Alternative History

The following is a basic timeline of the Welsh Kingdom from 1400 to 2009

15th Century[]

1400: Start of the 1st Welsh War of Independence

1408: Treaty of London establishes the Principality of Wales under Prince Owain IV

1419: Death of Owain Glyndwr

1425: Start of the Pembrokeshire War

1427: End of the Pembrokeshire War

1428: Declaration of the Kingdom of Wales

1435: As part of the 1431 Treaty of Warwick, the Town of Shrewsbury becomes a Welsh Crown property

1455: Wales sides with the Lancastrian Side in the beginning of the Wars of Roses

1460/1: Wales switches to the Yorkist cause

1466: Treaty of Antwerp results in increased trade between Wales and the Low Countries

1472-79: Codification of Welsh Law

1480: Treaty of Sycharth. English Parliament ratifies the Welsh Laws

1484: Foundation of the 3 Universities of St David's, Caernarfon and Ludlow

1490: 1st Rebellion of March

1491: Treaty of Bath cedes Bristol and Bath to Wales in return for troops, money and assistance in the French Wars

1492: Treaty of Ravenscraig with Scotland to provide artillery and cannons for the Welsh Kingdom

1493: Assassination attempt made on King Hywel I

1495: Printing Press is introduced to Wales

16th Century[]

1508: Foundation of the Llynges Frenhiniol Gymreig (the Royal Welsh Navy)

1513: Treaty of Woodstock with England

1515: Prince Rhys of Powys made Chancellor of Wales

1531: Treaty of San Sebastian with Spain

1534: Treaty of Bath torn up, declaration of war on England. 1st Anglo-Welsh War

1537-9: 1st Anglo-Welsh war ends in the Welsh conquest of the North Coast of Somerset

1540: Treaty of Somerset confirms Welsh gains in the conflict, but loses the city of Bath to England

1547: Prince Rhys of Powys removed from the Chancellorship. 2nd Anglo-Welsh War

1550: The first Lutheran Conversion of Powys attempted,

1556: Peace Treaty of Harlech between Queen Elen of Wales and Queen Mary of England

1559-60: 2nd Lutheran Conversion of Powys

1563-85: Expansion of Welsh trade with Europe. Bible translated into Welsh in this period

1587: Phoney War with England.

1588: Treaty of Madrid signed with Spain

1596: First Calvinist preachers arive in Wales

1598-1600: The Protestant Rebellion

17th Century[]

Europe Map 1648

Europe in 1648

1600: The House of Dehubarth takes the throne, a cadet branch of the House of Powys-Fadog Glyndwr

1601: The Anti-Protestant Proclamations prevent any protestant from holding positions of power or authority within the Kingdom of Wales

1605: Treaty of Windsor with James I of England.

1607: Trade Treaty of Abertawe with the Holy Roman Empire

1619: Beginning of a trade boom with Europe

1625: Welsh Parliament meets to discuss the modernisation of Welsh Law

1630: Modernisation of the Navy

1634: The Parliament of '34 ratifies the Kings decrees and sets a minimun term of one parliament per reign to set tax levels

1642: King Hywel III sides originally with Charles I in the English Civil War

1645: Wales changes to side with Oliver Cromwell, effectively becoming neutral in the conflict

1649: Hywel again changes sides with the unexpected execution of King Charles

1650: Army reforms by Wales following Cromwell's New Model Army. Considered the formal creation of the Royal Welsh Army as it received its Royal Charter in this year.

1652-74: The Dutch Naval Wars. Wales sides with both antagonists during the three separate conflicts. The Welsh Navy suffers numerous significant defeats.

1683: Last Welsh Parliament called before 1703

1685: Sir Christopher Wren starts work on the Welsh cities of Harlech and St Davids.

1687: The Welsh Royal Society formed

1688: Treaty of Kings between Hywel IV and James II

1690: Welsh troops serve with James in Ireland

1692: Wren starts work on the city of Cardiff

1693: Work starts on the Palace of Sycharth and Caernarfon City and Palace

18th Century[]

1700: Plague strikes Wales

1703: After a 20 year absence the a Welsh Parliament is called at Machynlleth. It is the last session to be called at Machynlleth

1704: Welsh Troops take part in the Battle of Blenheim

1708: Modernisation of the Navy

1709: Uprising of Gower. Start of the modernisation of the Army

1716: Work begins on the Naval Docks of Milford Haven, Bristol and Beaumaris

1718: Beginning of the 3rd Anglo-Welsh War

1719: Conquest of the Kingdom of Wales by the Kingdom of England

1720: Rebellion of Gwent and the signing of the Annexation Treaty of Manchester. Duke of Newcastle confirmed as first Governor General

1722: 1st Invasion Attempt

1723: The Glamorgan-Gwent Rebellion. First Overseas Expulsion from Wales

1725: 2nd Invasion Attempt

1727: Anti-Welsh laws implemented. Closure of the Welsh Universities. Duke of Norfolk appointment as Governor-General of Wales

1729: Builth Wells Revolt.

1730: Naval Battle of Lands End. Defeat of the 3rd Invasion Attempt.

1732: The Gwynedd Rebellion. Eldest sons of remaining Welsh Nobles taken as hostages by the English Court.

1736: 4th Invasion Attempt.

1739: Pembrokeshire Rebellion led by the Lord Archbishop of St Davids. 5th Invasion Attempt.

1743: The Execution of the 200.

1744: Wales rises in full revolt against English rule.

1749: End of the Welsh Revolt.

1750: 6th Invasion Attempt. Death of King Rhys in the Battle of Milford Haven.

1753: Implementation of new stricter anti-Welsh laws. More people are sent to English colonies overseas.

1759: 7th Invasion and the Welsh 2nd War of Independence begins.

1771: Battle of Harlech sees Wales retain its reconquered territories.

1788: Anti King Council formed at Strata Florida.

1796: Treaty of Shrewsbury sees England recognise an independent Wales restored to its pre-war borders.

1799: Spanish-Welsh War results in the Welsh conquest of Patagonia.

19th Century[]

1801: The Welsh Navy joins the Allied Fleet in the War against France.

1803: Wales gains territory in the African land grab.

1805: A Squadron of Welsh War ships take part in the Battle of Trafalgar.

1809: Trade Treaty of Manchester with England establishes a degree of free trade between the Kingdoms.

1815: The Army Revolts, put down with the use of mercenary troops.

1819: Increasing industrialisation especially in the south.

1820: 2nd Rebellion of March.

1821: The Welsh Army is made a permanent standing army.

1822: Trade Treaty of Welshpool with England. Army Headquarters is fixed at Caerphilly.

1826: Increasing political unrest

1830's: Increase in Welsh Imperial territories.

1831: Cardiff made the offical Welsh Capital. Opening of the Royal Opera House.

1832: First coronation held at Llandaff Cathedral.

1838: Increase in size of Cardiff Docks.

1839: Opening of the Royal Museum and Art House in Cardiff.

1840: Argentine-Welsh War. Patagonia lost to the Argentine Republic.

1843: Attempted coup de tat by Prince Rhys of Gywnedd.

1845-49: Welsh Civil War.

1854: Welsh troops take part in the Crimean War.

1856: The Pendragon Star (Military medal for bravery) instituted.

1857: Assassination attempt on Rhisiart III.

1859: First modern Eisteddfod held in Cardiff.

1860: Excomunication of the Monarchy for the acceptance of the Eisteddfod Druid Movement.

1864: Student protests in the universities.

1865: Rebellion in the African Colonies.

1866: End of the African Rebellion after Rhisiart III travels in person to deal with local Chiefs.

1867: Political protests in Wales. Establishment of Aberystwyth University, Wales first secular college.

1868: Foundation of the Welsh Railway.

1869: Increasing tension with England over the Irish Question.

1870: A canal system built to help service the Welsh industrial base. Further political riots in major Welsh cities.

1872: Commission of the new Welsh Palace at Cwm Hyfryd.

1873: The secular university of Abertawe founded.

1875: Assassination attempt made on Rhisiart IV. Continuing political unrest.

1880: Start of political hiatus.

1881: Foundation of the Welsh Secret Police - Undeb Un Deg Dau Cleddyfau (Union of the 12 Swords or UDC for short)

1882: The Pope retracts the earlier Excommunication Bull.

1886: Wales fields its first Rugby team against England.

1887: Another assassination attempt succeeds in killing the Prince of Gywnedd.

1893: With the failure of the Irish Home Rule Bill, Rhisiart IV declares war on England, both countries mobilise their fleets, but no action by either side was taken with both sides standing down in early 1894. Bristol University founded.

1896: More political unrest, led by English agitators. First modern Olympiad.

1897: Plot to replace Rhisiart with his son fails.

20th Century[]

1901: Queen Catherine is assassinated in Cardiff.

1902: Major political riots force the King to abandon Cwm Hyfryd Palace for the safety of Caerfilli Palace.

1903: Parliament reinstated and a new Parliament House built in Cardiff Civic Centre.

1904: New Welsh Constitution agreed.

1912: Start of organised road building in Wales.

1914: The Army and Navy increase in size. Further civil unrest with the Communist Party making its first appearance in Wales. Wales negates its treaty obligations and declares itself neutral as the 1st World War starts.

1917: Parliament attempts to impeach the King.

1918: Arrest of several members of both the Senedd and the Assembly on grounds of treason.

1919: The Royal Welsh Air force established. The Irish War of Independence begins. Wales also honours its treaty obligations to the Greek Kingdom and sends troops to take part in the Greco-Turkish war.

1920: The start of the Five Year Autocracy by King Iago.

1922: Treaty of Dublin. Wales commits to the defence of the Irish Republic.

1923: Wales joins the League of Nations.

1925: Communist Uprisings in the coal fields.

1933: Treaty of Berlin. Wales allies itself with Nazi Germany. The nationalistic Chancellor, Iorwerth Bycysten controls a right wing government. The government-controlled Bank of Wales established.

1935: Building of autobahns in Wales.

1937: More German advisors arrive in Wales.

1938: Anti-German and Anti-King riots throughout Wales. Put down with the use of German troops. Hitler takes control of key airports

1939: World War Two starts. Maeslywydd Thomas (Field Marshal Thomas) dismissed as Head of the Welsh Armed Forces. Parliament removed from Cardiff to Machynlleth.

1940: The Government of Iorwerth Bycysten collapses. Maeslywydd Thomas declares a state of emergency, Iago declares Wales to be merged with Germany, with Hitler as the new Chancellor. Thomas retains control of the Armed Forces and defeats the Germans within Wales. Placing Iago under house arrest Thomas heads a new Welsh Government which sides with England against Hitler.

1941: The Navy takes part in the Battle of the Atlantic whilst the Welsh Air force begins bombing raids on Germany. American troops begin to be barracked within the Kingdom

1942: Welsh cavalry takes part in the North African Campaign. Thomas gains executive powers.

1943: Over 50,000 American troops now based in Wales.

1944: The Crown Prince dies during the push on Paris after successfully surviving the D-Day landings.

1945: With the end of the war the Communists in the south rise in revolt again.

1946: Democratic marches throughout Wales. Attempted Communist Coup.

1949: Communists take over half the seats in the American guided election of '49.

1950: Senedd reforms. Iago assassinated by poison. Communist Uprising. Declaration of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Wales. American troops help put down the uprising. Korean War starts. Welsh troops deploy as part of UN forces.

1953: Death of Maeslywydd Thomas. The only non-Royal to be buried with full State Honours and a place in the Royal Crypts in Strata Florida. Formal disestablishment of the Welsh Empire. Korean War ends. Welsh forces return home.

1956: Regency of Prince Arthur begins.

1957: Communist Party made illegal. Election of '57 sees no Communists elected. Widespread accusations of electoral fraud.

1959: Increase in the size of the Army.

1961: Anti-American rioting throughout Wales

1963: Removal of more powers from the Monarch to Parliament.

1964: Electoral reform brings the vote to a universal suffrage of all citizens 18 and over.

1966: Communist marches in Cardiff

1967: Wales joins the EEC. Welsh Army and Air Force personnel deploy to Vietnam.

1968: Communist Party is made legal again and in the '68 election becomes the official Opposition.

1969: Further reduction in the monarch's powers.

1970: Decimal currency introduced.

1973: With the oil crisis the Welsh economy crashes. The August election sees the Communists returned as the Government, but with only a small majority.

1975: The Communist Government declines Soviet help in establishing a Welsh Communist State

1978: Assassination of the Communist Chancellor, Marc Griffiths, by the CIA

1979: Massive electoral fraud sees the Communists removed from Government by the Welsh Democratic Party. (a CIA funded political party). The new government, however, orders the expulsion of all American troops from Wales.

1982: Wales sides with the Argentine Republic in the Falklands War.

1983: Llywelyn III becomes the first Welsh Monarch to swear to uphold the constitution.

1995: The Welsh Communist Party, now called the Social Democratic Party, wins the general election.