Return to main article: No Gettysburg
- 1 1863
- 2 1864
- 3 1865
- 4 1866
- 5 1867
- 6 1868
- 7 1869
- 8 The 1870s: Yankee Insurrection
- 9 The 1880s: A war, two railroads and a canal
- 10 The 1890s: War with Cuba, and first signs of freedom
- 10.1 1890
- 10.2 1892
- 10.3 1893
- 10.4 1895
- 10.5 1898
- 10.6 1899
- 10.7 End of Part I
- 10.8 The 1900s: A War on the Horizon
- 10.9 1900
- 10.10 1901
- 10.11 1902
- 10.12 1903
- 10.13 1904
- 10.14 1905
- 10.15 1906
- 10.16 1907
- 10.17 1908
- 10.18 1909
- 10.19 The 1910s: War is Nigh
- 10.20 1910
- 10.21 1911
- 10.22 1912
- 10.23 1913
- 10.24 1914
- 10.25 1915
- 10.26 1916-1918
- 10.27 1919
- 11 1920s
- 11.1 1920
- 11.2 1921
- 11.3 1922
- 11.4 1923
- 11.5 1924
- 11.6 1925
- 11.7 1926
- 11.8 1927
- 11.9 1928
- 11.10 1929
- 11.11 1930s
- 11.12 1930
- 11.13 1931
- 11.14 1932
- 11.15 1933
- 11.16 1934
- 11.17 1935
- 11.18 1936
- 11.19 1937
- 11.20 1938
- 11.21 1939
- 11.22 1940s
- 11.23 1940
- 11.24 1941
- 11.25 1942
- 11.26 1943
- 11.27 1944
- 11.28 1945
- 11.29 1946
- 11.30 1947, The Beginning of the Cold War
- 12 See also
President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect.
President Davis orders General Longstreet to take a portion of the Army of Northern Virginia to eastern Tennessee to reinforce General Bragg's forces. West Virginia admitted as a US State (6/20).
On the 4th Vicksburg is conquered by US forces.
On the 15th a peace party composed of Vice President Alexander Stephens and two Confederate Congressmen is received in Washington by lower level officials of the U.S. State Department, but no action is taken.
On the 3rd near Knoxville, Bragg and Longstreet defeat Union forces under General Burnside. Bragg and Longstreet win several battles in central and western Tennessee, including the defeat of General Rosecrans in Chattanooga. October- Meade attempts an invasion of Virginia, but is halted by General Lee.
March 12- Officials in the U.S. State Department contact the office of Vice President Stephens, calling for a conference to discuss terms for peace.
April- The "New England Convention" meets to issue its "Proclamation for Peace" calling for the New England states' troops to leave the south and calling for an immediate cease-fire with the Confederacy. Lincoln calls their actions "treasonous". Central Tennessee is re-taken by Generals Longstreet and Bragg.
May 19- Governors of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York and Ohio meet to call for an end to hostilities and also threaten to withdraw their forces from the south.
Summer- Heavy anti-draft rioting in New York City, Boston and Chicago. Union General Ulysses Grant retreats from Vicksburg to reinforce Tennessee, and is captured. August- delegates from Eastern Maryland meet discuss secession from the U.S. and joining the Confederate States.
November 8- In the U.S. Election, George McClellan wins with 2,252,000 votes to Lincoln's 1,773,000.
November 14- President-Elect McClellan calls for "an equitable peace" between the belligerents.
Christmas Day- A cease-fire is declared by both sides, as Union troops begin pulling out of the south under threats from Congress to cut off funding.
January 10- Representatives from the opposing armies meet in Alexandria, Virginia to establish terms for a permanent treaty. January 16- Many in Lincoln's cabinet, upon seeing the first drafts of the Treaty, say that they will bitterly oppose it, but Lincoln urges restraint, and saying, "It's in others hands now."
February 22- Treaty of Manassas is agreed to by the Vice Presidents of the United States and the Confederate States in Manassas, VA, ending the war and granting independence to the South.
The terms of the treaty were:
- Washington D.C. will not be invaded or occupied,. The "Baltimore-DC corridor" will remain forever within the United States while parts of Maryland east of this corridor will enter the Confederacy as a state.
- The Confederate States will renounce all claims to territory west of the Mississippi River north of the 37th parallel, excepting Southern Missouri.
- The Ohio River will be recognised as the northern border of the CSA, excepting Western Virginia, which will remain in the US. and pending plebiscites in Kentucky and Southern Missouri, which will determine if they will join the Confederacy. A plebiscite will also be held in Arizona Territory on its admission to the Confederacy.
- The Chesapeake will remain free for 25 years to United States shipping but access to the Mississippi River will be regulated by the CS Congress.
- Fugitive Slave Laws must be enforced. All slaves who escape from the Confederate States into the United States in the future are to be returned, and an indemnity must be paid from the US government to the CS government as payment for all slaves who have escaped during the war (but they will not be compelled to return).
February 25- President Davis, in a private letter to a friend in Mississippi, says that he actually cares not if the United States abides by all of the terms of the treaty, "so long as they leave us alone in peace.")
March 5- On his first day as President, McClellan urges Congress to approve the Treaty of Manassas as a "Fair and equitable peace for the future of our two peoples." Until now, the Republicans in the U.S. Senate had refused to even allow it to come to a vote.
March 21- Congress approves the Treaty of Manassas.
June 10- The state of East Maryland is admitted as a Confederate State, as allowed by the Treaty of Manassas.
July- The 13th Amendment is passed by Congress ending slavery in the United States and all its territories.
August- Kentucky plebiscite votes to leave the US and apply for membership in the Confederacy.
Sept- Southern Missouri also votes to leave the Union.
Oct- Arizona narrowly votes to seek admission to the Confederacy.
Nov- Britain recognizes the Confederate States, and signs a trade treaty ensuring the cotton trade and offering military and industrial assistance.
Dec- Southern Missouri and Kentucky are admitted as Confederate States.
Arizona and New Mexico Territories are admitted to the Confederacy as states. The "Union Republicans" (radical Republicans) regain a majority in the US Congress, blaming the recent defeat on Democrats, "Weak Republicans" and Lincoln. They call for a rapid settlement of the American west to counter the "Southern Empire" now expanding westward.
April- Justices of the Confederate Supreme Court are appointed by the President and ratified by the Senate. Their first session, however, doesn't take place until September.
Fall- Confederate President Davis announced in a letter to Congress dated August 17, 1866, that the proper numeration of his term began when he took office as President under the Permanent, rather than the Provisional, Constitution, and therefore his term would end in February, 1868 rather than in February, 1867, as many had expected. After a complaint was lodged by several Senators, the newly-established Confederate Supreme Court ruled in his favor in late October, 1866. This move caused many to call Davis "ambitious" and "dictatorial".
September 16- The US Congress sets up a "Committee of Inquiry Concerning the Late War Between the States," hearings on the war, and it calls many generals into the hearings to explain their actions, which results in several courts martial.
Dakota Territory and Nebraska are admitted as U.S. states. In Mexico, revolutionaries oust French puppet Emperor Maximilian after French forces leave Mexico. Russia sells Alaska to Britain, and it becomes a territory of the newly-proclaimed Dominion of Canada. In secret the US hires Great popular Prussian generals to train and teach their army how to fight greatly and pay them to stay with their army in America. They plan one day to use these generals successors or maybe use those generals they are having train their army.
February 1- Robert E. Lee officially declines the offer of several political figures to serve as President of the Confederacy, but serves as Secretary of War under Alexander Hamilton Stephens (GA), who is inaugurated (March 4) as the second president of the Confederacy, with Augustus Hill Garland (Tennessee) serving as Vice President.
November- Edwin Stanton (Union Republican) is elected President of the US, beginning the era of radicalism in the US.
April 1- President Stanton orders troops to mass upon the US/CS border, to "protect against invasion from the slaveholding states". President Stephens, in an address to the CS Congress, calls for preparedness, and calls President Stanton's actions "Bordering on the nonsensical" and without cause. Colorado Territory and Washington Territory are admitted as US states. The New England states' governors meet to consider secession, and are arrested by federal troops. Rioting in Boston and Hartford kills 50. President Stanton calls for order, and sends more troops to New England.
December 24- President Stanton dies from complications caused by his lifelong asthmatic condition. He is replaced by Vice President John Sherman, who pledges to continue Stanton's programs.
The 1870s: Yankee Insurrection
February 18- The U.S. Congress declares martial law in the nation's capitol, fearing "Southern subversion and Secessionist Treason".
June- In a referendum, separation from the USA is approved by the mostly Mormon voters in Utah Territory. After a few skirmishes with Federal troops in the Spring, no further military confrontation occurs.
August- An alliance is proclaimed between the new "Nation of Deseret" and the Confederate government.
In the USA, the 14th Amendment is passed, August 29, barring secession from the United States, and is quickly ratified by: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, West Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, North Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Dakota, California, Oregon, Washington and Kansas, as well as the territory of Idaho. Notably absent from the list of ratifying states are the New England states, who are seriously discouraged with the federal government's handling of the war and what has followed.
Spring- Fighting breaks out in Massachusetts between secession advocates and Federal troops, which is easily put down by Union forces.
July 6-12- A fire does massive damage in New York City, blamed on both Confederate agitators and New England separatists. November- President Sherman is elected to a full term as US President amid accusations of massive vote fraud.
January- President Sherman declares martial law in the New England states and in New York City, which are divided into military districts and administered by the US Congress.
Summer- A scarlet fever epidemic hits several cities in the CSA, killing hundreds.
March 4- Confederate Secretary of State Robert W. Barnwell (of South Carolina) becomes the third President of the CSA, with Howell Cobb (of Georgia) serving as Vice President.
March 16- CSA President Barnwell and Congress secretly authorize a build-up of ironclads and wooden vessels, in the face of the growing militarism of the United States. Autumn- A bumper crop of cotton increases international sales by 20% throughout the CSA.
May- Dissatisfied with Sherman's continued militarism, and with his high tariff policy, a group of moderate Republicans meet in Chicago to form the Liberal Republican Party, in opposition to the "Radical Republicans" and in favor of freer trade policies. They nominate Charles Francis Adams, the former US Minister to England, as their candidate for President, and Senator Lyman Trumbull as their candidate for Vice-President. That same month, the Republicans re-nominate President Sherman for a second full term.
June- Rioting breaks out in Boston. Leaders of the fighting call for a "Second Revolutionary War" to put down the "Republican Dictatorship", but meet with little popular support due to the increasingly violent tone of the leaders of the rioting.
June 10- The Democratic Party meets in Baltimore and endorses the Liberal Republican nominee Adams.
July 4- Citizens both in the USA and CSA celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. That same day, Abraham Lincoln dies, age 67, in Springfield, Illinois.
August- Along with dozens of rioters, several of the leaders of the New England insurrection are arrested, with the assistance of New England's governors. President Sherman announces that the insurrection has been officially suppressed. Ratification of the 14th Amendment, barring further secessions, is rushed through the Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont legislatures before the end of the year.
November- Union Republican President Sherman is defeated by Liberal Republican candidate Charles Francis Adams, by a wide margin.
March 4- President Charles Francis Adams is inaugurated, and pledges to reform government and to end all martial law in the United States during peacetime. May- A bi-partisan committee is set up in Congress to investigate graft and corruption in the just-ended Sherman administration. Two former cabinet officials and several minor officials were convicted of bribery and lesser offenses in the following months.
April- President Adams' allies in Congress narrowly pass the Civil Service Reform Act of 1878, which created the Civil Service Commission and took thousands of government offices out of the "spoils system".
The 1880s: A war, two railroads and a canal
March 4- Augustus Hill Garland (of Tennessee) elected as 4th President of the Confederate States. Senate President Pro Tempore Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (of Virginia) becomes Vice President. In his inaugural address, President Garland declares that a new era of the Confederacy has arrived, "Tested by war, tempered by peace." and calls for a thaw in US-CS relations. He also proposes an intrastate rail system, "which would facilitate trade and contact among the various states of the Confederacy." In May, Congress appoints a committee to discuss Garlands proposal.
November- U.S. President Adams is re-elected, thought the Union Republicans re-gain control of the House of Representatives by three seats.
January/February- Border raids by Mexican army into Arizona and New Mexico destroy several towns.
March 23- Texas divisions of the Confederate army engage Mexican troops in battle at Laredo, Texas, then strike inside Mexico, winning a major victory at the Salado River.
April 1- Mexican troops take Tucson, Arizona in a bloody battle.
April 2- President Garland calls for a declaration of hostilities between Mexico and the Confederate States. Congress complies on April 5, and calls for each state to send its militia to protect the Confederacy. Alabama governor Thomas Hill Watts at first refuses to send troops, seeing it "Not in the interests of Alabama". The Confederate Supreme Court rules (April 29) that Alabama is not in compliance with the terms of the Confederate Constitution. Watts is removed by the state legislature and replaced by Senate President Edward Asbury O'Neal, who immediately calls for troops to be sent to join the Confederate army forming in Texas.
By late summer, all of the troops are assembled in Texas, and the invasion of Mexico commences in September.
August 10-13- Confederate forces engage Mexican units in the Battle of Yuma, Arizona.
September 13- CSA forces under the command of General George Washington Custis Lee (son of General Robert E. Lee) force Mexican troops to retreat after the Battle of Matamoros, Mexico.
April 15- Mexican troops strike deep inside California (US) to gain supplies and food, and are pursued back into Mexico into Baja California Norte by US Troops. It is a trap, and the US troops are ambushed near Mexicali. A nearby Confederate brigade under the command of Brigadier General Randall Lee Gibson comes to their rescue, defeating the Mexicans. News reports of this battle greatly help to heal relations between the United States and the Confederacy and "An era of brotherly feeling" is declared by many papers in the US for the Confederate troops' actions. Mostly as a result of this, the mid-term Congressional elections in the U.S. are won overwhelmingly by opposition Liberal Republican Party candidates who wish to normalize relations.
Fall- The siege and fall of Monterrey, Mexico under General Lee; the Mexico City campaign begins.
March 10- The new, Liberal Republican-controlled Congress eases customs restrictions on the CS/US border in the eastern US & CS.
May 16- Mexico City falls to CS armies.
June 3- The end of the Mexican-Confederate War comes with the signing of the treaty of Monterrey, which gives the CSA all of Northern Mexico, including the Mexican states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, and Baja California Norte. The former Mexican states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas becomes the state of "New Georgia" and its capital, Monterrey, is re-named Garland City. It is admitted as a state on August 21, Sonora and Baja California Norte are combined into the state of Davis, and admitted to the Confederacy on October 10, with its capital, Hermosillo, renamed Lee City. Chihuahua becomes the state of "Johnston", with its capital at New Macon, formerly the city of Chihuahua. Coahuila becomes the state of "South Texas", with its capital as Beauregard, formerly Saltillo. Both Johnston and South Texas are admitted on October 27.
February 27- The CSA Congress approves a plan to construct a Confederate Transcontinental Railroad, with each state paying for sections of track within its borders, and responsible for its proper maintenance.
March 16- The final plans for the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad are approved by Congress: It would run first from Richmond to Raleigh, then south to Charleston and west to Columbia, South Carolina. Then it would go through Atlanta to Montgomery then on to Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans. From there, the Railroad would pass to Houston and Austin, Texas, on to Garland City (Monterrey) and west to Lee City in the state of Davis (Hermosillo). Finally, it would run to the former region of Baja California and end in New Manassas (Ensenada). Work begins with the starting point in Richmond on June 15.
August 22- The Confederate Transcontinental Railroad (TCRR) reaches Raleigh, North Carolina.
November 4- Liberal Republican candidate General Winfield Scott Hancock wins election as President by over 400,000 votes. Governor David B. Hill of New York is elected Vice-President.
November 10- The Confederate Congress begins to examine the slow progress of the building of the Transcontinental Railroad, and appoints a commission to study the problems and suggest solutions.
Feb 22- The Stephens Memorial is unveiled in Atlanta during the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the end of the War for Confederate Independence. The incoming U.S. Secretary of State attends, in a gesture of goodwill. It is the highest-ranking official to visit the CSA since the signing of the Treaty of Manassas.
March 4- President Hancock, in his inaugural speech, calls for the construction of a transcontinental railroad to "bind the nation up, and heal it's wounds." The idea is wildly popular, and money is appropriated and a committee is appointed by the Congress within a few weeks of President Hancock taking office to discuss possible routes. (A similar action, the "Pacific Railroad Act" had been passed by Congress in July of 1862, but the war and civil strife of the post-war period had rendered it impossible to make substantial progress on such a system.) Confederate Secretary of State Richard Coke (of Texas) attends Hancock's inaugural, the first time any Confederate official has attended such an event.
April 10- A United States Minister [Ambassador] to the Confederacy is sent to Richmond by President Hancock. Brigadier General Randall Lee Gibson, the "rescuer of Mexicali" in the recent war with Mexico, who was very popular in the U.S., is sent as the first Confederate States Minister to Washington.
May 6- Upon the recommendation of the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad Commission, the Confederate Congress passes the "Internal Improvements Amendment" to the Constitution, creating a "National Land and Sea Transport Board" to administer internal improvements traversing two or more states, under the direction of the Confederate Congress. Its funding would come from the contributions of each state, based upon population. It is sent to the states for ratification, which is completed by October after much debate.
May 15- Confederate TCRR reaches Columbia, South Carolina.
July 4- The Confederate TCRR reaches Atlanta, Georgia, in time for Independence from England Day, and on October 1, it enters Jackson, Mississippi. By November 30th, it has reached New Orleans.
February 9- US President Hancock dies suddenly, suceeded by Vice-President David B. Hill (former Governor of New York).
February 22- On Confederate Independence Day, the TCRR enters Houston, Texas, to a great celebration.
March 4- Former Confederate General George Washington Custis Lee (of Virginia), the "Hero of [the battle of] Matamoros", becomes the fifth Confederate President, with Clifton Rodes Breckinridge (of Kentucky, son of the former U.S. Vice President and Confederate Senator (1865-1867) John C. Breckinridge) as Vice President.
May 7- The Confederate TCRR enters Austin, Texas.
August 6- TCRR lays its first tracks in Garland City (formerly Monterrey).
September 29- A final report is issued by the U.S. Congress on the route of the proposed Transcontinental Railroad it will head westward from New York City just north of the Ohio River, through Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Topeka, and Denver, then head northward through Wyoming to Pocatello, Idaho, then following the Snake River to western Oregon. Then, it would join the western part of the rail system, connecting Washington state and San Francisco, California. A Rail Commission is appointed to oversee the various companies building the railroad, and the first track is laid by October 1.
March 19- The Confederate TCRR enters Lee City, Davis (formerly Hermosillo, Sonora). On June 5, it reaches Mexicali in the state of Davis.
July 15- The U.S. railroad reaches St. Louis, Missouri.
July 21- On the 26th anniversary of the 1st battle of Manassas/Bull Run, the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad enters New Manassas, Davis (formerly Ensenada) President G. W. C. Lee sends a congratulatory telegraph to the workers and dignitaries watching as the last spike is nailed into the rails.
September 29- Land for a Nicaraguan Canal is bought by the Confederate Congress, as an investment designed to help facilitate international trade.
October 17- Survey teams arrive in Nicaragua to survey the land for the Canal, which will be of a simple, sea-level design, rather than a "lock" design, rejected by Congress as too costly.
October 22- Work on the US Railroad ends for the winter in Topeka, Kansas
Early February- In the CSA, the first teams of workers are sent to Nicaragua, to begin excavation for the Canal project.
March 4- Work on the US Railroad resumes. August- The US Railroad reaches Denver, Colorado.
October 12- An avalanche near Pocatello, Idaho kills 300 working on the US Railroad. Work is halted for the winter.
November 8-Brazil and the CSA abolish slavery. Senator Thomas F. Bayard (Liberal Republican) is elected U.S. President, vowing to finish the US Railroad. Immigration from Europe reaches 350,000 for the year ending on December 31, 1887. President Hill calls for restrictions, but none are imposed.
March 29- Work is resumed on the US Railroad.
April 24- US Railroad reaches Medford, a settlement in western Oregon.
May 10- The US Transcontinental Railroad is completed as the final track is laid in Eureka, California. President Bayard telegraphs his congratulations to the workers.
July 16- Anarchists set off an explosive devise in a busy New York City marketplace, killing 100 and injuring over 300. Other explosions in US cities cause Congress to declare a state of emergency.
August 22- Three anarchists are captured near Buffalo, New York attempting to flee into Canada. On November 21, they are hung in a federal prison in New York City after a hasty trial. In early December, their accomplices are caught in Columbus, Ohio and in Hartford, Connecticut.
December 6- Former President Jefferson Davis dies. In later years, his political enemies had forgiven him - even for wanting his "extra year" many people thought he took as president. His name and image had risen in stature and was credited with saving the Confederacy during the troubled war years. Even Confederate President G. W. C. Lee said, during his eulogy, that Davis had "stood by the Confederacy when it tottered on the brink of ruin, and returned it to greatness from ashes." U.S. President Bayard sends his condolences to the Davis family.
The 1890s: War with Cuba, and first signs of freedom
July 16- Confederate Transcontinental Railroad "branch" lines are completed, running from the main line to Jacksonville, Little Rock, and Knoxville.
August 22- Work is halted on the Nicaraguan Canal because of malaria and cholera epidemics.
March 4- Former Confederate Senator and Secretary of the Navy Augustus Emmett Maxwell of Florida becomes President, and John Edwin Reagan of Texas becomes Vice President.
March 22- In an attempt to attract workers for the Canal project, which had received much bad press after the epidemics of the previous summer, President Maxwell proposes the Slave Canal Worker Program, which would offer a $1000 bond to any slave owner to each slave sent to work on the Nicaraguan Canal for a period of six months. Afterwards, the slave would be emancipated if he remained in Nicaragua or in one of the newly-acquired Mexican states. (This program was also an attempt to lessen the effects of slaves providing free factory labor, which was driving wages down for all Confederates). The program receives a warm welcome in both houses of Congress.
April 2- The United States Congress sets up a Sub-Committee to investigate the purchase of land from Columbia for a canal through the isthmus of Panama.
May 19- Congress approves the Slave Canal Worker Program.
June 25- Work resumes on the Nicaraguan Canal. By mid-October, 25,000 slaves had been acquired from their owners for the program and sent to Nicaragua, with many thousands more having been turned away until the next work season.
November 1- A report from a team of doctors dispatched to Nicaragua by Congress reports that better sanitation and medical facilities have ended the epidemics caused the previous year.
November- U.S. President Bayard is re-elected.
February 27- In his yearly message to Congress, President Maxwell calls upon the nation to finish the Nicaraguan Canal by the end of the decade, "for the greater prosperity of the Confederate Nation, and for the benefit of her People." Several Congressmen propose a one-time, national tax to raise funds to finish the Canal. It is rejected, but a plan to sell bonds are sold through the national treasury is approved, and quickly becomes wildly successful.
A glut of cotton on the world market causes a severe downturn in the price of cotton. An economic recession begins in the Confederacy when prices begin to fall in the Spring. However, U.S. factories begin to buy surplus cotton from Egypt, increasing the output of its factories significantly.
March 4- John Edwin Reagan (of Texas) is inaugurated as the Confederate President. (He is the son of the first Postmaster General, John Henninger Reagan of Texas). Tennessee Senator David McKendree Key is elected Vice-President. In his inaugural speech, Reagan calls for more emphasis on the "continued industrialisation of the Confederacy, which is incumbent for our survival as a nation." Growth in the clothing industry continues to be explosive, as factories sprout up on the east coast's cities- near prominent harbors- and on the Mississippi river.
March 15- As the Nicaraguan Canal nears completion, President Reagan travels to Nicaragua to visit the site. He becomes the first Confederate President to leave the Confederacy while still in office.
March 19- President Reagan voices support for rebels seeking to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba, and says that he won't oppose those seeking Confederate volunteers to assist in an invasion.
May 16- Spanish gunships attack Key West, sinking three Confederate ships.
May 20- President Reagan asks Congress for a declaration of war against the Spanish Empire, which occurs the next day.
June 1- 20,000 volunteers arrive in Tampa, Florida and 13,000 more in New Orleans, Louisiana to prepare for an invasion of Cuba. Among these are over 1500 former slaves.
June 9- A skirmish off the coast of Texas leaves four Spanish gunboats severely disabled. Three of these ships surrender, while the last sinks.
July 2- In advance of an actual invasion, President Reagan orders a blockade of Cuba.
July 15- Warships leave Tampa Bay and New Orleans for the invasion of Cuba.
July 22-25- Battle of Santa Clara, Cuba results in a rout of Spanish forces.
August 1-9- Battle of Havana.
August 9- Havana falls to CSA invasion forces, including a division of former slaves, whose valiant fighting was reported with interest in Confederate papers.
August 19- Native rebels take control of Santiago de Cuba, a large city in southeastern Cuba. August 20- The Republic of Cuba proclaimed in Havana.
August 26- The final battle of the war occurs near Guantanamo, after which several Spanish naval vessels surrender.
September 3- The treaty of Richmond signed by the Spanish ambassador, ceding Cuba to the CSA.
October 1- Cuba applies for statehood, and on October 15, is admitted as the 22nd state.
November 19- The first ship, the warship CSS Jefferson Davis, passes through the newly-completed Nicaraguan Canal, built in eleven years with the aid of 153,000 now-freed slaves and 20,000 other Confederates. All but 124 survived the building of the Canal, and all of the slaves who remained with the project for at least a year were given their freedom and settled in Nicaragua or in southern Mexico. At the mouth of the westernmost part of the Canal lies "Maxwell Point", named for President Augustus Maxwell. Congress proclaim the day a national holiday - "Canal Day" - which is observed throughout the Confederacy for years to come.
End of Part I
The 1900s: A War on the Horizon
By 1900s I mean 1900-1910
As the century turns people look forward to a brighter world. In the US people care more and more less about how the south won and the north lost but the fact that the US is still around. Both nations co-operate in building a "Commercial Railroad", from New Manassas, winding through the Mexican states, up through Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and finally through California to San Francisco.
In August the US, Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Italy sign a treaty where all would support each other in case of military attack and will be asked to declare war if an ally does so. They take the name of the Central Powers.
France and Russia fear a war is near and decide to form an alliance together known as the Double Entente.
Britain joins the Double Entente and has the CSA and Belgium join the alliance as it now becomes the Quintuple Entente. The US begins an immediate build-up of its military and navy. In the CS the Orville Brothers fly the first successful flight at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. The CS though is unable to keep it a secret and the two help many countries develop planes for new air force corps. Meanwhile the US makes cars affordable and signs a treaty with the CS that grants them oil for a trade for cars.
The Chinese join the Central Powers along with Japan.
November: Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the United States.
The 1910s: War is Nigh
A War to End All Wars is Nigh.
A Great War is coming and alliances have been formed, lines drawn. In March the CS and Deseret recreate their alliance and the Entente gains a new member, Deseret. Now the Entente is just called the Entente.
Serbia forms a separate alliance with Russia as it fears war without protection.
Rumors start to spread that Serbian terrorists are planning to attack the heir to the throne in Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Theodore Roosevelt is re-elected president of the US
June 14 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated and in July the Austrian-Hungarians send an ultimatum to Serbia demanding amenities to repay the loss and threaten military action. Serbia never replies and on August 1 Austria-Hungary and the rest of the Central Powers except for Italy declare war on Serbia. This sets off a chain reaction that leads to all the Central Powers, excepting Italy, and Entente nations to declare war on one another. By September both alliances are mobilized except for Britain who believes her navy will protect her. Her Empire is spread thin across the globe.
November: Britain finishes mobilization and sends her first troops to France on the 24th.
August: The first battles strike in Europe as the Germans change Schifflien's plan just a bit. Their main attack comes through Italy into France (The treaty they signed with Italy allows free travel through each others territory unless war is declared). They also push through Belgium. They also engage the Russians in East Prussia. In America, the US puts a blockade around the CSA and cuts the sea routes between Britain and Canada. The US also sends troops into the province Ontario, Canada and captures the land south of the St. Lawrence River and set siege to Montreal. Along the border with the CSA, US troops muster in Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and California. The US launches her main offensive towards Richmond, with others in Arkansas, Baja California and New Mexico heading towards Texas. The US also asks for Mexican assistance and promises lost lands from the CSA. Mexico is reluctant and promises an action on September 1 whether or not they will fight. The Japanese and Chinese attack colonies which causes Spain and Portugal to join the side of the Allies (Entente). At first the Allies look like they will be chewed and spit out quickly but at the Battle of Brussels the Allies show signs of strength but still lose the battle and retreat deep into France, close to Paris.
September: On September 1 Mexico invades all Confederate Mexican possessions as the CS is caught off guard. Mexico swiftly liberates its lost lands and battle fiercely in the deserts. Deseret is quickly conquered by the Americans but occupying forces suffer from horrible terrorist attacks. In Asia little is happening but colonies are being surrounded and cut off. In Africa and the Middle East small conflicts are taking place but nothing real decisive.
October: Canada surrenders as Americans capture the vast nation the Canadian and Deseretan resistance dies out as people are threatened with a slow and painful death by the military. Britain is outraged by Canada's actions.
The Rest of the Year: In Europe, the Italian front fails outside Lyon and Germany focuses its efforts towards Paris from then on. The Eastern Front proceeds as it did in OTL. In Asia the war is being won by the Central Powers and in Africa a bloody stalemate sets in. The Middle East now hears a storm on the horizon.
The British and the ANZAC forces attack Istanbul but are pushed back, The US quickly intervenes by sending supplies to Turkey. As for the CS it is being bombed to the stone age in cities like Atlanta and Richmond(the capital). Mexico has regained all lost lands that were lost to the CSA and is stuck at its original border after the American Civil War. In the US times are pretty good though war is close to home as all American Citizens are eligible to vote and do so. The Civil Rights Movement is in a small swing for now in the US. In the CS, the government promises freedom to slaves if they fight in the war for at least two and one half years. In Europe, battles rage along the Channel and Germany is closing in on Paris.
February: Italy officially declares war on the Entente.
In Asia, the British surrender Hong Kong to China and the French surrender Indochina to the Chinese. The British keep Burma and Siam though just barely. The Spanish cede all of its possessions in the Pacific to the U.S. Hawaii and Deseret are also annexed by the U.S. Canada is annexed but all provinces except Quebec are under Martial Law. In Africa the US annexes Liberia and some surrounding areas in Africa. This peace between Europe, The U.S. and The Sino-Japanese alliance gives all European possessions in the Caribbean to the U.S.The surrendering Europeans are also forced to sign a treaty that bans all nations from trading with the CS. The US launches a massive attack in to Virginia using tanks to peel open the Confederate lines. They Capture Richmond in Late April. They also capture and occupy Cuba and raid many CS coastal cities. The CS surrenders to America in September, only after failing to recapture Richmond and losing Amarillo and Lubbock, Texas. The CS is forced to give up East Maryland, West Missouri, and Cuba. East Maryland and West Missouri are reattached to their former states, Cuba becomes a state along with all other newly gained lands except for the Pacific Islands gained from Spain (Hawaii was a monarchy and is accepted as a state)and Liberia. Mexican borders return to pre-Confederate/Mexican war borders and the CS is further weakened by restricted trade. Now that the Union has gained what it wanted it now feels like it made up for its loss in 1865 and U.S. patriotism is greater than ever.
President Roosvelt is elected for a third term. The war in Europe has turned into a bloody stalemate as it did in OTL. But, with the surrender of Russia, Germany races troops to the Western Front. Without the Americans to Aid the British and French, the front collapses and the Germans capture Paris within a week. This signals the end to the war. France surrenders unconditionally and Britain sues for peace but isn't beat like France. France receives massive military restrictions and surrenders Her equatorial Africa colony and morocco to Germany and Tunisia and Eastern Algeria to Italy. Britain's navy is slightly restricted though Germany knows she is still a threat and Britain keeps all her colonies if she respects Germany's new gain and recognizes German possession of Belgian Congo and the Dutch East Indies (which are ceded to Japan in 1928). In Europe, Germany annexes The Low Countries, and the French provinces of Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, and Nord-Pas de Calais and occupies Picarde and Paris. Italy annexes Corsica, and Provence-Alpes-Cote-D'Azur. Russia was held to the treaty of Brest-Liovsk and the countries of Poland and Ukraine become independent and recognize the kaiser as their constitutional monarch. All of the Baltic states become German Provinces. Russia then descends into Civil War. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire carve up the Balkan Peninsula. Serbia, Albania, Montenegro, and northern Rumania are occupied and later annexed by Austria Hungary. Greece is split between Bulgaria and The Ottoman Turks with Crete becoming a British colony. Bulgaria also annexes the rest of Rumania. With the end of the War to end all Wars, a new era has dawned.
With the end of the war millions of US soldiers return to their jobs. In the CS, strikes occur all over the country as inflation sky rockets and many former soldiers are now jobless, some move to Mexico where they help the Rebels fighting the Mexican Government. Fear of an all out Civil War rips through occupied Richmond.
July 15, The Nicaraguan Canal reopens after war damage is hastily repaired by US corps of engineers.
August 28, Germany and Britain sign the North Sea Agreement, which demilitarizes the North Sea and promises that the fleets there will stay to a minimal number. This is the first step towards German-English reconciliation.
October, the Mexican Government can no longer hide the Civil War that has plagued it since 1912 when three suicide bombs go off in the Mexican Parliament killing most of her legislature. All out Civil War erupts as the former CS states try to break off. The CS secretly arms the Mexican rebels. Cuba is also in all out revolt against the US.
November: The US and Germany launch there first aircraft carriers, two weeks later Japan launches three at the same time becoming the Naval Power in the Pacific. In Africa, the transition to German is going well due to the naturalization policy of the Germans. In Europe, The peace is uneasy but the crushing might of the German military is not to be questioned. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark all sign the North Sea Agreement, this will be the basis for the future alliance that will develop during the thirties. In Russia, The Bolsheviks secures power and begin converting Russia to Communism. November 28, German leaders have Lenin assassinated as they believe he and his communist allies are a threat to Germany. This is a terrible blow to Russia which dissolves as further chaos ensues due to the power struggle in the Bolshevik Party.
The World is at a turning point. With the Defeated nations descending into further economic crisis the victors demand their reparations. Many people wonder what will happen as no nation is willing to help anyone but themselves.
With the end of the Great War the economy is booming in Germany, China, The US, Italy and Turkey. As the CS appears to be descending into anarchy the US pulls out all troops yet maintains their forces in Canada and Deseret which are starting to calm down, along the US-CS border massive defensive projects are started, and in Cuba the new equality for blacks is being reinforced with stubborn resistance. The violence in Cuba escalates and the Rebels sink a US battleship stationed in Havana. Many Yankees blame CS sympathizers. In Russia the civil war intensifies. In France Anti-German and Anti-Republic riots rip through the country that summer. Relations between China and Japan begin to dissolve when the Chinese launch two carriers, which challenge Japan's five. November- In a landmark election, Theodore Roosevelt, the President of the US since 1908, is defeated by the Socialist Robert La Follete. TR later dies when he is shot by a woman angry that her son and husband died fighting in Cuba. It is a terrible loss for the nation. The US capitol is moved to its de facto position of Philadelphia.
With the CS descending into near anarchy a party appears that seems to have all the answers. The Libertarian Party and their charismatic leader, Jonathan Davis, win landslide victories in many senatorial elections but fail to gain the presidency against Wade Hampton V.With this election the revolts begin to die down. With the Socialist party now in power in the US, massive spending cutbacks occur. Especially in the Department of Military, and its R+D branches. In Cuba the US ends occupation and declares Cuba a separate, sovereign nation, with a total loss of over 1500 soldiers to Rebel attacks. In March the Mexican rebels take over and form a socialist Pro-Confederate dictatorship. The US then declares its neutrality in world affairs. In May the US grants Cuba formal independence and Cuba suffers a short revolution and becomes a Pro-Confederate Republic. Meanwhile with the increasing German-American friendship, Albert Einstein visits the US and secretly discloses to the US that Germany is starting work on a bomb that has the power to destroy entire cities.
In May, the US invades the CSA, takes and annexes Kentucky as a new state. This angers the Libertarians who try to get a declaration of War on the US but the in power Whigs block this move. In the state elections in the CS the Libertarians win almost all the state seats of power. In Europe, a Radical party takes over in France, worrying Germany, which then pulls out its occupational forces. In the Pacific, tensions rise as China launches another two carriers, both larger than any Japanese ship. The Sino-Japanese alliance dissolves. In June, the Japs invade and take all of Eastern Russia, pushing the border to Siberia. The Russian Civil War ends when Josef Stalin seizes power and exterminates all who oppose him. Britain tries to distance herself from France with the passage of the Closed Channel Act, which would end trade with the French Socialist Republic, as France is now known. The World is once again polarizing.
In January, Europe is thrown into Chaos as the Balkan Civil War erupts. It begins when Serbia, Croatia, and Czechoslovakia all declare independence from the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. In February, Rumania declares war on Austria-Hungary and invades Transylvania. The German Kaiser fears his ally is falling apart and urges Karl I to appease the Rebels. He refuses and sends them an ultimatum instead and sends troops to Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prague, and Zagreb. All come under heavy attacks from Rebel Forces. The US, Turkey, and Bulgaria urge Karl to meet with Rebel leaders and end this war. He refuses. In March, Albania and Montenegro join the Rebelling provinces and Austrian troops are pushed out of Belgrade and Sarajevo with horrible losses. Hungary then announces she will no longer support this war and all Hungarian troops pull out and return home. In the CS, president Wade Hampton V openly declares his support for the Balkan Rebels. The US begins offering to mediate a peace, which Karl I reluctantly accepts. The Treaty of Philadelphia ends the Balkan Civil War. Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina become The Republic of Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia gains independence as does Hungary. Romania is given all lands that were taken by Austria-Hungary. Revolts in Austria lead to the abdication of Karl I and the forming of the Austrian Republic. Japan openly abuses the Chinese and takes Taiwan nearly setting off a pacific war which is avoided when she returns the island to China. She then launches three super-carriers each able to launch almost 300 planes with the ability to even launch bombers built for land runways, and five super-battleships. Japan and The CS become open to trade with each other. The US returns the Nicaraguan Canal in an attempt to further cool Anti-US feelings in the CS and to increase CS trading options to help save the CS economy. This is used by the Libertarian Party to build a feeling that the Whig Government is making deals with the hated Yankees. The CS sees the Whigs thrown out of power as all seats are turned over to Libertarians. They begin making Work Camps for political rivals and even discuss dissolving the CS supreme court. The President Wade Hampton is now a "lame duck" as he no longer has any control over the CS congress.
In the US all women gain the right to vote as do all people that have not yet gained the right or the same rights as others. The US also purchases Panama from Colombia for 12.5 million dollars and the US begin construction of the Panama Canal(to be complete in 1928).
In the Pacific, the Germans fear a conflict with China and begin talks with the Japanese to sell her Indonesian colony(former Dutch East Indies).
In a secret conference the CS and Mexican presidents meet discuss an alliance together. However, this is broken when the US buys from Mexico all of Baja California in late September. This allows for the Libertarians to gain more and more power in the election that year.
This is a landmark year as the CS achieves its highest GDP since the war and the US economy is now the strongest in the World. March-The US gains Alaska from the USSR(When the US overran Canada the British sold Alaska back to Russia). And the two move to an alliance as the two major socialist powers. China quickly joins them in June. Germany begins to feel isolated and reaches out to Britain and the Scandinavian Countries. They draft the Northern Europe Alliance Agreement or the NEAA. Germany also announces that she has built the first jet fighter and has developed the first sustainable nuclear reaction. The US follows quickly with the Nuclear reaction but no one has a Jet Fighter besides Germany. Germany then recalls the fighter in November due to the fact that the engine blows up when the plane goes into a dive. The CS is also accelerating its secret military projects which now include Jet, Rocket, and Nuclear programs.The CS almost unanimously elects Johnathan Davis, the Libertarian leader.
In February the Cuban Republic's senate approves a request to join the Confederacy. The CS congress, largely Libertarian, accepts but the annexation is blocked by the president who then ties up the issue in the Supreme Court. In Europe, peace is rocked when the French demand the return of Corsica from Italy. They drop their claim when Germany, Britain, and Italy threaten invasion. Suddenly, as Jonathan Davis is sworn in, the CS experiences a massive increase in the number of Government programs to create jobs for the masses who are still jobless. The Pacific becomes the new hotbed when Japan formally announces she no longer recognizes Chinese Naval Rights and demands a trade embargo against her. Only the CSA oblige, thus strengthening the blossoming friendship between the two. The Germans also sell the Dutch East Indies to Japan, who wants them for the oil reserves there. The Radical French begin to blame the Jews for the loss in 1918 and begin rounding them up into ghettos. In November, The US elects Hebert Hoover, a Democrat who promises to continue the economic policies of Robert La Follete. In December the CS launch the first commercial Trans-Atlantic flights. On December 4th the US opens it Panama Canal.
In March the Yellow Sea Incident ignites a war between China and Japan. The Germans, British, and both the US and CS pull what little forces they have away from the two nations. The Japanese lose the Korean peninsula, and their navy is humiliated in the Battle of Formosa. The CS sends a concession to Mexico to return the former CS states or face open war. Mexico City replies with a firm NO but before the CS can do anything disaster strikes the whole world. On October 29, the NY stock exchange crashes. It is followed within the week by London's, Richmond's, Berlin's, Paris's, and Tokyo's. Soon the entire world is engulfed by Depression similar to the one in OTL. The CSA is only moderately affected due to the Government programs enacted a year earlier, but the US is devastated and millions lose their jobs and homes.
The world is now in severe depression and is steadily declining further. The US government is paralyzed by the scale of the economic downturn and cancels literally all R+D projects. This is true for most nations.
The CS is now the richest nation in the world and the most economically sound and so feels free to re-militarize and build up a strong Air Force and Armored Divisions. The US passes several economic reconstruction acts which fail horribly. Britain then sends concessions to Japan and China to begin looking for an acceptable peace. Both nations agree as they have domestic issues to look after. In August, the Treaty of New Delhi ends the Sino-Japanese war. It recognizes Korea as an independent republic and Chinese possession of Formosa and Japanese possession of Eastern Russia. By now the Libertarian Party is the only party in the CS and sees Mexico as a threat to the safety of its people, they again demand the former CS states be returned. Mexico refuses and war is declared on September 1st. Massive CS air attacks reduce Mexico City to rubble within hours of the declaration and the CS tank armada moves quickly to take the cities of Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, Monterrey, and Saltillo within the first week. By September 24th, CS forces have occupied all of Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi. They are also besieging the city of Veracruz. CS forces encircle Mexico City in the battles of Tolteca and Puebla just three days apart. November 15th, Mexico officially surrenders when Veracruz, Mexico City, and Guadalajara are all seized. Johnathan Davis announces three days later that a CS Empire now straddles the Continent. He also accepts the annexation of Cuba and ALL of Nicaragua. Both join as states on November 30th. The Mexican provinces are all given Confederate names and accepted as states on December 19th. The Yucatan provinces are united and become the independent Republic of Yucatan, and become a client state of the CS. The US is helpless as the Southern Empire continues to grow.
As the economic crisis worsens more and more people are losing their jobs. In the CS, the Libertarians launch the American Youth program for all races. It is similar to the Hitler Youth of OTL. But instead of preaching Racial superiority it promotes military teachings and is a segue into the CS armed forces and is aimed at figuring out where those looking to join up would best serve their country. In the US Herbert Hoover dies in a car accident. In Britain, the socialist party gains huge amounts of power and begins to bring Britain out of the depression. In Germany, programs similar to those of the CS stabilize the economy. The same is true for France, Japan, Russia, and Spain.
This is the year when the peace achieved by the Treaty of Paris in 1918 is most threatened. In Europe, France, Germany, and Britain all emerge from the Depression. Peace is threatened when the German nuclear reactor station explodes, along with two zeppelin plants. They are both claimed by a Radical French group known as the 'Red Caps'. Germany demands they be tried. Britain backs this move and helps the Germans blockade France. Spain's new fascist government announces her loyalty to France and launches an attack on Portugal which ends with the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, with it Spain annexes all of Portugal. Spain is also included in the Blockade and the British strengthen Gibraltar. The CS decides to distance herself from France and signs the Tokyo-Richmond-NEAA Pact, also known as the Pact of Steel, which promises that if any of the member nations are attacked, all will join. All of their satellite nations also join. The US, Russia, China, Spain and France sign the Socialist Protection Alliance, also known as SPA, which binds all socialist nations together. November, The US elects Hosea Blackford, a Socialist.
May, Japan lands troops in Korea, Taiwan, and Shanghai after destroying the Chinese Navy in the Battle of the Yellow Sea. They used their weven fleet carriers, 12 light carriers, nine super-battleships, nine battleships, and dozens of Cruisers and Destroyers most effectively and lost only ten cruisers and five destroyers. They also hit targets in Korea, Manchuria, and around Shanghai with long range bombers from Japan. In the US, Blackford leads the US out of the depression by March and accepts statehood for all Canadian Provinces and Alaska. He also builds up US naval presence in the Philippines and Hawaii. In the CS, the Libertarians eliminate the Supreme Court and then omit the one, six year term for presidents and induct Johnathan Davis as President For Life and begin a massive Naval build-up in the Gulf of Mexico.
As the Japanese push through Manchuria from Vladivostok and Korea they are taking no prisoners and their brutality becomes legendary. Shanghai is seized and the Japanese begin pushing towards Hangzhou and Nanjing. US citizens call for a declaration of war on Japan. Congress fails to act. The French Socialist Republic declares war on Japan on May 15th, three days after the fall of Nanjing. The Jews are all rounded up and put into extermination camps. Many begin to flee to Germany. The Spanish Socialist Republic joins the SPA and declares war on Japan. The CS then declares war on both and begins a submarine and Naval War against the two. Britain, Germany, and the US all mobilize for war. The Socialist US government then reactivates her R+D programs and moves to make up for lost time in Nuclear Research. All of Central America (except for US Panama) joins the CS as client states. Germany annexes Austria and begins building up her military forces. She also launches the first mass produced jet, the Me 262, which is a much improved version of her earlier attempt. The US then accepts a plebiscite to see whether or not Kentucky will remain in the Union. Kentucky unanimously votes to be in the CS on June 11. She is allowed to do so with the restriction that military forces cannot occupy Kentucky until 1944. However, several staged terrorist attacks allow for the rush of military units to enter on August 28th. With war in Asia and tensions building in Europe and America it looks like another world war seems very close.
In January, World War seems inevitable. Germany, Britain, the CS, the US, and Russia call for all the nations of the world to meet in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss a way to avert war. France, Japan, China, Germany, Britain, CSA, USA, USSR, Spain, the Scandinavian alliance, the South American nations, Abyssinia(Ethiopia), Bulgaria, the Balkan states, Turkey, and all the satellite and client states sent delegates to the World Peace Conference. They argued and discussed a treaty for four months. On April 15th the World Peace Treaty was signed by all member nations. It made several important points that would hopefully avoid all out war:
- The Second Sino-Japanese war would end with Japan in control of Korea, Taiwan and Eastern Manchuria. China would gain Tibet and Mongolia in return for accepting this.
- France would lift its claim on all its former territory in return for Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
- The CS would reduce its military presence in Kentucky and the US would lift the trade limits applied after the Great War.
- The USSR would agree to relinquish its claim on the Baltic countries.
- Germany could keep Austria and would reduce her military.
- Britain would reduce its naval strength and repeal the Closed Channel Act imposed on France.
This conference left almost all attending nations at a weaker level. It appeared to have worked when Japan pulled all forces out of China. France was first to break the treaty when she demanded the French border be returned to Pre-War boundaries. The USSR, US, and China all backed her claim. China tried to launch a surprise attack on withdrawing Japanese troops but failed to take any land and the Japanese counterattack captured all of Manchuria and pushed to the outskirts of Peking (Beijing) by early August. The treaty was then nullified by all nations that had signed it, and yet the tensions in Europe and America remained cool. For now, at least, World Peace was maintained.
As 1936 begins the people of the world breathe a huge sigh of relief as world crisis has been avoided. Yet, war still plagues the two major Asian powers and everything is being done to contain the conflict. On January 3rd the Japanese cut off the Chinese in Peking and a siege of the city sets in, with constant aerial and artillery bombardment. March 15th, ambassadors of the USSR, Socialist Republics of France and Spain, and China arrive in Philadelphia to discuss possible military and economic alliance and support. The Chinese delegates are kicked out when they swear not to end the war with Japan until only one nation is left. The others are not willing to support the Chinese in their war. Eventually the four remaining nations sign the Pact of Steel which brings each nation closer to one another and spells out the extent of the military alliance and when others can join in a war. The Chinese economy suffers from a massive recession as all international trade stops. China sues for peace on August 10th. Japan signs the Treaty of Tokyo with these major points:
- Japan will gain all of Manchuria.
- Japanese Naval and Shipping rights will be equally respected by the Chinese.
- The trade embargo on the Chinese will be lifted and she will apply for membership in the Pact of Steel.
China is now desperate as her economy is as low as it was in 1930. She applies for and signs the Pact of Steel on August 28th and her membership in the new Socialist Trade Organization is accepted by the four other socialist nations. In response to the Pact of Steel, the countries of Britain, the CS, Germany, Japan, and the satellite states including The Scandinavian countries, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Free Central American nations, and all the British commonwealths all sent ambassadors to a massive conference in Munich, Germany on August 30th. The conference lasted until November 4th and discussed issues of military expansion, economic ties, trade agreements, and containing the spread of Socialism. They all signed the Pact of Iron on November 1st. Each nation agreed to an embargo on the Socialist alliance, a massive reworking of Military Policies (including the sharing of Nuclear Technology), the agreement to support each other in war only after every step was made to keep peace, and that any nation wishing to fight Socialism could join the alliance. By December 30th, 21 nations had joined The Pact of Steel and the Socialist Trade Organization, compared to 28 joining the Pact of Iron. The World was now pretty much evenly divided and lines were being drawn, yet peace was maintained. These agreements end the alliance between Germany and the US which had been dissolving since the end of the Great War. November, with the death of Hosea Blackford, Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president of the United States. As a socialist, he is against the CS expansion and wants to increase government spending in the Department of Military.
May 21, The Libertarian CS announces that she will annex all the Free Central American Nations. May 25, The Socialist US declares she will no longer allow CS expansion to the south and moves large numbers of troops, ships, aircraft, and armor into Panama and along the Virginia border. By July 4th, all the troops to be moved are in place and massive defensive lines created. Yet, most of the US army is under equipped and under trained. They are poorly led and their technology is years behind that of the CS. The only benefit the US has is its massive strength in numbers. July 28th, the CS government asks the US to scale back its new military re-deployment and in return the CS guarantees to reduce the strength of its army. The US accepts. However, the CS continues to build its Air Force and Navy. The two nations now have an equal standing. As 1936 draws to a close relations between the US and CS are heating up as the world holds its breath.
In an amazing five years, the US-German alliance has been broken, the CS is now a major power again, Japan and China are finally at peace, Britain is looking to rebuild her power, France is an aggressor, Germany is trying to keep peace, and Russia is coming out of the dark ages. Yet, all is not good. France still demands Pre-1918 borders and Germany is unwilling to give in. June 4th, a massive French tank armada masses on the German and Italian borders. Three days later they are joined by several armies from Spain. Germany quickly announces mobilization for war and moves her army into the contested provinces and along the Rhine. June 25th, The CS congress agrees that if Germany is invaded, the CSA will declare war on France and help her ally in any way possible. June 28th, The US congress pledges her support to France and promises military aid if attacked or at war. July 7th, several rail cars in Japanese controlled Russia explode, the Chinese claim the attack as an accident. Japan lets it slide. July 20th, A Japanese Super,Carrier is destroyed by two Chinese dive bombers off the coast of Korea. Japan Declares war the next day and launches a massive invasion. The Japanese fail to achieve air power as the Chinese have built a massive Air force. The front begins to slow around Peking. The offensive is stopped in September to prepare for the winter.
The third Sino-Japanese War is escalating. The French are posed to invade Germany, The CS ready to defend herself offensively. May 10th, France and Spain attack in a massive onslaught. Tanks supported by aircraft smash huge holes in the German lines. The Germans are pushed back to the Rhine by June 15th. May-June, The CS declares war on France and the US declares war on Germany, Britain, and Japan. Britain then declares war on China, France, and Spain. By the end of June, the CS and US are still at peace with each other and the USSR is the only major nation not at war with anyone, Stalin desires peace as Russia is not yet totally modernized. The Second World War has started. China is holding off the Japanese, France is smashing through Central Europe, and an uneasy peace resides in America.
The World is on the brink of destruction. The major powers are at war again. All chances of peace are now useless.
May, after confusion over how they are going to support their European allies, several US and CS ships have been sunk and it looks like the two are heading to war. June 1st, the CS asks the US to end its embargo on Britain, the US denies and quickly masses a huge army. June 15th, the first CS Jet Fighter, the Wright Corp. P-40 Thunderjet, goes into mass production and is delivered to the Air Force by June 21st. It is based off the German designs of the Me-262 which is now seeing its first trials of war over the skies of Germany. The CS also launches its new massive M40 Stewart Tanks, uncannily similar to the German Tigers. The US now realizes it is outclassed and a date is set for invasion before too many of each can be put into service to make the CS Army unstoppable. The Date is July 4th. Elaborate plans are made to stage a CS attack on US forces in Ohio, the night of July 3rd. The US will then have cause to declare war and invade. July 3rd, 10:00 p.m., 100 convicts are dressed up in CS uniforms and made to look like they blew up a Radio Station outside Batavia, Ohio (near Cincinnati). Several are also dressed up in US uniform and shot. The US congress in Philadelphia Declares war by 10:00 AM the next morning. A massive US air armada launches its attack into Kentucky. Out of 300 fighters and 500 bombers, only 158 fighters return and 347 bombers with tales of a plane that flew circles around them. The few CS P-40s in service have built an excellent record in the early days of the war. The US invasion comes on July 9th after being delayed due to weather, this gives the CS barely enough time to rush 850,000 troops into Kentucky, facing them is a 1.3 million man army. The US gets all troops across by the 20th and captures Louisville on July 28th. They then make a fatal mistake in pausing. This gives the CS general, George S. Patton, Jr. time to rush another 57,000 troops to the front. This mistake leads to the US suffering heavy losses in Kentucky and is considering a trench war along the border but any ideas of that are cancelled when the US finally musters its navy and begins to shell Ireland and all CS ports in the east, most notably Charleston and Savannah. In Europe the French and Spanish have now begun to cross the Rhine and have begun an amphibious landing in Corsica and are mobilizing to invade Italy itself and Gibraltar for control of the Mediterranean. August 8, The US is now advancing into the Western CS, occupied Mexico and have taken Bermuda by September 1. In South America the US sends delegates to Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, and Argentina. The US receives word from these nations by September 26 and is told that these nations will support the US in the war. This si a big gain for the US and this leads to the CS having to flee most of Northern Kentucky by October 10. In the rest of the world Germany and Italy are being pushed far back and in Asia China's economy is not looking any better than it did before it joined the Japanese. November 1, The CS pulls out of much of occupied Northwestern Mexico and in Kentucky the US is making up for its setbacks and have begun to bomb unknown to them but secret research facilities and the US is now slowly passing the CS in advancements per day. By early December the war is escalating to total war and people watch their homes burn as both sides bomb each other to hell. In the US elections Franklin D. Roosevelt wins re-election.
As the war continues to escalate a full war engulfs the globe as Japan and China attack Hawaii and the Philippines and on February 28 the Japanese and Chinese send a massive force that invades the Philippines and Hawaii. By March 1 the Japanese have taken Honolulu and Manila. In Europe the French have captured much of Corsica along with help from Spain but Spain is mostly attacking Gibraltar, Corsica, Sardinia, and Western Italy. France is mostly focusing on Western Germany as it has captured the major cities of Stuttgart, Cologne, and Munich. In America the support of South America has led to the CS being surrounded as the Caribbean and Central America surrenders by April and the US meets with CS delegates to discuss a peace. An unknown front in Canada is finally opening up between the Americans, Danes, and British as battles occur over sea over Greenland and Iceland. May 22, Mexico and all of everything south of the original CS is liberated but rebellions are poping up all over these areas except in most of Mexico. June 16, the USSR formally joins the war on the side of the Pact of Steel and by June 28, twelve days after Russia joined, Germany surrenders to the Pact of Steel. Britain and Italy now stand alone and Italy is too weak to carry on. July 14, Italy surrenders. The world is now in a state of one major alliance rule but it is not over yet. In the Pacific the Americans surrender to Japan for the matter of the Philippines but the US has pushed all other Japanese forces out of all other US islands except for those particularly close to Japan (Wake, Okinawa, etc.). Now that Italy is gone the Spanish and French focus on other British possessions after Gibraltar falls on September 1. By late October the islands of Cyprus, Malta, and Crete have fallen to the French and Spanish and most of Greece has surrendered and on November 18 the Greek formally surrender. The Pacific War enters a period of stalemate as does the one in Europe, and America.
America finally passes the CS in military and all kinds of technology and by late January is told by the French and Spanish that Albert Einstein is willing to work with them to discuss building a nuke. February 7, the Scandinavians surrender and Greenland and Iceland are overturned to America and in America and Europe the war is beginning to show signs of escalation again. The CS finally leaves Kentucky but holds onto the rest of its territory as in the past weeks it has regained all the lands it lost as has its allies in the Americas liberated. Ireland and Britain are now in position to be invaded and on March 28 the US and French commence with "Operation Overlord" where the Americans take Ireland and France invades Britain. The first steps of the operation fail as France is forced to leave but America successfully invades Ireland and Scotland. April 12, the US officially receives a notice of surrender from the Isles at 10:00pm EST and the US accepts and promises not to occupy the Isles but monitor them and have light reparations which leads to a more reconciled relationship after the war is over. The war in the Americas and the Pacific are now more focused on. A problem arises on May 7 when a British and German spy reveal to the Americans that Jews are being killed in France but many have been able to escape to the CS, US and Britain. This ruins the friendship between France and America and now the Americans are considering invading France to stop these killings. June 15, the US invades many islands and begins the process of island hoping and since they have formed a separate peace with Britain and her empire, America quickly advances close to Japan and on July 15 the Chinese sue for peace and suffer no reparations or any consequences of major proportions. On August 4 the US develops a nuke and plans to test it by September. September 1, the US tests its nuke successfully and immediately threatens Japan with the nuke and after Japan denies peace the Americans drop a nuke on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the same day and two hours apart on September 11 and the Japanese surrender and relinquish all claims from Russia, China, Korea, and any other things it has gained since 1928 including Indonesia which is given to America on the same day of the nuke attack. Now all of America's power is focused on the CS and the final battles are soon to happen. The US starts by bombing and using jet fighters on CS ground forces and also begin a campaign to destroy the CS navy and air force. November 4, the US finally gains air superiority over the CS and begins invading all of the CS and all other satellite nations in the Caribbean and Central America as well as occupied Mexico. December 7, the US invades the occupied Mexico and also invades much of Northern Virginia and much of Arizona and New Mexico. This is the beginning of the end for the CSA.
The US begins to advance far into Central America and all but Cuba remains in the Caribbean as now Florida faces invasion. January 22, the US overruns all of Arizona and only Northeastern Confederate occupied-Mexico remains in the recently occupied Mexico. February 2, the US overruns Northern Virginia, Cuba, New Mexico, the rest of Mexico, Oklahoma, and parts of Texas. The CS starts to experience rebellions as blacks and other minorities are tired of the oppression they are experiencing in the Confederacy. The CS then decides to put them in detention camps which leads to even more civil strife. March 14, the US invades Florida where many detention camps are and this invasion becomes known as "Operation Re-unification". March 22, Florida falls and the South now faces a major catastrophe as it is falling apart. April 5, the US receives word that a coup d'etat is taking place in the CS and after weeks of confusion on May 13 the CS confirms surrender and the war finally ends. Now the US and allies hold a conference with other powers to discuss the new world order. After five weeks of debate on July 4 the Treaty of London is signed and these are the terms:
- The CS will be occupied by US and Mexican forces as will all allies of the CS in the Americas.
- Mexico will once again be independent.
- Four unions will be formed to handle independence movements in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East, and Africa. Those unions will be made up of independent nations and the empires involved in those areas.
- Germany will be split into OTL Post-WW2 Germany minus the Berlin factor. Except that only France will occupy the west and the USSR the east.
- China regains all lost lands except for Formosa as it will be given to Japan as Korea goes independent. In return the Chinese grant Tibet and Mongolia independence. For Japan they must abide to the terms they received after the war in the Pacific ended as Korea will become a socialist republic except that their are some differences as Taiwan will remain Japanese and Japan will gain the Kuril Islands and some other territorial gains.
- Russia will gain Finland, the Baltic Republics, East Prussia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova but will lose lands to the new nation of Poland which will be our OTL Poland.
- The Low Countries will become the Republic of Benelux.
- The rest of Europe will be divided like so:
-Romania expands to OTL Romania.
-Italy becomes independent again but will be monitored by France.
-The UK will be monitored by the US as will Ireland.
-Gibraltar becomes part of Spain as does Portugal remain with Spain.
-Greece, Albania, and Macedonia become independent again but will be monitored by France but mostly by Russia.
-Malta becomes part of Italy, Crete goes to Greece, and Cyprus joins Turkey.
- The US and its allies then form the United Nations and the world fully joins and France immediately stops killing Jews but the fact that it happened is always denied and mostly unknown to the people. The UN is just like our OTL UN but the Security Council is the US, France, the USSR, Spain and China.
Now that World War 2 is over the world begins to experience a population boom that will last for some time. The US also begins to establish Anti-apartheid subliminal advertising in the CS and this works as segregation ends and minorities gain rights they have never had and also the US establishes the North American Union which consists of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, the US, and the CS. It creates a common currency called the Amero and the CS immediately holds plebiscites to decide if they want to join the United States. The plebiscite will be held on July 4 of 1948 when the next election year is and each state will have two choices on its ballot:
- Stay with the Confederacy.
- Join the United States.
As for the US elections FDR decides to run for president again against a democrat. The nation shows signs of becoming weary of Roosevelt but they decide to stick with him and he promises this is his last term and that his planned successor is Socialist Harry Truman. In Europe the USSR shifts to a more extreme communism then it is now but still no purges and France moves to a less socialist society. In Africa, Asia and the Middle East the unions are already tested and it ends up creating new nations and territories joining nations:
-Israel (OTL Israel)
-Lebanon (OTL Leb.)
-Palestine (OTL Palestine
-Mesopotamia (OTL Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Jordan)
-Arabia (OTL Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, U.A.E, Oman, Yemen, Eritrea, Djibouti)
-Afghanistan (OTL Afghanistan)
-Pakistan (OTL Pakistan)
-India (OTL India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan)
-Tibet (OTL Tibet)
-Mongolia (OTL Mongolia)
-Korea (OTL North and South Korea)
-Burma (OTL Burma)
-Indochina joins China
-Thailand (OTL Thailand)
-Indonesia (OTL Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei)
Those are the new nations formed and new territories gained. The rest of the year goes pretty uneventful. In US elections FDR wins for the third time and in Congress they pass a bill saying you can only be president for a maximum three terms of four years per term.
As the United Nations is still organizing the world is facing another crisis called the cold war. In the US the socialists are dying away but some of their policies will always remain. Roosevelt dies in January and Truman immediately switches parties to the Democrats (Liberal Republicans now Democrats) and the Union Republicans and Socialists see this as a huge blow and the UP wither and become a third party and socialists join the Dems but become known as Socialist Democrats. In the CS people support the US government but still believe they should remain independent but the vote is not for three years and minds may change but in the mock vote all but Arizona, New Mexico, and Kentucky decide to stay with the CS. In Europe the very communist USSR and her allies form the Berlin Pact comprised of Greece, the USSR, Sweden, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. While the Western European Alliance or W.E.A. which is a economic and military alliance between France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, West Germany, Benelux, Denmark, Norway, and Switzerland. The rest of the world tries to avoid these alliances but in the Americas the United States decides to rebuild Japan and the British Isles as both form the Atlantic Alliance and with Japan they form with every other nation the Asian Economic Union. The Asian Colonial Union is no longer existent and in Africa nations are given independence and in Africa the situation that developed because of independence movements never happened as because now it is more organized. In August the United Nations is finally complete in New York and all nations apply. They all are accepted and the colonies in the Pacific are officially given either independence or given to the US. The US also begins construction of highways and sponsors them in their allied nations.
In the now defeated nations of the world many believe their lives will never be the same and for some this is true. In New York the United Nations is already tested when insurgency increases and occupation is needed but in the US and occupied CS everything is pretty calm as now Deseret finally rejoins the union and it is divided into new states. The new states are:
- OTL Colorado + Northern New Mexico = Colorado
- OTL Utah + Northern Arizona = Utah
- OTL Nevada = Nevada
Now that America is able to decide how that works out now the world is once again a main focus. The UN ends up having a organizational military which will be guided by the Security Council. They immediately deploy into the defeated nations of West Germany but are not allowed into the USSR controlled East Germany as the Russians need the German scientist to advance their Nuke, Rocket, and Jet programs. In the US the technology has increased as refugees from Germany have fled and advanced American technology by years. This begins the Cold War Era as now a Third World War may destroy the planet because of petty differences.
1947, The Beginning of the Cold War
As now the Second World War is over, peace can be restored and the world of the defeated enemy nations can be mostly rebuilt. In the CSA, the plebiscites are getting closer and closer. Nearly half of the population wants to join the USA while the other half is either undecided or wants to remain an independent entity. In the USSR, Stalin is beginning more mass murders of his "enemies". It is kept a secret for now but truly the Russian people are screaming for help but no help can come. The first of many Cold War crises starts when France does a supposed to be recon mission over East Germany. When Soviet defenses nearly shoot down the plane France believes they want war but before a war can erupt in Europe the US and Great Britain mediate a peace between the two. Each side is forced to have a restriction of how close each can come to the other Germany. In Germany the people are upset over their separation and so rebellions spring up all over the two Germanies. By September the Rebel Germans officially form the group: German Reunification Army. As the rebellions plague both France and Russia they decide they must work together to remain the leaders of Europe. In the Americas, Brazil decides it is time to become the sole ruler of South America. The country starts by invading Paraguay and Uruguay on October 31. By November, Brazil has subdued the two into submission as now their conquest of South America is underway.