. Gojong tolerated them and started to work with the reformers. The last US, French, and British troops left Korea. Russia retains its troops around the capital, though.

1871: Although still paying tribute to the Qing Dynasty in China, Gojong with the influence of Queen Min begins to completely distance their country from China. This is by implementing Western and Japanese-style modernization plans. He and his queen also conducted visits to his country, to learn from the people.

1872: The Ministry of Education is founded and ordered to provide government-run public schools. Both males and female children over 6 are now theoretically required to attend elementary school for six years, though not until the 1890s will Korea achieve nearly full school attendance.

1873: The Seikanron, or the debate concering the invasion of Korea, in Japan ends in a failure as it was considered to be suicidal to attack Korea with the Russian presence still present. Kojong still refused to recognize the new Japanese government.

1874: The Korean King had recognized the reformed Japanese Empire. The Russian troops had left Korea, but not before training the Korean Cossack brigade.

1875: The Koreans build the Imperial Korean Navy with ships purchased from France.

1876: Korea and Japan demarcate their borders in the Eastern Sea/Sea of Japan area.

1879: The Ryukyu Islands were formally annexed to Japan. The Koreans expressed concern.

1884: The Korean Empire is declared, formally declaring independence from China. Tribute payments were ceased. China, already embroiled in the Sino-French conflict in Yunnan and Vietnam, was outraged and declared war against Korea as well.

1885: The Sino-French-Korean War ends with a Franco-Korean Victory. The French, American, and Russian-trained Imperial Korean Army, 100,000 strong, had beaten the numerically superior Chinese forces. The French seized what is now French Indochina and Hainan. Korea, however, disclaimed any territorial gains.

1894: Riots against Japanese migrant workers in Hawaii caused the Imperial Japanese Navy to deploy ships and troops to Hawaii, sparking US concern. Meanwhile, the Donghak uprising caused the Korean government to create a parliamentary government. Back then, the Imperial Korean government is based on the Russian one which does not have a parliament and is autocratic. This caused the Korean government to implement another set of reforms called the Gabo Reform, which formally abolished class distinctions.

1895: Sanford Dole, President of Hawaii, was assassinated by Hawaiian royalists. It was allegedly hatched by Japanese immigrants with tacit support of Tokyo, who were disgusted by failure to remove discriminatory policies against Japanese in Hawaii. The Korean government also supported the assassination of Dole, its workers in Hawaii receiving the same treatment. The Second Hawaiian Civil erupted. The Taiwan War results into a Japanese victory against the Chinese, and that aformentioned island was occupied.

1896: Japan, with tacit US support, annexed Hawaii. It based its claim on the now-growing Japanese population of the islands. 1897: The Korean Empire promulgates a constitution.

1898: The Hispano-Korean War erupts when Spanish ships fire at a Korean passenger liner, mistaking it for a Japanese liner carrying contraband arms to Filipino rebels. The Koreans were outraged, and in the Battle of Manila, the Koreans sink the Spanish East Indies flotilla. In the treaty of Paris in 1898, Korea gains the Philippines. The US occupies the Marianas. The Carolines and the Marshalls were occupied by Germany.

1899: The Korean institute a Dominion government in the Philippines and institute reforms. The Korean government based its government on the Canadian model.The army is sent to the Philippines to crush recalcitrant separatists.

20th Century

1905: Russo-Japanese War or the Sakhalin war occurs over a fisheries dispute: Japan occupies Kwantung, Sakhalin. Attempts by Japan to annex Alaska were foiled by the US.

1906: The Katagalugan Uprising by Macario Sakay was defeated by Koreans. Sakay himself, however, was pardoned and eventually became a general in the Dominion army as General Cheon Jong-un.

1911: The Qing Dynasty in China was overthrown by Chinese republicans. The Qing Dynasty retreats into Manchuria.

1912: The Koreans reach a settlement with the Sultanate of Sulu where they remain part of the Korean Philippines but receive self-government.

1913: The Imperial Korean Air Corps was separated from the Signal Corps.

1914: Korea and Japan joins the Allied side in World War I: Korea annexes Shandong from Germany by force. Japan occupies Kaiser Wilhelmland and the remaining German South Sea territories.

1915: When the Qing Government in Manchuria announced its alliance with the Central Powers, the Koreans attack and occupy Manchuria. The Chinese Republic protested the occupation of Manchuria as well as the Five Demands by Japan.

1918: The Koreans decide to support the nascent Mongolian movement to prevent Russian and Chinese domination. The Koreans then gave the Mongols the domination of Inner Mongolia. However, it was short-lived and the Russians became dominant in Outer Mongolia. The Inner Mongolian government was a Korean-backed state. The Tsar's son in Russia, Alexis, was allowed to leave Russia to seek medical treatment. He eventually settles to Russian Alaska, declared independent by him in 1922, and under Canadian protection. Many of the Russian emigres, 2 million in all, emigrate to Alaska. The rest of the Tsar's family, Nicholas included, was shot by the Bolsheviks, however.

1919: A Democratization Rally in March 1 ended into a riot, the new Emperor Sunjong, after Gojong's death, promised more democratic reforms. Paris Peace Treaty: Korea returns Shandong to China but retains Manchuria. Japan gains all the German South Seas Islands and New Guinea.

1920: Korea formally annexes Manchuria. A guerrilla movement in that country began. One is led by Zhang Xuolin and wanted Manchuria back to China, the other was eventually led by Henry Pu Yi, who wanted Manchuria to regain independence.

1922: Outer Manchuria was turned into a White Russian-controlled state called the Republic of Green Ukraine, under Japanese supervision.

1927: The Jewish Autonomous Oblast was formed in the Republic of Green Ukraine.

1928: Zhang Xuolin was finally killed in his hideout in Mukden. However, Zhang Xueliang vowed to continue the insurgency.

1932: The Mukden Incident: Korean soldiers open fire at a Japanese train: outraged, the Japanese Kwantung Army aided the Manchurian independence activists and established Manchukuo as an independent country.

1933: The League of Nations, while condemning Japan for its invasion of Manchuria, also condemned Korea for its brutal policy of assimilation. Both countries leave the League of Nations in protest.

1938: The Changssi-gaemyeong policy was implemented in the Dominion of the Philippines.

1941: Japanese bombers attack San Francisco harbor. This caused the US to declare war.

1942: The Korean Empire declares neutrality in the conflict: it allowed Japanese forces to use the Philippines as a staging point.

1943: a dispute over flying rights between Korea and Japan have degenerated into a war. Korea threw its weight to the Allies. Meanwhile, the US had captured all of Hawaii and is moving west. The Alaskans have mobilized their army after some parts of the Aleutians were captured by Japan.

1944: despite Korean military efforts, the Korean government is reduced to controlling the mountain passes in the South and the Cordillera Mountains in the Philippines. Most of the Japanese territory is under the puppet government of

1945: Korea was liberated by the Allies. Japan was occupied by US and Alaska after surrender.

1946: The former Republic of the Green Ukraine becomes the Far Eastern Soviet Socialist Republic. Xinjiang becomes the Uyghur SSR after a rigged vote and a Soviet-backed uprising. Tibet, alarmed, joins the United Nations despite China threatening to veto it. Inner and Outer Mongolia reunited under the latter's rule.

1947: The Philippines was declared by Korea to be independent; Kim Yeong-in, also known as Manuel Roxas, was declared president.

1948: The Empire of Korea was dissolved after a narrow-margin plebiscite; in its place, a Republic is proclaimed and Kim Gu was to become its first President. He never formally recognized the communist government in Manchuria.

1949: Nationalists, defeated by Russian-backed Communists in China, escape to Taiwan.

1949-1951: Korean War: Manchuria-backed Communist Koreans, with heavy weaponry and directed by Manchurian officers, seize major Northern provinces; insurgent leader Kim Il-Sung had captured Pyongyang and proclaimed the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The victory of the government forces required troops from the Philippines

1952: Syngman Rhee was elected as the second and last president of the Republic of Korea.

1955: Mongolia and Communist Manchuria sign an agreement where they will defend themselves from potential Korean aggression, after the failure of the Korean Civil War.

1959: Mao Zedong of Communist China dies of mysterious causes, some say that Peng Dehuai, who succeeded him, is angered about the brutal pace of the Great Leap Forward and had him poisoned. While Peng maintained his distance from Moscow, he maintained its independent communist stance similar but distinct to Yugoslavia.

1960: The April Uprising or the Yeongmi Restoration: students, monarchists, and soldiers, incensed at the poor state of the economy and corruption in the government, overthrew the Republic of Korea government of Syngman Rhee and restores the Empire with Yi Gu taking the reigning name of Minjong. Again, a new Empire of Korea is declared. The Korean government concedes the independence of Communist Democratic Republic of Manchuria.

1961: The Cuban-American War: the government of Fidel Castro was overthrown by Cuban and US forces. Fuglencio Batista, however, was not re-instated as President.

1965: The Kingdom of Hawaii regains independence from the United States, after years as a UN Trusteeship. It was to become essentially a Japanese economic puppet.

1967: In response to the detonation of the Nationalist and Communist Chinese nuclear bombs, Korea tests its own nuclear weapon somewhere in the northern part of the country. This is the first country outside the UN Permanent Member security council to test its own weapon.

1968: Philippine President Choi Il-woo, also known as Ferdinand Marcos, declares a "Filipinization" policy, confiscating Korean and Chinese businesses and aligning himself to America and Japan. Korea voiced concern.

1969: West Germany declares possession of the Atomic Bomb, with the agreements with France about NBC weapons amended.

1970: Japan, despite being nuked at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, decides to secretly create its nuclear weapons program.

1979: after the assassination by Prime Minister Park Chung-hee by the head of the former Korean Central Intelligence Agency, Chun Doo-hwan became prime minister. He put the Emperor under house arrest, claiming that he failed to prevent the assassination of the former Prime Minister, and suspended his duties; assumed the title of regent.

1980: Gwangju Uprising: protests to denounce Chun's rule, turn bloody. 100 persons were reportedly killed.

1982: Manchuria is the fifth communist nation, after the Soviet Union, China, East Germany, and Poland to have possession of nuclear weapons.

1983: Manchurian agents try to assassinate Korean Prime Minister Choon Doo-hwan in Myanmar but failed; however, several of the cabinet ministers were killed.

1986: Ferdinand Marcos was overthrown in the Philippines; his plane was later sabotaged allegedly by KCIA agents, killing him.

1987: Chun Doo-hwan stepped down as Prime Minister and had Roh Tae-woo, a former general like Park and Chun, take the office of Premier.

1988: The 24th Olympic Games was held in Seoul.

1991: The Soviet Union broke up into numerous independent states, including Karelia and Uyghuristan.

1993: a new Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed. Only the United States, Russia, China [though it was interpreted that Taiwan would be allowed to keep its weapons as well], France, Britain, Germany, Poland, Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan were allowed to have nuclear weapons of their own manufacture under the NPT. The inclusion of India, Pakistan, Egypt, Manchuria, and Israel to the list is being sharply debated.

1994: Manchuria liberalizes its economy, despite remaining a communist government. Meanwhile, despite the efforts of General Dallaire of Canada to stop the Rwandan Genocide, 120,000 lives were lost. However, he was later said to have prevented further genocide, even sacrificing his military career in a court-martial. He later becomes the first army chief of staff of the Republic of Quebec Army.

1995: Quebec declares independence after a narrow-margin vote. A war was averted, so is the breakup of the rest of Canada.

1998: Osama Bin-Laden was killed in a US airstrike in Sudan, the al-Qaeda's plans to attack the US remained in place, however.

1999: Slobodan Milosevic was overthrown in Yugoslavia. The country later gave up its remaining nuclear weapons, a bone of contention between NATO and Russia, who insisted that Yugoslavia has a right to have nuclear weapons.

21st Century

2001-2004: The Islamic Wave: Al-Qaeda-linked hijackers destroy the US World Trade Centers in New York. A Korean-American named Jason Hyung established the Righteous Legions, a Private Military Company established in the Philippines. He said he wants to honor his wife who was killed in the 9/11 attack. He was said to employ Korean, American, Filipino, Japanese, and Russian mercenaries. His exploits against both Iraqi forces and al-Qaeda insurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan had caused both praise and controversy.

2003: the Mosque at Medina, Saudi Arabia, was destroyed by a bomb-truck. It turns out that some disgruntled al-Qaeda placed it so that the US and Israeli forces will be blamed. The revelation instantly turned the Muslim world against al-Qaeda, and by the end of the decade, the movement is marginalized, Ayman Al-Zawahiri, the leader of Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan by US Navy Seal Team Six.

2004: A Korean UN convoy in Sudan was ambushed by Janjaweed militias. Angered, the Koreans launched a military strike against Sudan, partitioning the country into three: Darfur, North Sudan, and South Sudan.

2004: Kurdistan declares independence.

2010: Korea hosted the G-20 summit.

2012: Park Geun-hye was elected as the first female prime minister of Korea.



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