Trentino is parliamentary representative democratic state, according to its state constitution is organized as follows.
- The State Governor (Governatore), who is the head of the state and imperial representative, is appointed for a five year term by the Emperor-King, on advise and consultation of the State-President. The Governor can dissolve and call for immediate elections of the State Assembly on a proposal of the State-President
- The State Government consists of the State-President (Presidente di Stato) and the State Council (Consiglio di Stato). The State-President is appointed by the State Governor, from the leader of the party or coalition with majority in the State Assembly. The rest of the state council is appointed by the Governor on recommendation of the Minister-President.
- The unicameral State Assembly (Assamblea di Stato) is the supreme legislative body of the State. Its 60 members are elected by universal suffrage using a proportional representation system for a five-year term, unless previously dissolved by the Governor;
- The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme State Court and Constitutional Court are nominated by the State Governor, on a list proposed by the State Assembly.
In Trentino, independent candidacies are the norm and at local levels the majority of the elected. At state level elections the main parties are:
- Trentino People's Party (Italian: Partito Popolare Trentino, PPTT; German: Trentiner Volkspartei, TVP), main social-christian party,
- Democratic Liberal Party of Trentino (Partito Liberale Democratico del Trentino PLDT; Liberal-Demokratische Partei Trentino LDPT) liberal party
- Social Progressive Party of Trentino (Partito sociale progressista Trentino PSPT; Soziale Fortschrittspartei Trentino SFPT), the sole center-left party.
Trentino was divided in districts and communes. The reorganization of 1922 established two provinces (Trento and Bolzano), each is subdivided in districts and municipalities (Comuni/Gemeinden).
Despite the overwhelmingly mountainous nature of the territory, agriculture remains important. Farms often join together to form larger cooperatives. The fertile valleys of the state produce dairy products and timber. The most important produce comprises: apples and other fruit, vegetables (mainly in the Val di Gresta) and grape: important especially for its quality, the latter is used for the production of dry and sparkling wines.
Its industries include textiles, mechanics, wood and paper productions.