Turin is a nation in Europe.
In 1922, after the Biennio Rosso that struck the Italian states, Pietro Badoglio was sworn into office, in order; he stayed in power until 1944 (voluntary resignation).
On April 27, 1945, several nations of the Italian peninsula (including Turin) were freed from the Fascist control and, while the democratic regime was resumed, the Royal Family was kept in power.
In 1983, following the death of Humbert II, a referendum was held in order to decide whether the nation should be a kingdom or become a republic. The following year, the Republic was established, with Aldo Viglione being the first President.