The British dominated a large amount of the world in reality, and even after the fall of their vast empire, their influences remained in the form of the English language and the Commonwealth.
But in this timeline,as a predecessor to the revolutions of 1848, a British Republican force forces the monarchy to leave Britain. While the streets of Yorkshire and Manchester are clogged with revelers celebrating the fall of the 'tyrannical' rule of the monarchs, in Canada and the colonies, still mostly loyal to the Queen, people mourn at the loss of the British mainland. Scotland rebels and the descendants of war hero William Wallace rally the Scots against the forces of Britain. In Ireland, after the potato famine, the Second French Empire which in this TL is successful at re-establishing Napoleon's superstate, starts a revolt that unites both north and south. The Irish Empire, a French puppet, would in 1900, be replaced with a republic and eventually a socialist state. In India, the Sepoy Mutiny succeeded and a unified Indian empire was formed under the Mughals. Motilal Nehru would reform the nation greatly.
The British monarch still rules as Monarch of Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, the Falklands, and St Helena. After 1905, they recognized the English Republic, who in turn recognized them.
In North America, everything was different. California's Bear Flag revolt happened in 1846, much before it happened in OTL, and in 1859 the Republic was dissolved and Emperor Joshua I of Norton was declared emperor of California. Texas and Maryland are also monarchies, while Virginia, Florida, The Tri-state area, The Midwest, and the African-American populated region are all republics. In South America, the Brazilian Empire lasted longer but fell in 1901 at the end of the Great South American war. Gran Colombia never dissolves, while Argentina becomes a powerful empire and Peru, after independence, becomes a monarchy.
In Asia, there are many large states claiming the title of the Asian superpower. These include Japan and China in the East, India in the south, and Turkey, Arabia and Persia in the Middle East.