For more details see Twilight of a New Era (1914-1964).

Europe 1905

Europe in 1914


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
  • 21 April. Occupation of Veracruz (Mexico) by the US.
  • 28 June. Assassination attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • 7 July – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers. Decides to give Serbia a warning of its support of anti-Austrian and pan-slavism propaganda.
  • 15 August - Inauguration of Canal of Panama (OTL)
  • 21-22 August - Envoys of Austria-Hungary and Russian Empire meet in Krakow. It is agreed that Austria-Hungary will not take military actions (or preventive war) on any country of the Balkans, in exchange Russia will accept the integration of Bosnia-Herzegovina into the empire provided the rights of the minorities are guaranteed. Two secret treaties are signed: Non-aggression between Austria-Hungary and Russia, and Austria-Hungary will declare the war on Ottoman Empire if it attacks Russia.
  • 23 November U.S. withdrawal of Veracruz (Mexico) (OTL)
  • September - Palace coup in Serbia. Primer Minister Pasic replaced by military cabinet backed by Prince Alexander.
  • October - Begin of entente of Austria-Hungary with France and UK. Agreements that guarantee from Austria-Hungary no military actions (or preventive war) on any country of the Balkans (De facto break of alliance with Germany).
  • Government of Ireland (Home Rule) Act, approved by the British Parliament.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • Beginning of World War I
    • National Protection War in China
  • 18 January – Twenty-One Demands from the Japan to China are made (OTL)
  • February - Emperor of Austria-Hungary Franz Josef dies, and coronation of Franz Ferdinand. Speech from the throne to the Diets of Austria (Vienna) and Hungary (Budapest) announces major reforms of the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
  • 20 February to 4 December Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) World's Fair in San Francisco, California (OTL)
  • 19 March Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not then classified as a planet (OTL)
  • March to October – The 1915 locust plague breaks out in Palestine (OTL)
  • March - Diet of Austria votes to start talks on reform of the Empire and invites diet of Hungary to do the same. Meeting between delegates of Austria and Hungary. Representatives of Boheme, Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania, Galicia and Slovenes joint the meeting on invitation of the Emperor-King. Deadlock because of refusal of Hungarians to divide lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Kingdom of Hungary) and give full autonomy to Croatia and other nationalities.
  • April - Diet of Hungary declares independence. Start of riots in Transylvania and Croatia that spreads to other parts of the Kingdom of Hungary. Hungarian army called to squash them. Start of Hungarian Civil War. Emperor orders the Common Army to re-establish order and Imperial control. Mutiny in Hungarian Army between royalist and secessionists.
  • May - Secessionists Hungarian army has only control on immediate area around Budapest.
  • May - Serbia declares the war on Austria-Hungary and proceeds to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
  • World War I starts.
  • June National Councils of Boheme, Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania, Polish Galicia, Ukrainian Galicia, Vojdovina-Banat, Slovene and Italian zones formed and control zones of their nationalities.
  • June Emperor-King decrees it assumes direct control of Hungary and introduces universal suffrage on lands of the Kingdom of Hungary and full autonomy to nationalities within the Empire. Other decrees end the process of Magyarization.
  • June Compromise of the National Councils to stay within the Crown of Habsburg if an assembly is called to reform the Empire on the base of the March meetings.
  • June (end of Hungarian Civil War) Capitulation of Budapest and designation of military governor and provisional Government.
  • 3 May Suspension of the application of Government of Ireland (Home Rule) Act until the end of the war.
  • 15 May 1915, Argentina, Brazil and Chile sign the treaty that creates the ABC Pact, the future South Alliance (OTL)
  • 28 July United States occupation of Haiti (OTL)
  • 31 October Pleasant Valley earthquake (1915) OTL
  • 12 December – Chinese president Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor (OTL)


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • End of National Protection War in China
  • Proclamation of the Second Republic of China in Nanjing
  • January The Nationals Councils, the Austrian Diet and the provisional Council and Government of Hungary send deputies to the Conference on the Organization of Austria-Hungary
  • 14 January Zuiderzeevloed hits the Netherlands. North Sea storm that floods the lowlands and kills 10,000 people (OTL)
  • 22 March – The last Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored (OTL)
  • 15 May - United States occupies Dominican Republic
  • 29 August – The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act (Establishes the Commonwealth of the Philippines) (modified OTL)
  • 12 October – Hipólito Yrigoyen is elected President of Argentina (OTL)
  • 7 November - Wilson reelected as President of the USA (OTL)
  • November - Inauguration of provisional State Governments (State Councils) that will call for elections as soon as the War ends.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
  • 25 January The Danish West Indies is sold to the United States for $25 million (OTL)
  • 5 February – The constitution of Mexico is adopted (OTL)
  • March Democrat Woodrow Wilson is sworn a second term as President of the United States.
  • May Establishment by the US of the Commonwealths of Haiti and Dominica (ex Dominican Republic)
  • June Declaration of the Federal State of Austria-Hungary and draft of territorial organization approved by the Conference on the Organization of Austria-Hungary. The Conference votes to rename itself Federal Parliament.
  • November Approval of the territorial organization by the National Councils and Federal Parliament (Austria-Hungary).
  • September The Federal Parliament votes the new Constitution. However, its applications is limited to the Federal government. As soon as the war ends will it be fully implemented (Austria-Hungary).



Lenin proclaiming the Russian Socialist State

  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
    • Russia Revolution. Proclamation of the Republic.
    • Russian Civil War
  • Capture of Baghdad
  • Extraordinary Pan-american Conference
  • USA enters war
  • March Russian revolution. Czar Nicholas abdicates on pressure from the part of the army and internal front (workers strike and peasants revolts).
  • March Installation of provisional government Calls for elections of All Russian Constituent Assembly and vows to continue the war on Germany.
  • June-July German occupation of Baltic countries, Ukraine and Belarus by Germany. Proclamation of puppet states by Germany
  • July Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia proclaim their independence from Russia
  • 11 October Mayagüez (Puerto Rico) and other adjacent towns are nearly destroyed by a 7.5 earthquake and a tsunami. (OTL)
  • October Russia, overthrown of Provisional Government. Socialist Republic proclaimed
  • November Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia form the Transcaucasian Federation. Invasion by Ottoman Army
  • November Finland proclaims independence
  • December Transcaucasian Federation dissolved. Each of the 3 republics negotiates cease fire with Ottoman Army
  • December Peace Treaty between Ottoman Empire and Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
    • Russian Civil War
    • Polish National Independence War
    • Ukrainian Independence War (vs Russia)
  • January Turkestan Soviet proclaims independence from Russia as the Socialist Turkestan.
  • January Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaim their independence from Russia.
  • 1 March Constitution of Uruguay. Establishes semi-collective executive power (President and National Council of Administration) (OTL).
  • March Start of Polish National Independence War.
  • March 1st Movement manifestations (1919) in Chosen.
  • April Red Army reoccupies Ukraine and Belarus (marks the beginning of the Ukrainian Independence War).
  • April Proclamation of the SR of Ukraine and SR of Belarus.
  • July Declaration of the Moldavian Democratic Republic in Bessarabia. Months later votes to unite with the Kingdom of Romania.
  • August Proclamation of the Federal Socialist Republic of Turkestan and independence from Russia.


  • Ongoing events
    • end of Mexican Revolution
    • end of World War I
    • Russian Civil War ends by 1920
    • Polish National Independence War
    • End of Ukrainian Independence War
    • Irish War of Independence
    • Beginning of Anatolian or Turkish Civil War
  • United Provinces of China, South Chinese Republic and State of Yunnan are established has independent states.
  • January Puerto Rico becomes a Commonwealth associated to the United States.
  • January ABC Alliance (South Alliance) formalized has a permanent agreement by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay
  • May Armistice (World War ends)
  • May Proclamation of the Polish Republic
  • May the Polish Revolutionary Committee (Polrewkom) under assistance of the Red Army, proclaims the People's Republic of Poland
  • May proclamation of the Arab Kingdom of Syria under Faisal I and establishment of the Confederation of Arab States
  • June Proclamation of Federal State Austria-Hungary by the Emperor-King in joint session with the Federal Parliament. Issue of writs for State and Federal Elections.
  • June Start of Paris Peace Conference
  • 17 June United Kingdom general election, triumph of the liberal-conservative coalition under Lloyd-George
  • 25 June Declaration of independence of Ireland (Irish War of Independence)
  • July Red army enters Transcaucasia
  • August Treaty of Versailles (UK, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and USA with Germany)
  • August Treaty of Lucerne (UK, France, Italy, Greece with Ottoman Empire) and partition of Ottoman Empire. Creates new policies: International Straits Zone, Ionia, Lycia, and Cilicia.
  • August proclamation of SRs of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia
  • August recognition of the Confederation of Arab States
  • August a series of Baltic peace treaties are signed (Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia and Russia, Belarus and Ukraine)
  • September Compromise of Warsaw (Germany and Poland) and Status of East Prussia
  • September Treaty of Ravenna (Italy, Serbia, Austria-Hungary, UK, France)
  • September Army uprising in Ankara and Konya marking the start of Anatolian or Turkish Civil War
  • 2 November 1920 US Election: Republican Leonard Wood elected
  • 16 December Haiyuan earthquake (OTL)



  • Ongoing events
  • Arbitration of USA and South Alliance of the Tacna-Arica dispute
  • Pan-american Conference in Santiago de Chile
  • Establishment of Republic of Turkey
  • Signing of Anglo-Irish Treaty that ends Irish War of Independence
  • 4 December - British Parliament approves Government of Ireland Act. Applied only in Northern Ireland, because of Irish War of Independence.


  • Failed coup in Belarus of Social Revolutionaries (SR) and Left Social Revolutionaries (Left SR)
  • March Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia establish the Federation of Socialist Republics
  • Proclamation of the Afghan Democratic Republic.
  • 18 June – Mount Etna erupts in Italy, making 60,000 homeless (OTL)
  • 1 September Great Kantō earthquake (OTL)
  • The Government of Northern Ireland Act (1923) establishes Northern Ireland

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