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Brest-litovsk treaty

The Treaty of Strasbourg was the most important of the peace treaties that bought World War One to and end. The treaty ended the state of war between the Central powers and The Entente. It was signed on the sixth November 1919 in Strasbourg exactly one year after the capitulation of France. Although the armistice, signed on 12 august 1919, ended the actual fighting, it took three months of Central Powers negotiations at the Strasbourg peace conference to conclude the treaty.

Out of the many provisions of the treaty, one of the most negotiated and controversial required the Entente to accept the responsibility for causing all the loss and damage" during the war.

The central powers Delegations

  • The German empire's delegation was represented by Maximilian of Baden,Chancellor of Germany and Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau,Minister of foreign affairs.The German war goals was to follow through with the pre-war septmberprogram.
  • The Danubian Federation's delegation was represented by Max Hussarek von Heinlein, Minister of Danubian federation and Ottokar Czernin, Foreign minister of Danubian Federation. The Danubian federations war goals was to make sure that they got their fair share of the spoils.
  • The Tsardom of Bulgaria was represented by Vasil Radoslavov, Prime minister of Bulgaria, Sava Savov, Minister of war of Bulgaria. The Bulgarians war goals was to rectify and undo the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest.

The Entente Powers Delegations

  • The British Empire was represented by David Lloyd George, Prime minister of the United Kingdom and Edward Stanley, The secretary of state of war. Their goal was to try and not lose their colonies.
    • The Dominion of Canada was represented by Robert Borden, prime minister of Canada and The Duke of Devonshire, Governor-General of Canada.
    • The British Raj was represented by Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India and Austen Chamberlain, Secretary of state for India.
    • The Union of South Africa was represented by Louis Botha, prime minister of South Africa and The Earl of Buxton, Governor-General of South Africa.
    • New Zealand was represented by William Massley, Prime minister of New Zealand and The Earl of Liverpool, Governor-general of new Zealand.
    • The commonwealth of Australia was represented by Billy Hughes, Prime minister of Australia and Ronald Munro Ferguson, Governor-General of Australia.


  • The French Republic was represented by Georges Clemenceau,prime minister of France and Minister of war. Their goal was to try and not lose any more European territory.
  • The Kingdom of Belgium was represented by Gérard Cooreman, prime minister of Belgium and Antonin de Selliers de Moranville, chief of staff of the Belgian army.

Treaty context and signing

On the 10th of August 1919,the Central Powers declared that if the Entente did not sign the treaty, War would resume in France. The French prime minister knew that France couldn't hold out much longer and agreed to the treaty. This led to many protests in France which culminated in him resigning in 1920.

Treaty Terms

The treaty included a wide amount of terms,but the French terms were the harshest ones losing much of their colonial empire and being forced to pay war reparations of 10 billion German Marks.The British empire avoided being to harsh terms losing only a few of their African colonies and no military restrictions.

The French Republic

  • France was to cede the Departments of Nord and Pas-De-Calais to the German Empire.
  • France was to cede the colonies of,Madagascar,French Djibouti,French Cameron and all of French Equatorial Africa to the German Empire..The French portion of Morocco was to be given independence under German influence
  • France was to demobilize its sufficient soldiers by March 1920,to leave no more then 150 000 men in ten infantry and 5 Cavalry Divisions.The French General staff was to be dissolved.
  • France was to destroy all fortifications on their side of the new border with Germany and demilitarize their area for a period of 24 years.
  • France was prohibited from the arms trade, limits were imposed on the type and quantity of weapons and prohibited from the manufacture or stockpile of chemical weapons, armoured cars, tanks and military aircraft.
  • The French navy was to be surrendered to the Central powers and be returned at a later point.

'France was to pay war reparations of 10 billion German Marks.

The Kingdom of Belgium

  • Belgium was to become a satellite state of the German Empire with King Albert II forced into exile.
  • Belgium was to join the Mitteleurope economic pact by 1921.
  • Belgium was to cede all its colonial possession to the German Empire.

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

  • The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were to join the German Empire as a new member state.

The British Empire

  • Britain was to cede the colonies of Northern Rhodesia,southern Rhodesia,Kenya and the Bechuanaland Protectorate to the German Empire.
  • Britain was to cede the Suez canal to the German Empire and British Somaliland to the sultanate of Somalia.
  • The Entente alliance was to be dissolved and no new alliance between France and Britain would be signed without the central powers acceptance.

Thee Commonwealth of Australia

  • Australia was to cede its half of Papua New Guinea to the German Empire.

Reactions

German

The treaty was hailed by many people in the German Empire with joy and several parades were held days after the treaty had been signed.In the German African colonies,the Lion of Africa was welcomed back as a hero.

Danubian

The treaty was received with mixed feelings in the Danubian Federation.

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