FANDOM


1917

Autumn

  • 15 November - Parliament of Finland declares itself supreme holder of authority within Finland. Social Democrats voted against the senates proposals and presented an alternative for sovereignty.

Winter

  • 6 December - Parliament of Finland adopts sovereign independence ending it's autonomy as the Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian.
  • 31 December - The Senate delegation won Lenin's concession of sovereignty.

1918

  • 4 January - The newly formed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic officially recognises Finnish independence pushing forward other countries to officially recognise Finland throughout 1918.
  • 15 January Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim was appointed supreme commander of the White Guard (renamed the Finnish White Army), a group composed for 'state power of internal order and discipline'.
  • 27 January - The War of Liberty (also known initially as the Finnish Civil War) begins between the Finnish Whites, supported by the senate; and the Finnish Reds, a paramility red guard mainly composed of southern Finnish workers and organised by the Social Democratic Party.

Spring

  • 7 March - Following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3rd March between The German Empire and Bolshevik Russia, German-Finnish agreement enables Finland within the sphere of influence of the Empire and becomes a protectorate.
  • 1 March - 6 April Battle of Tampere
  • 12 - 13 April - Battle of Helsinki
  • 19 April - 1 May Battle of Lahti
  • 24 - 29 April Battle of Vyborg
  • 4 May - Vaasa senate returned to Helsinki and White Finland became a protectorate of the German Empire. The senate, led by Pehr Evind Svinhufnud, had conservatist-monarchist ideals and so, appointed him as the Protector of the State and Regent of Finland.
  • 25 May - Mannerheim stood down as supreme commander of the Finnish White Army after disputes with the Senate over plans to invade Karelia and onwards to Petrograd. He also argued against the senate for it's deliberate reliance on the German Empire and their lack of desire to fight the external threat, the Bolsheviks. 
  • 27 May - As Head of State (Regent), Pehr Evind Svinhufnud passed on the Chairman of the Senate (renaming it to Prime Minister) to Juho Kusti Paasikivi, another pro-monarchist.

POINT OF DIVERGENCE


Summer

  • June - The disgruntled Mannerheim took vacation, visiting relatives in Sweden. While there he conferred with many Allied Diplomats, stating his opposition to the pro-German Finnish senate. These talks led Mannerheim to converse to great extent with the British Ambassador to Sweden, Sir Esmé Howard.
  • 17 July - Howard believed that Finland was capable of establishing a constitutional monarchy in Finland much like the British Model. He believed this could be enforced and supported by the British Government and it's forces in particular, against the Bolshevik threat that Britain knew all to well of. Due to Mannerheim's noble background, Howard believed he was more than capable of becoming the monarch especially considering his contributions to the Civil War and his figurehead status throughout Finland as an individual of Finland and not a supporter of German influence.

Autumn

  • 9 October  - The senate, under German pressure, elected Prince Frederick Carl to become King of Finland and Rüdiger von der Goltz labelled as 'Regent of Finland' due to his presence and military influence apparent in Helsinki.
  • 25 October - Mannerheim returned to Finland and organised a private meeting with Juho Kusti Paasikivi. He claimed he was able to gain support of Britain if they removed the German influence over the area. At this point in The Great War, it was already apparent to many that the Central Powers were crumbling and becoming unstable. Paasikivi and Mannerheim engaged in debate for many hours into the evening with the result that Paasikivi would support Mannerheim to become the Monarch of Finland.
  • 31 October - Paasikivi and Svinhufnud discussed the Mannerheim matter. Svinhufnud firmly believed that Britain would not provide the support required in order to fight the Bolsheviks and instead desired to continue his support of the German King. Svinhufnud was a believer of action and had the presence of German forces already present in Helsinki. Britain was already far too occupied with the Western Front and a power too distant to supply adequate support against the oncoming tide.
  • 1 November - The Paasikivi/Svinhufnud sentate collided in debate for numerous hours. The conclusion resulted in a majority support for Mannerheim to be appointed Regent given Svinhufnud's resignation. Mannerheim would represent Finland in the event of a Treaty signing at the end of The Great War.
  • 11 November - Armistice is signed between Germany and the Allied Powers leading to the de facto end of the war.

Winter

  • 14 December - King-elect Frederick renounced the throne. Pehr Evind Svinhufnud resigned as regent and Paasikivi summoned Mannerheim as Regent and Head of State of Finland. During the Winter, Allied forces take little action in the North Russian Intervention. Plans are constructed for the Finnish White Army to push into Karelia and move to the three Isthmuses.

1919

  • 21 January - Northern White Army forces assist allied forces in holding Murmansk.
  • 2 February - Finnish White Army forces move south from Murmansk through Eastern Karelia, arresting and imprisoning many pro-Bolshevik civlians and causing many ethnic Russian to attempt to escape deeper into Russia. Little opposition was found particularly in the Repola and Porosozero districts which caused less strife between the Finns and Russians there.
  • 7 - 8 February - Finnish troops stationed in Viipuri move south, facing little opposition in particular Ingria. There, a defensive line is constructed on it's Southern border in prepration for the Petrograd assault.
  • 11 February - Finnish forces divided, and moved south to the Olonets Ismthus and east to establish lines along Onega Isthmus in preparation to support retreating Allie forces from Dvina. Mannerheim and General Nikolai Yudenich began conversations for a joint attack on Petrograd from both the North and South with support from the Northern Russian Intervention forces of the Allies.

Spring

  • 3 March - Mannerheim and Yudenich visited Stockholm to discuss with allied Diplomats the terms in which to assault Petrograd. Mannerheim and Yudenich both served in the Russian Imperial Army. Although former colleagues, Yudenich is hesitant to cooperate with Mannerheim given Finlands occupation of Kola and Eastern Karelia. Yudenich, official leader of the Northeast White Movement was resentful of the implications of Russian secession of those regions to Finland and was fearful of Kolchak's response. Yudenich was inevitably convinced to execute the assault due to the secured support from Great Britain and the large contribution that would be made by Mannerheim's force of around 15,000.
  • 16 April - Battle of Petrograd begins. The large Finnish force, accompanied by 3,000 allied troops reaches the northern outskirts of the city of Petrograd.
  • 17 April - Yudenich's troops, numbering 5,000 Estoninan volunteers are delayed on the southern outskirts of Petrograd. Bolshevik forces were concentrated on the south side of city allowing for a heavy push from the north with cavalry units.
  • 18 - 22 April - Supplied with tanks, Yudenich breaks through southern defenses. Masses of civilian militia attempt to fight the forces but are severly defeated. Bolshevik forces are squeezed into the south-east section of the City. Thousands of civilians are imprisoned, sent to camps and later executed.
  • 20 April - Commander Joseph Stalin was captured by the White Finnish Army and Estonian Volunteers during the Battle of Petrograd. He was later hanged at the platform of the Moskovsky railway station.
  • 23 April - The Aurora, the cruiser-class ship, was captured which was a huge blow to the Bolsheviks. The Aurora was particularly symbolic of the movement, which had fired a shell upon the declaration of Revolution. The Battle of Petrograd ends.
  • May - Bolshevik forces used the Moscow-Petrograd railway to attempt recapture of the city. Finnish forces were stationed along the railway outside Petrograd and repelled numerous attempts. After these attempts failed, Lenin stated 'It is completely certain, that the Finnish forces have determined the fate of Petrograd.' and abandoned further assaults on Petrograd. The Bolsheviks already stretched forces could not maintain pressure on the city while continuing to fights forces in the Crimea and Siberia. WIth this, Bolshevik forces withdrew from the Baltic states in order to reinforce these areas. 

Summer

  • 9 August - The Treaty of Petroskoi was signed between Finland, Estonia and Soviet Russia. Estonia's independence was recognised and the Soviets, although unrecognised by any Western Power, ceded Kola, Western Karelia, the three Isthmus and finally Petrograd to Finland. This treaty officially ended the war between the three powers however both Finland and Estonia still conducted support to the White Movement in Russia albeit much more minimal than before.

Winter

1920

Summer

1921

Autumn

  • 9 October - Princess Liisa was born.

1922

Autumn

1923

  • 26 January - Prince Carl and Prince Albert were born by caesarian-section. Prince Carl was first followed by Albert. Albert was weak and was monitored through much of early infancy.
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