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Treaty of Manhattan (EEC)

Treaty of Manhattan
Signed
Location
29 November 1918
New York, USA
Effective 1 December 1918
Signatories Albania, Austrian Empire, Baltic State, Belgium, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Czech-Slovak State, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Irish state, Italy, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Southern Slav State, United Kingdom & the Commonwealth Realms, The Sublime Porte
Parties Albania, "Armenia," Australia, Austria-Hungary, Baltic State, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croat Delegation, Czech-Slovak Delegation, Don Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hejaz, Hungarian Delegation, Irish delegation, Northern Irish Dominion, Italy, Lithuania, Montenegro, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Siberia, Slovenian Delegation, Syria, Trans-Caucasian Republic, Ukraine, United Kingdom,* The Sublime Porte. Additionally various subnational Arab and Jewish (Zionist) organizations
Language Arabic, English, Czech, Estonian, French, German, Hebrew, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Magyar, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Serbo-Croat, Turkish Arabic, Yiddish.
New York Compacts
Signed
Location
28 November 1918
New York, USA


Negotiated over six months in New York City following the Armistice.  The New York  Peace Accords did not include the Russian Empire, Russia having made a separate peace, earlier in 1918.  The  Status Quo Ante Bellum in Turkey, North Africa and the Arabian peninsula was negotiated as part of the Damascus Armistice. However, the ceasefire was to be observed by all parties to the conflict and the implementation of the terms including ceasefire among unrecognized states as an interim compromise was affirmed at the beginning of the conference. Both the Entente and the Quadruple Alliance Powers had competing interests in N. Africa and the Arabian peninsula. The instability of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary left many issues unresolved, future Arab and potentially Jewish states, British involvement in Egypt, and the borders of Poland and Albania being chief among them.

Issues of self governance or independence for various nationalities within the empires were not all dealt with as part of the Peace treaty but were subject of agreements under a general framework known as the "New York Compacts."

This included provisions for a Jewish state, and Arab kingdoms, ostensibly within the framework of the Ottoman Empire.

The United Kingdom while seated as such, included delegates representing Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand. Hungary, already had pre-existing parliamentary institutions, and the Czech-Slovak provisional government was seated under protest by Germany and "Austria-Hungary." The protests were removed with the condition that the status quo be maintained in "Austria-Hungary" until the issues of federalism in the Empire were resolved by separate negotiation. This included the boundaries of Poland. An "Irish Republic" was seated, over the protest of Great Britain. A compromise "Irish Republic" and "(Northern) Irish Dominion" was created, again with a commitment to resolve issues by separate negotiation as part of the Compacts.

Wilson, in keeping with the invitations given to national groups in Europe, had intended to invite subnational groups of the Ottoman Empire as well. The "Kingdom of Hejaz" and "Kingdom of Syria" born out of the Arab Revolt were seated as such. Various Arab and Jewish and other subnational groups from both the Ottoman and former Russian Empires sent representatives which were allowed to present proposals, and these proposals formed a looser basis for the Ottoman portion of the Compacts.

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