An alternate timeline by Althistorian 2005.
What if the 1863 Draft Riots became much more than just riots?
1863: The Draft Riots escalate and spread to the rest of New York State, so Lincoln agrees to give New York City independence as the Free City of Tri-insula, but the rest of New York State is still unsatisfied and eventually secedes from the Union to join the Confederacy. The former mayor of New York from before Lincoln took the presidential office, Fernando Wood, returns as the new president of Tri-insula. Missouri and Kentucky also secede and join the Confederacy after New York's successful secession. Tri-insula allies with the Confederacy and quickly becomes a Confederate puppet.
1864: Due to the additional income and strategic advantage gained from New York's secession from the Union, the Confederacy wins the First American Civil War on the eve of the 1864 US presidential elections, and is finally recognized as an independent nation. The Democratic Party candidate, George McClellan, is put in charge of the occupied Union as the 17th President of the United States, and the Republican Party is banned. All free African-Americans are enslaved following the Union defeat. As for the 1864 elections, they are cancelled and presidential elections are only held in 1868. Also, President Lincoln flees into exile in British Canada and appeals for Anglo-French support.
1868: With the Republican Party banned, Presidents McClellan and Davis run unopposed and win the Union and Confederate elections respectively. After this, the United States becomes a puppet state of the Confederacy instead of an occupied enemy. The British and French, despite opposing slavery, decide to let it slide, although escaped slaves are able to seek refuge in Canada. Meanwhile, Tri-insula signs a treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with the Confederacy, which effectively turns it into another Confederate puppet.
1872: President McClellan wins a third term, but dissent is still brewing in the former Union. Protests break out in Maine, demanding the return of President Lincoln and his government. The Confederates end the protests, but without shooting the protesters for fear of negative propaganda.
1874: On 13 May, the British Empire decides to finally declare war on the Confederate States of America and both of its puppet states. Anti-slavery groups revolt all across the former Union states. Mexico is also invited to split the land. Facing a two-front invasion, the Confederacy mobilizes its army and prepares to fight.
1875: Mexico is pushed back, but not as far as in the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. With Mexico mostly subdued, the Confederates turn more of their attention to the British, who are advancing into many northern regions of the puppet Union. The British Royal Navy is sent to blockade all Confederate-controlled coasts, and Britain invites many or even all Latin American countries to fight against the Confederates and help Mexico push them out of northern Mexico.
1876: Numerous Latin American countries join the war, and Mexico finally manages to push the Confederates out of northern Mexico with their support. Meanwhile, the British and abolitionist rebels push the puppet Union closer and closer to collapse while completely overrunning Tri-insula. Presidents McClellan and Davis briefly consider surrendering to the abolitionists, but the idea is quickly dropped.
1877: The puppet Union finally collapses. But although President Lincoln returns as the 18th President of the United States, and Tri-insula is swiftly annexed back into the Union, the Confederacy is not yet defeated.
1878: The Latin Americans launch a massive offensive east from Texas. The Union and British launch another coordinating offensive from the north, and President Davis tries to flee the Confederacy. However, his escape ship is captured by the Royal Navy, with him in it! With President Davis and the high-ranking Confederate officers escaping with him captured, Confederate soldiers surrender in droves, flooding the abolitionist POW camps. Finally, the United States are reunited. However, this isn't the end of the war yet.
1879: After the Second American Civil War ends, the British and Latin Americans leave to mind their own business. However, Mexico claims the Mexican Cession should be returned to them. President Lincoln disagrees, but tries to find a peaceful solution to the problem. Meanwhile, the War of the Pacific starts between Bolivia and Peru on one side, and Chile on the other. Also, Republican extremists try to persuade Lincoln to ban the Democratic Party in retaliation for the puppet Union's ban of the Republican Party, but Lincoln refuses stating that there cannot be democracy without opposition towards the government.
1880: With no solution being provided by President Lincoln towards the Mexican Cession, Mexico declares war, starting the Second Mexican-American War. Obviously, the US is expected to have the upper hand once again, as in the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, but Mexico apparently has the upper hand due to the US only just recovering from being crushed in the first American Civil War and being revived after the second.
1881: Mexico pushes into some parts of the Mexican Cession, but the US army places priority on the most resource-rich states, like California and Texas.
1882: After two years of fighting, the US finally has the upper hand. The US army crushes the Mexican army once again, pushing it all the way back to Mexico City, and this time the Yucatan Peninsula is ceded to the US while the rest of Mexico becomes a US protectorate. Meanwhile, the Triple Alliance is formed in Europe between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
1884: The War of the Pacific ends.
1886: After the Second Mexican-American War, most Latin American countries (except Brazil) are afraid of the United States. As a result, they agree to put off any territorial disputes and create the Latin American League (LAL). They immediately launch a full-scale trade embargo on the US.
1888: On 2 April, a retired Guatemalan soldier accidentally crosses the border into Mexico on his morning walk. However, he chooses that day to wear his old soldiers' uniform, causing Mexican border guards to shoot at him. He survives, but the Mexican president declares war on Guatemala a few days later, accusing them of invading Mexico. The US also declares war a few hours later, followed by a series of declarations of war by the LAL the day after, starting the Great Western War.
In April and May, the American army advances swiftly into Guatemala. However, as Guatemala seems to be near collapse, the armies of the rest of the LAL arrive and stop the Mexican-American forces in their tracks. In June, July, and August, the war locks into a stalemate but, on 8 September, the British surprise everyone and no one by joining the war on the side of the US. The British Royal Navy immediately begins wiping the LAL's ports of the map. The British army also invades Guatemala and Venezuela to help the Mexican-American forces. All of Central America falls, but the LAL successfully counterattacks in Venezuela and captures British Guiana. Finally, the Allies (Britain, America, and Mexico) stop advancing at southern Panama and the LAL retreats to northern Colombia.
1889: The Allies prepare a massive offensive to break through the geographical chokepoint in southern Panama and northern Colombia. On 30 May, the offensive destroys the LAL's armies, although the Allies also suffer massive casualties. However, the Allies succeed in the goal of their offensive: to break out of the geographical chokepoint. Colombia falls into chaos as the Allied armies sweep into Bogota and many other major cities. Meanwhile, internal disputes between the congress and president of Chile cause Chile to leave the war. Ecuador and Venezuela eventually request a ceasefire when Colombia surrenders on 2 October and Allied troops start entering their territories.
1890: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are split between the Mexicans and the British while Costa Rica, Panama, and San Salvador are completely annexed by Mexico. Meanwhile, negotiations with Venezuela break down and Ecuador leaves the war. Also, the Chilean Civil War starts between the congress and president of Chile. Venezuela is swiftly defeated by the Allies and annexed by British Guiana. Colombia also becomes part of British Guiana, which is then renamed British South America. Finally, British Honduras is renamed British Central America.
1891: Peru is invaded and Brazil considers helping what remains of the LAL. The Allies warn Brazil, but that only antagonizes Brazil even further. As Allied troops approach Lima, barely defended by what remains of the LAL's armies, Brazil declares war on the Allies. Already anticipating this, Allied troops try invading Brazil through the Amazon, but the rainforest proves to be too much of a challenging terrain. Then, the Allies decide to launch a massive offensive, destroying the armies defending Lima. Brazilian support arrives too late, causing Peru to surrender. However, Brazil and the remaining members of the LAL manage to hold the Allies at the Peruvian-Bolivian border. Facing another stalemate, the Allies transfer more forces to the frontlines and try landing on the eastern coasts of Brazil.
1891-3: France and Russia sign a series of agreements and the Franco-Russian Alliance is created.
1892: The Allies continue a grueling stalemate against Brazil and the LAL, but invasion plans for Brazil's east coast are underway.
1893: Finally, Anglo-American troops land on the eastern coast of Brazil. The invasion is perceived to be a distraction at first, but the troops increase, causing the Brazilians to pull some troops back. However, this proves to also benefit the Allies in Bolivia, as the lines are weakened, which facilitates an Allied advance into La Paz and Sucre. On 25 October, Brazil and the LAL request an armistice.
1894: Despite lengthy negotiations, no treaty is signed yet. However, the Allies pressure Brazil and the LAL to compromise on some of their demands.
1895: The Treaty of Buenos Aires is finally signed on 15 December, ending the Great Western War.
The terms of the treaty:
- The previous annexations of the Allies are confirmed.
- Peru becomes another US protectorate, like Mexico.
- The LAL is disbanded.
- Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Brazil, and Argentina have to pay reparations.
- Many Brazilian and Argentinian ports are to be leased to the British Empire for 30 years, until 1925.
1896: Italy loses the First Italo-Ethiopian War.
1898: The US wins the Spanish-American War even faster than in OTL due to the strategic, economic, and military advantages provided by American protectorates and states in Latin America.
1904: On 8 February, the Russo-Japanese War starts. Then, on 8 April, the Anglo-French Entente is signed.
1905: The Russo-Japanese War ends on September 5. Meanwhile, the First Moroccan Crisis increases the tensions in Europe and the 1905 Russian Revolution occurs but fails like in OTL.
1907: On August 31, the Anglo-Russian Convention is signed, effectively creating the Triple Entente of Britain, France, and Russia.
1908: The Bosnian Crisis happens.
1911: Italy starts the Italo-Turkish War to capture Libya. Meanwhile, the Agadir Crisis (also known as the Second Moroccan Crisis) occurs.
1912: Right after the Italo-Turkish War ends, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Bulgaria start the First Balkan War and fight against the Ottoman Empire as the Balkan League
1913: In mid- to late-June, Bulgaria starts the Second Balkan War by attacking his former Balkan League allies, Serbia and Greece.
1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand is shot in Sarajevo, and within the next two months, World War 1 breaks out. However, due to more imperialistic and interventionist ideals created by the Great Western War, the US joins the war on the side of the Allies from the early beginnings of the war. The Ottoman Empire also joins the war on the side of the Central Powers later on. However, despite the US already being on the Allies' side, the Western Front still falls into stalemate anyway because the US army needs time to cross the Atlantic.
1915: Sensing an opportunity to take back their land and power, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Uruguay join the war on the side of the Central Powers. Brazil, however, is caught up in the Contestado War. Anglo-American forces rush to defend Peru, British South America, and the Argentinian ports leased to Britain as per the Treaty of Buenos Aires, which many South Americans see as a diktat. Meanwhile, the first American troops arrive on the Western Front. They don't make a difference at first, but eventually they do. Also, Italy and Romania join the war on the side of the Allies, while Bulgaria joins on the side of the Central Powers. Serbia falls to Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces while Romania barely holds.
1916: The Allies make a breakthrough on the Western Front. The Russians also launch a massive offensive to break the Central lines on the Eastern Front. With both frontlines broken by the Allies, who are now advancing faster and faster, including in the Balkans, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria request peace. The Allies, especially Russia and Romania, breathe a sigh of relief as the war in Europe is finally over. However, in South America, half of the British ports have been captured. Bolivia and Paraguay have been pushed dangerously close to surrender, though, and the war against the Ottoman Empire is also going well in the Middle East and the Caucasus.
1917: The Ottoman Empire surrenders after the Allies launch a major offensive along the entire frontline and even capture Constantinople. Meanwhile in South America, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay surrender after the Allies capture most of Uruguay's territory. Chile and Argentina, seeing that defeat is now inevitable, request peace. Also, Russia manages to narrowly avoid two revolutions much more successful than the 1905 Revolution. The Bolshevik revolutionaries are sent straight to execution by firing squad, which ends the Bolshevik movement responsible for the second revolution. As for the Duma, which is responsible for the first revolution, it is dissolved, which causes a wave of protests and almost causes a third revolution the following year. However, despite that potential revolution also getting crushed, the Tsar realises Russia is left with no choice but to pursue an isolationist policy (except in trade), said to be his only good decision ever.
1918: With the war over, the Allies start discussing what to do with the defeated Central Powers. A peace conference is held in Paris, and several treaties are drawn up.
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
- The League of Nations will be created.
- Alsace-Lorraine will be returned to France.
- Polish ethnic lands in eastern Germany and western Russia will gain independence as Poland.
- Referendums will be held in Schleswig-Holstein over whether to stay in Germany or to be annexed by Denmark.
- German colonies will be divided between Britain, France, and Japan.
- The Saar will be an Anglo-French mandate for 15 years under the League of Nations.
- The Rhineland will be occupied by Allied forces until 1930, after which it will become a demilitarized zone.
- Germany will pay massive war reparations.
Treaty of St Germain
- Czech and Slovak ethnic lands will gain independence as Czechoslovakia.
- Polish ethnic lands will be ceded to Poland.
- Ruthenian ethnic lands are ceded to Russia.
- Croatian, Slovenian, and Serbian ethnic lands will unite with Serbia to form Yugoslavia.
- Italian and Romanian ethnic lands will be ceded to their respective mother countries.
- Hungary will be separated from Austria.
- Both Austria and Hungary will have to pay war reparations.
Treaty of Trianon
- Bolivia and Chile will become American protectorates.
- Borders between Peru, Bolivia, and Chile will revert back to pre-War of the Pacific borders.
- Argentina will become a British mandate under the League of Nations.
- Paraguay will be annexed by Bolivia and Uruguay will be annexed by British Argentina.
Treaty of Sèvres
- All Armenian ethnic lands, no matter who owns it, will be united to gain independence as the Republic of Armenia.
- The Ottoman Empire's Middle Eastern territories will be divided between the British and French as mandates under the League of Nations.
- Eastern Thrace and Smyrna will be ceded to Greece.
- The Ottoman Empire will move its capital to wherever it sees fit, except Constatinople, which will become an international zone administered by Greece under a League of Nations mandate.
- The Ottoman Empire will pay war reparations.
Treaty of Neuilly
- Bulgaria will cede border territories to Yugoslavia.
- Bulgaria will cede Western Thrace to Greece.
- Bulgaria will cede Southern Dobruja to Romania.
- Bulgaria will pay some war reparations.
1919: The US decides to join the League of Nations due to the same interventionist ideals that brought them into World War 1 in the first place.
1919-1923: Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal overthrow the Ottoman Empire's sultanate government and proceed to force a reversal of the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres by war. They eventually defeat the Allies, but the only lands they manage to regain are Eastern Thrace (including Constantinople) and Smyrna. The former Ottoman territories in the Middle East and Armenia, however, stay under the control of the Allies.
1922: Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party marches on Rome, the Italian capital, forcing the king to effectively give them control over the government. They immediately start transforming Italy into a fascist dictatorship.
1923: The Corfu Incident almost causes a Third Balkan War.
1923-5: The Ruhr is occupied by France and Belgium in response to Germany defaulting on reparations payments.
1925: The Locarno Treaties are signed, partially helping Germany to recover from the damages of the First World War, and also ending the occupation of the Ruhr.
1929: The New York Stock Exchange, better known as Wall Street, suffers a massive downturn in share prices, causing shareholders to dump millions of shares at a fraction of the price they bought them for. This becomes known as the Wall Street Crash.
1931: The Japanese Empire, having its economy weakened by the Wall Street Crash, decides to expand. To create a casus belli for expansion, they sabotage their own railway in the Japanese-influenced Chinese territory of Manchuria and blame Chinese soldiers for the damage. After the Chinese government refuses to compensate, they invade Manchuria and create a puppet state there, known as Manchukuo.
1933: Due to the Great Depression caused by the Wall Street Crash, the right-wing extremist National Socialist German Workers' Party, also known as the Nazi Party, gains power in Germany, transforming it into the Third Reich, also known as Nazi Germany, a fascist dictatorship similar to Mussolini's Italy. The leader of the Nazi Party, Adolf Hitler, now becomes leader of the entire country.
1934: Hitler tries to annex Austria, but Mussolini blocks him from doing so, despite both of them being fascist dictators. He backs off for the moment, but makes it a goal to win Mussolini over.
1935: In October, Italy invades the African country of Abbysinia, also known as Ethiopia. Despite their reluctance, Britain and France are persuaded by America to close the Suez Canal to Italian military supply ships.
1936: Due to the closing of the Suez Canal, Mussolini threatens Britain and France with war unless they reopen the canal. However, America guarantees Britain and France that they will join the war if Mussolini declares war. This is then met by a German guarantee of Italy. Eventually, after a few months of diplomatic stalemate, Italian forces in Ethiopia are forced to surrender. Ethiopia levies harsh terms on the Italians, forcing them to hand over Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. Mussolini feels personally humiliated, and decides to beef up his military in preparation for an invasion of Albania. Meanwhile, the Spanish Civil War starts between the Nationalist rebels and Republican government. The Nationalists are supported by Germany and Italy while the Republicans are supported by Britain, France, and America.
1937: Germany and Japan sign an alliance treaty of general co-operation.
1938: Italy joins Germany and Japan in alliance. Later, when Germany tries again to annex Austria, Italy supports the move instead of blocking it like in 1934. Britain and France protest but, to America's frustration, they don't do anything despite American support. Finally, Germany threatens war over the Sudetenland, a region of Czechoslovakia. The Czechs resist German demands while Britain and France reluctantly guarantee them on the insistence of the US, which also guarantees them.
1939: After a few more months of diplomatic stalemate, Hitler finally has enough of waiting for a solution and declares war on Czechoslovakia, starting the Second World War. This is met by declarations of war on Germany by Britain, France, and America, who form the Allies. Italy then joins the war on Germany's side and also invades Albania, which joins the war on the Allied side. Later, the Spanish government tries to gain the upper hand in the Spanish Civil War by joining the Allies, which means the Nationalists are now effectively fighting on the side of the Axis (Germany and Italy). Poland and Yugoslavia also launch national mobilization in case Germany or Italy invades them. Finally, Albania swiftly falls to the Italians.
1940: On the insistence of the Americans, the British, French, and Czechs go on the offensive. The Czechs and the French manage to cut off southern Germany, but Italian troops move in to support the German defenders, making it more of a headache for the Allies to take southern Germany. However, the Italian army is not that strong, which causes it to get overstretched when Yugoslavia launches a preemptive strike. Meanwhile, the Nationalists are pushed back and Poland moves more troops to the German-Polish border.
1941: With the army overstretched throughout Albania, northern Italy, and southern Germany, Mussolini requests an armistice with the Allies. Meanwhile, Germany's army is still strong, but when Poland, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg all launch preemptive attacks, it collapses. Hitler is captured along with his Nazi inner circle before they manage to commit suicide. In December, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, which means the Americans to have to send their armies over to the other side of the world. However, since the entire military power of the United States is directed against Japan in this timeline, Japan loses World War 2 before the Americans even have a chance of dropping the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1942: The Allies have to decide what to do with Germany since they won so quick. They immediately decide that the Germans in the Sudetenland have to be sent to Germany to prevent any further German claims to the area. However, they aren't sure what to do with the rest of the country. Then, Poland demands that the German-Polish border be moved up to the Oder River, quite close to Berlin, and that the Germans behind the new border should all be deported to Germany to prevent German land claims. Also, it is agreed that Germany should not be required to pay any more war reparations, as this was what caused the Nazis to rise to power in the first place. German civilians are also shown the horrific ways political prisoners are treated under the Nazis, so that their support for the Nazis is destroyed. Finally, all Nazi memorabilia and traces of Nazi rule are destroyed.
1943: With most of Europe at peace, the Spanish Republican government finally wins the Spanish Civil War.
1944: The Japanese, with their army and navy mostly destroyed, agree to make peace with the Allies, who allow them to retreat safely to their homeland in return for non-aggression pacts and trade deals. However, since the Chinese aren't officially part of the Allies, they continually harass the retreating Japanese until they're safely back in Japan. With the Japanese presence gone from Korea, local militias rise up and fight against each other until the Americans enter the area and establish a Korean Republic. Also, the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II dies at the age of 76. Revolutionaries and rebels take this chance to rebel and start a revolution due to uncertainty about the line of succession. Within two weeks of Nicholas' death, the Tsarist regime has collapsed and many ethnic groups have declared independence. However, the revolutionaries are a diverse group, and they set up a Provisional Assembly with equal representation for all the different groups until they can agree on a new system of government. This new assembly does not include the Bolsheviks however, as they were all executed in 1917.
1945: The Russian General Assembly, after seeking assistance from Russia's allies, agrees to create a federal republic. Meanwhile, the newly independent ethnic groups seek help from Sweden or other regional powers to create their new governments. These are:
- Ukraine (also known as Ruthenia)
All the other ethnic groups are part of the General Assembly, while the newly independent ethnic groups pose no threat to the peace created by the Allies and the League of Nations, which has now been reformed and renamed the United Nations. It even has a new flag!
1946: Finally, with peace secured, the Allies invite all countries across the world to join the United Nations. Independence movements succeed in colonies throughout Asia and Africa in the following years. With such a peaceful international climate, political extremists like Saddam Hussein, Muammar Gaddafi, and Ayatollah Khomeini never rise to power, unlike in OTL.
1948: The Chinese Civil War ends earlier with American support for the Nationalists. Corruption is also curbed following this, and also with American support.
1950's - 1990's
Nothing significant happens, even as the US decides to lower its military budget significantly, which greatly helps American national debt repayments. African and Latin American dictatorships don't rise either, as the British, French, and Americans control these area, gradually giving them independence. Even after the colonies, mandates, and protectorates gain independence peacefully, the US doesn't have any reason to support tyranny and despotism, even if it is in favor of capitalism, since there is no communism to oppose capitalism.
The last colonies finally gain independence peacefully. The world is more peaceful than ever, and the United Nations finally agrees to pick up the formerly failed idea of global disarmament and world peace. Surprisingly, the proposals all make it through with overwhelming majorities and even unanimous votes in some cases. Because of this, world peace and global disarmament are achieved surprisingly fast. And now, the world begins to combat climate change not as black or white, male or female, Christian or Muslim, but as humans.