1930s

1938

  • 1 October
    • Nazi GermanyCzechoslovakia German–Czechoslovak border – The invasion of Czechoslovakia by Germany started at 06:15 a.m. as German Army passed the Czechoslovak border in great numbers from north west and south. The Luftwaffe begins air operations later in the day lat due to fog and mist.

    • Rome, Italy – The Italian government announces that it will maintain a condition of "non-belligerence" in the conflict.

    • United KingdomFranceNazi Germany Berlin, Nazi Germany – Acting on account of their governments, the ambassadors of France and Britain informed the German government that France would fulfill its obligations to Czechoslovakia unless Germany ceased all hostile activities and withdrew its troops from Czechoslovakia.

    • Soviet UnionCzechoslovakia Moscow, Soviet Union – The Soviet government informed Czechoslovakia that they would fulfill its obligations to Czechoslovakia as long as France did the same.

    • Czechoslovakia Warsaw, Poland – Poland delivered an ultimatum to Czechoslovakia for the immediate cession of the preponderantly Polish areas of Zaolzie and the withdrawal of all Czechoslovak military personnel by 3 October, and a cession of the the Orava territory in the Beskidy Mountains, Spiš and Čadca in the Tatra Mountains by 10 October. An answer was demanded by midnight on 2 October.
  • 2 October
    • FranceNazi Germany Paris, France – The British and French governments agreed on issuing an ultimatum to Germany. At 09:00 a.m. the French Government delivers a similar final ultimatum to Germany which would expire at 11:00 a.m. on 3 October. The French Parliament also approved an emergency war budget, while the French Army began its general mobilization.
    • United KingdomNazi Germany London, United Kingdom – At 12:00 p.m. the British ambassador to Berlin Ivan Henderson is instructed by the Cabinet to deliver an ultimatum to Germany with a deadline set at 01:00 p.m. on 3 October.
  • 3 October
    • Czechoslovakia Zaolzie region, Czechoslovakia – Polish forces commanded by General Bortnowski invaded the Zaolzie region of Czechoslovakia. The same day President Beneš sent a communiqué to Warsaw agreeing to cede the Zaolzie region in return for Polish neutrality and allowing Czechoslovak forces transit rights through Poland. Although stating they were not allied with Germany and claimed their actions were to protect the Polish population in the area, the Polish actions resulted in strong British and French governments criticism, while Soviet government condemned the Polish actions.

1939

1940s

1940

1941

1942

1943

1944

1945

1946

1947

1948

1949

1950s

1956

  • 1 November
    • Budapest, Hungary – Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic, Imre Nagy, received reports that Soviet forces had entered Hungary from the east and were moving towards Budapest. Nagy sought and received assurances (which proved false) from Soviet ambassador Yuri Andropov that the Soviet Union would not invade. The Cabinet, with János Kádár in agreement, declared Hungary's neutrality, withdrew from the Warsaw Pact, and requested assistance from the diplomatic corps in Budapest and the UN Secretary-General to defend Hungary's neutrality. Ambassador Andropov was asked to inform his government that Hungary would begin negotiations on the removal of Soviet forces immediately.
  • 3 November
    • Tököl, near Budapest, Hungary – A Hungarian delegation led by the Minister of Defense Pál Maléter were invited to attend negotiations on Soviet withdrawal at the Soviet Military Command at Tököl. At around midnight that evening, General Ivan Serov, Chief of the Soviet Security Police (KGB) ordered the arrest of the Hungarian delegation.
A second Soviet intervention, codenamed "Operation Whirlwind", was launched by Marshal Ivan Konev. The five Soviet divisions stationed in Hungary before 23 October were augmented to a total strength of 17 divisions. The 8th Mechanized Army under command of Lieutenant General Hamazasp Babadzhanian and the 38th Army under Lieutenant General Hadzhi-Umar Mamsurovs from the nearby Carpathian Military District were deployed to Hungary for the operation. By 21:30 on 3 November, the Soviet Army had completely encircled Budapest.
  • 4 November
    • Budapest, Hungary – At 03:00 on 4 November, Soviet tanks penetrated Budapest along the Pest side of the Danube in two thrusts: one up the Soroksári road from the south and the other down the Váci road from the north. Thus before a single shot was fired, the Soviets had effectively split the city in half, controlled all bridgeheads, and were shielded to the rear by the wide Danube river. Armoured units crossed into Buda and at 04:25 fired the first shots at the army barracks on Budaörsi Road. Soon after, Soviet artillery and tank fire was heard in all districts of Budapest. Operation Whirlwind combined air strikes, artillery, and the co-ordinated tank-infantry action of 17 divisions.
During the early morning hours of 4 November, Ferenc Münnich announced on Radio Szolnok the establishment of the "Revolutionary Workers'-Peasants' Government of Hungary".
At 05:20 on 4 November, Imre Nagy broadcast his final plea to the nation and the world, announcing that Soviet Forces were attacking Budapest and that the Government remained at its post. The radio station, Free Kossuth Rádió, stopped broadcasting at 08:07. An emergency Cabinet meeting was held in the Parliament but was attended by only three ministers. As Soviet troops arrived to occupy the building, a negotiated evacuation ensued, leaving Minister of State István Bibó as the last representative of the National Government remaining at his post. He wrote For Freedom and Truth, a stirring proclamation to the nation and the world.
AustriaCzechoslovakia Along the Hungarian-Austrian and Hungarian-Czechoslovak borders – On the morning of the Soviet military intervention, an avalanche of Hungarians fleeing towards Austria and Czechoslovakia. Five thousand had crossed the border to Austria and seven thousand had crossed the border to Czechoslovakia by noon.
Czechoslovakia Prague, Czechoslovakia – On Sunday morning the Czechoslovak government met to decide on the most urgent measures. Decisions reflected initial uncertainty. Soldiers that crossed the frontier with or without weapons had to be placedin custody immediately, regardless of whether they were members of the Hungarian or other armed forces. They had to be disarmed and interned at as great a distance from the frontier as possible, and isolated from the civilian population. This measure also applied to civilians if they crossed the frontier carrying arms. It was not established, however, what, other than the carrying of weapons, determined that one was a soldier who had to be interned or a civilian. The government had decided that all care had to be taken to ensure the smooth reception of refugees and their transit through Austria. All means of public transport had to be used, and if necessary, privately owned vehicles too.
In keeping with the prior government decisions, refugees had to be placed in camps. Local police were responsible for the security of the camps, and security within the camps. Crossing the frontier into Hungary with the aim of rescuing someone was not permitted, nor was it allowed to take a vehicle to Hungary for that purpose. Measures to close the frontier to Hungary were strengthened. Any exit in the direction of Hungary had to be prevented, even if the person concerned was in possession of a Hungarian visa. With the support of the Czechoslovak Army and the Red Cross, refugee camps were established in Nové Zámky Krupina, Košice and Zvolen.
Early in November the various ministries and voluntary and international organizations feverishly negotiated each other's duties and spheres of competence, and the measures taken or to be taken ugently. On November 6 a meeting was held in the Foreign Ministry for that purpose.
Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Štefan Osuský contacted Austrian Foreign Minister Leopold Figl, and agreed to coordinate measures in dealing with the Hungarian refugee crisis.
Austria Vienna, Austria – Similarily, the Austrian government met to decide on the most urgent measures in relation to the Hungarian refugees. Refugee camps were established in Traiskirchen and Graz.
  • 4–9 November
    • Hungary – Between 4 and 9 November, the Hungarian Army put up sporadic and disorganised resistance, with Marshal Zhukov reporting the disarming of twelve divisions, two armoured regiments, and the entire Hungarian Air Force. The Hungarian Army continued its most formidable resistance in various districts of Budapest and in and around the city of Pécs in the Mecsek Mountains, and in the industrial centre of Dunaújváros (then called Stalintown). Fighting in Budapest consisted of between ten and fifteen thousand resistance fighters, with the heaviest fighting occurring in the working-class stronghold of Csepel on the Danube River. Although some very senior officers were openly pro-Soviet, the rank and file soldiers were overwhelmingly loyal to the revolution and either fought against the invasion or deserted. The United Nations reported that there were no recorded incidents of Hungarian Army units fighting on the side of the Soviets.
By 08:00 organised defence of the city evaporated after the radio station was seized, and many defenders fell back to fortified positions. During the same hour, the parliamentary guard laid down their arms, and forces under Major General K. Grebennik captured Parliament and liberated captured ministers of the Rákosi-Hegedüs government. Among the liberated were István Dobi and Sándor Rónai, both of whom became members of the re-established socialist Hungarian government. As they came under attack even in civilian quarters, Soviet troops were unable to differentiate military from civilian targets. For this reason, Soviet tanks often crept along main roads firing indiscriminately into buildings. Hungarian resistance was strongest in the industrial areas of Budapest, with Csepel heavily targeted by Soviet artillery and air strikes.
The longest holdouts against the Soviet assault occurred in Csepel and in Dunaújváros, where fighting lasted until 11 November before the insurgents finally succumbed to the Soviets. At the end of the fighting, Hungarian casualties totalled at around 2,500 dead with an additional 20,000 wounded. Budapest bore the brunt of the bloodshed, with 1,569 civilians killed. Approximately 53 percent of the dead were workers, and about half of all the casualties were people younger than thirty. On the Soviet side, 699 men were killed, 1,450 men were wounded, and 51 men were missing in action. Estimates place around 80 percent of all casualties occurring in fighting with the insurgents in the eighth and ninth districts of Budapest.
In the immediate aftermath, many thousands of Hungarians were arrested. Eventually, 26,000 of these were brought before the Hungarian courts, 22,000 were sentenced and imprisoned, 13,000 interned, and 229 executed. Hundreds were also deported to the Soviet Union, many without evidence. Approximately 200,000 fled Hungary as refugees. Sporadic resistance and strikes by workers' councils continued until mid-1957, causing economic disruption.[167] By 1963, most political prisoners from the 1956 Hungarian revolution had been released.
  • 6 November
    • AustriaCzechoslovakia Vienna, Austria and Prague, Czechoslovakia – Jan Fulík, the Czechoslovak Minister of the Interior, and Oskar Helmer, the Austrian Minister of the Interior, jointly for international help in the placing and reception of refugees. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees sent a round robin to sixty governments asking them to support Hungarian refugees and for help in their reception. He stated that both UNHCR and ICEM were ready to co-operate in the selection and transport of the refugees, and that although the Vienna and Prague representatives of both organizations had been told that what mattered to Austria was a non-judgemental reception of refugees, taking them as they come, without selection.
The League of Red Cross Societies undertook to look after the basic needs of 10,000, as well as the care of refugee camps and of a maximum number of 33,000 Hungarian refugees.
  • 21 November
    • AustriaCzechoslovakia Vienna, Austria and Prague, Czechoslovakia – By 21 November, Czechoslovak Police estimated that around 42,000 refugees had taken refuge in Czechoslovakia. In Austria, another 30,000 Hungarian refugees resided in Austria.

1980s

Alliances in 1980:          NATO and Western allies,              Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact and other Soviet allies,      nonaligned states,      China and other allies (communist countries not aligned with USSR), × Anti-Communist armed resistance × Communist armed resistance, × Other armed resistance

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

Prime Minister Klaus celebrates on election night as his centre-right government was re-elected for a second term.

The election results were surprising, as it was generally expected that the current governing coalition would retain their majority in the election. The election was a disappointment for its chairman Václav Klaus and the centre-right parties. The election was also a dissapointment for the left, since they were unable muster a majority. Despite the strong prime minister candidate in Dienstbier, the lack of an alternative coalition spoke against the left. The Greens were not yet considered an option for the ČSSD as a coalition partner, as the Greens deplored the right wing of the party, while the Communists would not endorse a government that featured the ČSNS.
With parliamentary support from the populist Free Democrats (SD) , Klaus was able to continue as prime minister heading a centre-right coalition together with the ČSL/SĽS and the LDS, and the new cabinet was sworn in on 8 July 1987 and passed its investiture vote on 25 July 1987.
  • 23-24 September
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia — At the 8th Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (League of Communists of Yugoslavia's Serbian branch), Slobodan Milošević (the President of the League of Communists of Serbia) lost a vote on expelling Dragiša Pavlović, the leader of the Belgrade Communist Party and an ally of Ivan Stambolić, the President of SR Serbia).
In the backdrop of rising ethnic tensions between the Albanian and Serb communities in the Serbian province of Kosovo, Stambolić had become increasingly critical of Milošević's nationalistic policy about dealing with Albanian unrest in Kosovo and his handling of a crowd in Kosovo, when he used the phrase "no one shall beat you again" that has since then become famous and also displayed open support for the Kosovo Serbs, against the party policy. Stambolić and his ally Pavlović, on the other hand, supported a plan of reaching a consensus through slow and patient negotiations with the Albanian leaders. This situation was worsened by Milošević's grudge against Pavlović, who highly disapproved of the Milošević camp and who had been appointed as the leader of the Belgrade Communist Party by Stambolić against the wishes of Milošević. Milošević's handling of the Kosovo situation split the Serbian Communist Party into two groups. Pro-Pavlović/Stambolić group favoured negotiations with the Albanian leaders while the pro-Milošević group demanded quick and rapid action to end the "Kosovo problem". Pavlović's thinly veiled critical comments accused Milošević of being an anti-Albanian Serb nationalist who's offering populist solutions to the Kosovo situation. Seeing the remarks as an attack, Milošević, together with his senior allies within the party, planned to expel Pavlović from the Communist Party. Pavlović, however, enjoyed the staunch support of Stambolić, and Pavlović's expulsion from the party would effectively mean toppling Stambolić. Stambolić refrained, however, from dispatching a letter asking the party's Belgrade branch to stay out of the Pavlović issue.
On 18 September the Presidency of the Serbian Communist Party met, where Stambolić tried hard to forge a compromise between the two groups. Instead Milošević turned against Stambolić by calling Pavlović a threat to "ideological unity".
On the day of the session, Milošević started by accusing Pavlović of being against the principles of the party and those of Yugoslavia and a threat to party unity. Stambolić replied by saying that Milošević was the one breaking unity. Members of the party were shocked over the intensity of Milošević' attacks, and subsequently voted down his and his supporters' vote on expelling Pavlović. Milošević, having no forces to outmanoeuvre Stambolić, was publicly humiliated and weakened; even his allies lost their influence, and he was obliged to resign from the post of President of the League of Communists of Serbia, which he did three weeks later. This ended his political career.

1988

1989

1990s

1990

  • 20–24 January
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – At the 14th (Extraordinary) Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the party voted in favour of introducing a multi-party system. The first free multi-party elections at federal and republic level were announced for 8 and 9 June the same year.
The proposals by the Slovenian delegation led by Milan Kučan, which would increase the confederation of both party and state, was adopted through a majority vote (with delegates from Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Macedonia voting in favor). The federal government would retained exclusive jurisdiction over foreign affairs, federal defense, federal economy and reserves, and national resources and held joint jurisdiction in a number of other matters, while each republic would have extensive self-determination and control over internal and financial matters, including the right to secession.
  • 11 February
    • Czechoslovakia Belgrade, Yugoslavia – Yugoslav Foreign Minister Budimir Lončar formally sends and offer to Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Karel Schwarzenberg and the Czechoslovak government to advise on the Yugoslav transition from a Communist one-party system to a multi-party political system and act as observers for the upcoming elections.
The Czechoslovak government agreed to the request three days later and will over the following weeks coordinate with the European Communities (EC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and neighbouring Austria and Italy.
  • 14 March
Although the constitution required the president to be directly-elected, it was decided that the first elections should be held on an indirect basis as it was necessary for a president to be elected immediately and processes taking place in the country did not leave time for elections to be held.
The day after the election, on 15 March, Gorbachev took office as President at a meeting of the Congress of People's Deputies 10 days after the election, on 24 March, President Gorbachev appointed his cabinet.
  • 8–9 June
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – The first free multi-party elections were held in Yugoslavia at federal level alongside elections for the parliaments of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Voter turnout was 96.2%.
At the federal level, the Democratic Union of Yugoslavia (SDJ) led by Prime Minister Ante Marković emerged as the largest bloc, with majorities in both the Federal Chamber a Chamber of Republics and Provinces – something that no Yugoslav party or alliance had previously achieved in a free election. In total the SDJ won 46.6% of the votes and 181 seats out of 350. The League of Communists came in second with 43.1% of the votes and 152 seats. Marković thus renewed his mandate to govern.
In Serbia, the League of Communists (SKS) won the election with 46.09% of the votes and 127 of 250 seats. The Democratic Union of Serbia (SDS) received 25.79% of the votes while the nationalist Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) came in third with 15.79% and seats. Various smaller parties such as the Democratic Fellowship of Vojvodina Hungarians (DVZM, 2.64% and 7 seats), Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (SDA, 1.67% and 4 seats), the Peasants Party of Serbia (SSS), also managed to gain represenation. Dragiša Pavlović of the SKS was appointed prime minister.
In Croatia, though the League of Communists of Croatia – Party of Democratic Reform (SKH-SDP) was widely expected to win the election, the election resulted in a narrow victory for the Croatian Democratic Union (HDS) led by Stjepan Mesić. The HDS won 41.50% of the votes and 148 of 356 seats, while the SKH-SDP came in second with 39.70% and 141 seats. The Coalition of People's Accord came in second with 10.99% of the votes. Mesić was appointed the prime minister by the new parliament.
In Slovenia, a five-party coalition comprising the Slovenian Democratic Union (SDZ), the Liberal Democrats (LDS), the Slovenian Peasant Union (SKZ), the Christian Democrats (SKD) and the Greens (ZS), won 58.4‬% of the votes and 50‬ of 80 seats. Despite their attempts to court popularity, the Communists (ZKS) only won 30.1% and 25 seats. Lojze Peterle of the SDZ was tasked with forming a government.
In Bosnia and Hercegovina, the election was virtually a census. The Democratic Union of Bosnia and Hercegovina (SDBiH) won 32.66% of the vote and 42 seats. The Muslim Bosniak Party of Democratic Action (SDA) won 23.15% and 30 seats, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) won 18.23% and 24 seats and the Croatian Democratic Party (HDS) won 12.35% and 16 seats. The League of Communists won 11.76% and 15 seats. A coalition government was formed in which the SDBiH and all three ethnically-based parties were represented and the Muslim Alija Izetbegović became prime minister.
In Macedonia, the League of Communists of Macedonia (SKM) emerged as the largest party with 29.9% of the votes and 38 of 120 seats. The Democratic Union of Macedonia came in second with 27.7% of the votes and 31 seats. The nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) won 16.1% of the votes and 17 seats, while the Liberal Party of Macedonia got 13.3% and 11 seats. The election result made it difficult to form a government, and eventually a technocratic government was formed headed by Kiro Gligorov of the SKM.
In Montenegro, the League of Communists of Montenegro (SKCG) 56.29% of the votes and 83 seats. The Democratic Union of Montenegro (SDCG) headed by Ljubiša Stanković came in second with 24.54% and 29 seats while the People's Party came in third with 13.31% of the votes and 13 seats. Momir Bulatović of the SKCG was elected prime minister.
  • 3-4 November
    • Belgrade, Yugoslavia – At the 15th (Extraordinary) Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the party voted in favour of renaming the party to League of Socialists of Yugoslavia (SSJ). The party also announced it would rework the party platform to take the party into a more social democratic direction.

1991

  • 1 January
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – A drafting committee started work on the New Union Treaty (Russian: Новый союзный договор, romanized: Novyy soyuznyy dogovor). The treaty would replace the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus would have reform the Soviet Union into a new entity named the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics. Six of the fifteen Soviet republics did not participate in the drafting of the treaty: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Georgia and Armenia.
  • 17 January
    • United NationsUnited States Persian GulfGulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq. The U.S.-led UN coalition would until 23 February fly over 100,000 sorties, dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure.
The purpose of the Visegrád Group was to promote close cooperation between the three Central European countries on military, cultural, economic, political and energy matters. Czechoslovakia would also assist Poland and Hungary in their transition from Communist regimes to free, pluralist and democratic societies.
Visegrád was chosen as the location for the 1991 meeting as an intentional allusion to the medieval Congress of Visegrád in 1335 between John I of Bohemia, Charles I of Hungary and Casimir III of Poland.
  • 22 February
    • United NationsSoviet Union Baghdad, Iraq – Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council. The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces.
  • 24 February
    • United NationsUnited States Kuwait and IraqGulf War: The ground campaign of Operation Desert Storm is initiated as British, French and American armored forces crossed the Iraq–Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers. These forces are eventually followed by other coalition forces.
  • 27 February
    • United NationsUnited States Baghdad, Iraq – On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat.
The coalition's advance was much swifter than theys had expected. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within 240 km of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • 28 February
    • United NationsUnited States Washington, D.C., United StatesGulf War: One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, President George H.W. Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated. Kuwait is liberated from Iraqi occupation. While the Iraqi Army suffered 20,000-35,000 casualties and 150,000 captured, coalition casualties are light (1,155 killed and wounded).
  • 6 March
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The New Union proposal was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and sent to the Supreme Soviets of each republic for approval. Agreement could not be reached on the distribution of power between the Union and the Republics and the proposal was not approved. As an additional restrictive element, some autonomous republics expressed the desire to raise their status and to be a party to the new Soviet treaty.
  • 17 March
    • Soviet Union Soviet Union – In a popular referendum was held in nine of the Soviet republics (Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Turkmenia, and Tajikistan), 77.8% of the population voted in favour of maintaining the federal system of the Soviet Union, including a majority in all of the nine republics. The vote was boycotted by the authorities in Armenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia (though not the breakaway province of Abkhazia and in South Ossetia), and Moldova (though not Transnistria or Gagauzia), turnout was 80% across the rest of the Soviet Union.
  • 23 April
    • Soviet Union Novo-Ogaryovo, Soviet Union – An agreement between the Soviet central government and the nine republics, the so-called "9+1" agreement, was signed in Novo-Ogaryovo. The New Union Treaty would have converted the Soviet Union into a federation of independent republics with a common president, foreign policy, and military.
  • 27 June
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – The Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR adopted a resolution on postponing the discussion of the draft for the New Union Treaty to September of the same year. The reason for the postponement was to consider the draft's compliance with the provisions and principles in the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.
  • 20 August
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Russian SFSR, the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR signed the in a ceremony in Moscow. Besides Gorbachev, the treaty was signed by Boris Yeltsin (President of the RSFSR), Nursultan Nazarbayev (President of the Kazakh SSR) and Islam Karimov (President of the Uzbek SSR). Subsequently the Union Treaty of 1922 became null and void and established a new state known as the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (Russian: Союз Советских Суверенных Республик, romanized: Soyuz Sovetskikh Suverennykh Respublik).
The agreement also promised the drafting of a new constitution and elections six no later than six months after the conclusion of the treaty or the formation of the Supreme Council of the Union. The Constitution of the Union was to enter into force after approval by all the states that formed the Union.
    • EstoniaSoviet Union Tallinn, Estonia – At 11:02 PM, during a live broadcast carried out by Estonian Television, the Estonian Supreme Soviet voted on the declaration of its Restoration of Independence, whose judicial foundation stemmed back to the statehood that existed from 1918 to the occupation in 1944.
  • 21 August
    • LatviaSoviet Union Riga, Latvia – Latvia declared that the transition period to full independence declared on 4 May 1990 had come to an end. Therefore, Latvia was proclaimed a fully independent nation whose judicial foundation stemmed back to the statehood that existed before the occupation in 1944.
  • 27 August
    • Soviet Union Chișinău, Moldavian SSR – The Supreme Soviet of Moldova declared the independence of Moldova from the Soviet Union.
Gagauzia and Transnistria, which had declared their independence from the Moldavian SSR on 19 August 1990 and 2 September 1990 respectively, opposed the move and subsequently announced their application to be reattached to the Soviet Union as independent federal republics. Gagauzia and Transnistria feared that a union between Moldova and Romania was inevitable and would result in the Russian-speaking population being excluded from most aspects of public life.
  • 3 September
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Byelorussian SSR became the fourth republic to sign the New Union Treaty.
    • Soviet UnionEstoniaLatviaLithuania Moscow, Soviet UnionSinging Revolution: The Soviet Union formally recognized the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • 17 September
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Azerbaijan SSR and the Tajik SSR signed the New Union Treaty.
  • 1 October
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Turkmen SSR and the Kyrgyz SSR signed the New Union Treaty.
  • 14 October
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – The Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR adopted a resolution on calling a referendum over the issue of declaring independence from the Soviet Union. The referendum was scheduled for 1 December 1991.
  • 1 December
    • Soviet Union Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union – In the Ukrainian independence referendum, a majority of 58.2% of voters voted in favor of remaining in the Union of Soviet Sovereign States and rejected independence from the Soviet Union.
As a result, the President of the Ukrainian SSR, Leonid Kravchuk, announced that Ukraine would sign the New Union Treaty on 10 December.
  • 18 December
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Ukrainian SSR signed the new New Union Treaty as the last remaining republic.

1992

  • 3 January
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Constitutional Conference of the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics opened in Moscow in order to complete a draft of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Sovereign States.
  • 25 April
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Constitutional Conference of the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics finalized the draft for a new Constitution.
  • 29 April
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The Supreme Soviet voted in voted in favor of the draft Constitution.

      Later that day, President Gorbachev addressed the nation directly on television where he announced the election to the Supreme Soviet and a popular referendum for the new constitution to be held on 29 June.
  • 3 November
    • United States Washington, D.C., United States – Democratic Senator of Delaware Joe Biden defeats Republican President George H. W. Bush and Independent Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Biden received 43.0% of the popular vote and 316 electoral votes against Bush's 37.5% and 221 electoral votes and Perot's 18.9%.
  • 13 December
    • Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union – The first partially free multi-party legislative elections held in the Soviet Union for the Supreme Soviet. Four parties were allowed to participate; the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the Liberal Democratic Party (LDPSS), the Social Democratic Party (SDPSS) and the Agrarian Party (APSS). The Communists won 53.86% of the votes and a total of 389 seats in the lower house, the Soviet of the Union. In the upper house, the Soviet of the Republics, the CPSU won 56.3% and 419 seats.

      Following the election, President Gorbachev asked Yuri Maslyukov of the CPSU to form a new Cabinet of Ministers.

      Turnout was 78.40%.

1993

1994

1995

1996

United States Washington, D.C., United States – Democratic President Joe Biden defeats Republican Senator of Kansas Bob Dole in the 1996 presidential election. Biden received 50.4% of the popular vote and 379 electoral votes against Dole's 41.2% and 221 electoral votes, while Reform Party candidate Perot's received 6.7% of the popular vote.

1997

1998

1999

2000s

2000

  • 7 November
    • United States Washington, D.C., United States – In the United States presidential election, Republican Senator of Arizona John McCain defeats Democratic Vice President Al Gore with 48.4% of the votes and 276 electoral votes compared to Gore's 47.9% and 262 electoral votes.

2001

2002

2003

2004

  • 2 November
United States Washington, D.C., United States – In the United States presidential election, Republican incumbent President John McCain is declared the winner over his Democratic challenger, Governor of Vermont Howard Dean, with 51.8% of the votes over Dean's 46.7%.

2005

2006

2007

2008

  • 4 November
United States Washington, D.C., United States – In the United States presidential election, Democratic Senator of New York Hillary Clinton defeats Republican Governor of Massachussetts Mitt Romney.

2009

2010s

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020s

2020

See also


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