|United Crown of Great Iberia|
Corona Unida de Gran Iberia (Spanish)Timeline: Principia Moderni IV (Map Game)
Corona Unita Magnae Iberiae (Latin)
OTL equivalent: Spain, Morocco, Portugal
|↓ 1460 - present|
|Official languages||Aragonese, Castilian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish|
|Minority languages||Arabic, Occitan, Sardinian, Neapolitan, Sicilian, Basque, Greek, Maltese, Catalan|
|-||Monarch||Ferdinand V and II|
|Legislature||Supreme Council of Great Iberia|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Union of the Crown of Aragon and Crown of Castile||1459|
|-||Conquest of Portugal||1461|
|-||Cession of Navarre||1464|
|-||War of the Grand Mediterranean Coalition||1483 - 7|
Great Iberia, officially the United Crown of Great Iberia, is a federation and absolute monarchy founded on a political, economic, social and military union of the Crown of Aragon and Crown of Castile. It was established in 1459 following the invocation of the Acts of Union, 1434 by the King of Castile, Sancho I, and Queen of Aragon, Eleanor I. The Acts of Union themselves were signed by their predecessors, King Henry IV of Castile and King Alfonso V of Aragon. Great Iberia combined controls all of the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Corsica, Sardinia, Genoa, the Balearic Islands, and parts of the West Indies. It is considered by many to be the single most powerful country in Southern Europe, if not the entire continent.
1434 – 1500
The first mention of a unified "Great Iberia" can be found in the union's founding documents, the Acts of Union of 1434, which were identical legislative acts signed into law by the Kings of Aragon and Castile, Alfonso V and Henry IV respectively. The Acts of Union established the conditions under which the union was to occur, and provided that the two would be united under a semi-federal structure, and thereafter slowly transition into a unitary state under an Iberian central government (This particular provision was later revised to maintain the federal nature of Iberia).
Following the sudden death in 1451 of Alfonso V and his heir, Crown Princess Arianne, the next in line, Princess Eleanor, was crowned the Queen of Aragon, the second queen regnant in Aragonese history. The newly crowned Eleanor I immediately began strengthening Aragon's military and economy, and along with her new husband Crown Prince Sancho of Castile solidified the union upon his own accession to the throne of Castile after the death of Henry IV in 1459.
The union of the Crowns was officially proclaimed on 1 January 1460, and the merger of Aragon's and Castile's political infrastructures commenced. An invasion of Portugal in response to its attempt to control the Atlantic through the Cartaz tax resulted in Portugal's total subjugation under Iberia; King Afonso V was deposed and replaced with Castile's vassal, King Fernando I of Morocco.
The union was interrupted in 1463 when the Kingdom of Italy invaded Aragon's Mediterranean territories in order to secure supremacy in the Mediterranean, a position which up to that point Aragon had enjoyed. France, a long time ally of Castile, suddenly changed political positions and invaded the Kingdom of Aragon itself. In what became known as the Iberio-Franco-Italian War of 1463, Castile chose to fall back, allowing France to occupy the Aragonese heartland, and Italy to annex Sardinia, Sicily and Genoa without much resistance; the Treaty of Zaragoza was signed, ending the war in favour of the Franco-Italian coalition. Thus, it appeared the Union had been ended only but three years after it was formed.
Fortunately for Iberia, the occupation did not last long, as in 1464, the Duke of Burgundy, an Iberian ally and vassal of France, declared his realm's independence from French suzerainty, and began the Burgundian War of Independence, joined by the Kingdom of England under Richard IV. This decisive conflict resulted in the occupation of Paris itself by a coalition of Castilian, Aragonese, English and Burgundian soldiers. Shortly after a French surrender in late 1464, negotiations in the city of Nancy reversed all French gains in the War of 1463, and restored the Union; it also gained territory in the form of Navarre, which was ceded to the Castilian crown. France was also forced by the Treaty to cease recognising Italy's gains in Iberian territory.
However, Italy established the Compact of Valletta with the Abbasid Caliphate, blocking Iberia off from its eastern vassal, the Duchy of Athens and from its main trading partners in the eastern Mediterranean. Italy began to insist that Iberia sign the Compact, with the condition that Iberia renounce its claims to Sardinia, Sicily and Malta, three islands which had fallen under the occupation of Italy. It took until 1475 for the Queen of Aragon, Eleanor I, to reluctantly renounce her claims, and the Sicilian Channel was re-opened to Iberian merchants, barely averting a second Iberian economic meltdown.
Fortunately for Iberia's remaining prestige, the Papal States came to the rescue when it declared its ports of Civitavecchia and Ancona open to Mediterranean merchants, allowing Iberia to completely bypass the Sicilian Channel. Iberia took this opportunity to the fullest, totally redirecting trade through the Papal States, and emptying the Sicilian Channel of Iberian vessels. As a result, Iberia in 1484 withdrew from the Compact and declared war on Italy with the support of a Coalition consisting of, besides Iberia itself, Austria, Burgundy, Bulgaria, Greece, the Knights Hospitaller and the Papal States. Iberia during this conflict seized the lands that Italy occupied during the war of 1463, completing the reversal of said war's effects.
In 1485, Iberia succeeded in retaking Sardinia, and the Queen was crowned Queen of Sardinia in Barcelona with great ceremony. In the same year, the Iberian military was redirected to the Italian heartland, in an attempt to permanently disable the Italian threat to Iberian dominance. Italy surrendered in 1487, and the resulting Treaty of Genoa partitioned Italy into its constituents, with Iberia officially receiving Liguria, Corsica, Sardinia and Malta. This is considered Iberia's greatest victory to date.
Following conclusion of the war, Great Iberia began an attempt to become the first European nation to have its ships cross the Atlantic. A Neapolitan, Esteban Ferrera, was recruited by the government to lead a fleet of ten ships across the ocean starting in 1500, in the hopes of obtaining an alternative route in Asia so as to no longer be dependent on the Silk Road and on the Gurkani Sultanate.
1500 – 1600
Voyage to Arcadia
Iberia opened the 16th century with its first voyage over the Atlantic Ocean. A fleet of 25 ships, led by the Santa Maria and her captain Esteban Ferrera, set out from Lisbon on January 8th to find a new western route to Asia. After a year at sea, the fleet finally made landfall somewhere along the eastern coast of what is today [Florida]. At the time, however, Ferrera believed that he had landed on the coast of India, and upon making first contact with the locals dubbed them "Indians" in his journals.
Ferrera claimed the entirety of the new lands for the United Crown, and began exploring the coast, creating maps and making observations as he went. Accompanying the fleet were several botanists, who recorded sightings of local wildlife, and Catholic ministers on board began introducing Christianity to the local settlements that the landing parties came across.
During the voyage, however, Captain Ferrera died of pneumonia, but a report successfully reached Madrid. The King in response immediately ordered the establishment of a permanent Iberian presence, and in 1504 the settlement of Ferrera was established on the island of Hispaniola, creating the first European colony in the Caribbean. The settlement of Havana was founded on the neighbouring island of Cuba in 1507; the two islands were incorporated as the Colony of the West Indies in 1508. The West Indies Company was founded by the Iberian government in the same year to manage the colonies in lieu of the central government, which at the time was unable to effectively control the colonies from Europe.
Iberian Civil War
The United Crown is a federacy of three constituent Crown Unions, Aragon, Castile and Portugal. While each Crown Union has its own legislature and governmental bodies, all are subordinate to the King and the Supreme Council of Great Iberia, both based in Madrid, who serve as the leaders of the entire Union.
The Crown Unions themselves are federated entities of constituent kingdoms, duchies and counties; each have Royal Councils which create legislation exclusive to their jurisdiction. The central government also drafts laws which have binding effect across the empire.
Representing the King in each Crown Union is a Governor General (Spanish: Gobernador General). Each Governor General is a local member of the nobility appointed directly by the King, and serves at His Majesty's pleasure. The Governors General preside over the Royal Councils as the King presides over the Supreme Council; smaller jurisdictions such as the constituent kingdoms of the Crown Unions have appointed to them Governors or Lieutenant Governors (Gobernadores and Vicegobernadores respectively), depending on said division's category.
The United Crown possesses one of the most sophisticated and largest armed forces in Europe. This is mainly attributed to Great Iberia's comparatively large population, which is as a result able to supply large numbers of men to the military. The Armed Forces of the United Crown are divided into two main sections, the Royal Army (Ejército Real) and the Royal Armada (Armada Real).
The United Crown does not possess a full-fledged standing army. However, a Royal Army is maintained in times of war and peace. Naturally, the Army is larger when the United Crown is in conflict with its enemies; however, in peacetime numbers of troops remain deployed in the various territories of the Union to maintain law and order, as well as to provide a first line of defence against would-be attackers. The United Crown's Royal Army at its maximum extent consists of roughly 100,000 men.
The Royal Armada is considered the pride of the United Crown in a military sense. It is without doubt the largest European navy and is technologically superior to any other maritime force in the region. The history of the Royal Armada stretches back to the beginning of the 15th century, when the Armadas of Castile and Aragon were established. Throughout the 1400s the Royal Armadas remained some of the strongest navies in the world, and upon the unification of the Iberian peninsula in the 1460, the Armadas were combined to form what is now the Iberian Royal Armada. The Royal Armada's grand fleet in total consists of 936 ships of various sizes.
A map of the constituent countries of Great Iberia as of 1508. Colour coding is as follows:
- Royal City of Madrid
- Part of the Crown Union of Castile
- Part of the Crown Union of Aragon
- Part of the Crown Union of Portugal and the Algarves
The United Crown is officially comprised of in total 16 constituent countries, including 3 core kingdoms, 9 constituent kingdoms, 1 duchy, 1 county, and 2 colonies. There is also one Royal City, which is the national capital of Madrid. The categories are as follows:
- The sole Royal City of Madrid is the capital of the entire United Crown. Madrid was at first a city in the Kingdom of Castile, but was separated and given the title of "Royal City" to distinguish it from the other cities in the Union. Madrid is home to the Supreme Council and to the core of the Royal Family, and is conveniently placed in the centre of the Iberian peninsula. While Madrid is not represented in the Supreme Council, it is ruled over directly by the King as Lord of Madrid.
- Core Kingdoms, as the appellation suggests, form the centres of the three Crown Unions. The Core Kingdoms wield the most power in the federal structure of the United Crown, and have independent Royal Councils. The King is represented in Core Kingdoms by Governors General, with the exception of Portugal, which is ruled by its own King, Peter I.
- Constituent Kingdoms are junior realms that are also headed by the King as monarch. Constituent Kingdoms are subordinate to the Core Kingdoms, but still hold a relative level of autonomy from the senior Union governments. The Constituent Kingdoms are led by State Councils, and the King is represented in these realms by Governors.
- The County of Malta also maintains relative autonomy from the central government, and holds the distinction of being one of the few realms in the United Crown not normally ruled by the King. When there is an adult heir apparent, he or she becomes Count(ess) of Malta, and presides directly over the Maltese governmental infrastructure and politics. When an heir apparent does not exist, however, the County returns to the personal rule of the monarch.
- Colonies hold no autonomy from the central governments, and are controlled directly by it. The three colonies, the Lordship of Madeira and the Colonies of the Canary Islands and of the West Indies, do not possess independent legislatures and are instead presided over by a singular Lieutenant Governor, who represents the King.
All constituent realms, with the exception of Madrid, are represented in the Supreme Council of Great Iberia, which consists of nobles from across the United Crown appointed by the King to advise him on certain matters pertaining to governance in the various realms. The Kingdom of Portugal is currently de facto under the rule of a government which recognises Manuel, Duke of Bragança, as its King.
|Name||Flag||Arms||Status||Capital||Year admitted||Crown Union|
|United Crown of Great Iberia||United Crown||Madrid||1460|
|Royal City of Madrid||Royal City||–||1460||–|
|Kingdom of Castile and León||Core Kingdom||Toledo||1460||Castile|
|Kingdom of Gibraltar||Constituent Kingdom||Gibraltar||1460|
|Kingdom of Navarre||Constituent Kingdom||Pamplona||1460|
|Colony of the Canary Islands||Colony||Las Palmas||1460|
|Colony of the West Indies||Colony||Ferrera||1508|
|Kingdom of Aragon||Core Kingdom||Zaragoza||1460||Aragon|
|Kingdom of Catalonia||Constituent Kingdom||Barcelona||1460|
|Kingdom of Majorca||Constituent Kingdom||Palma||1460|
|Kingdom of Liguria||Constituent Kingdom||Genoa||1487|
|Kingdom of Sardinia||Constituent Kingdom||Cagliari|| 1460|
|Kingdom of Valencia||Constituent Kingdom||Valencia||1460|
|County of Malta||County||Valletta|| 1460|
|Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves||Core Kingdom||Lisbon||1461||Portugal and the Algarves|
|Kingdom of Morocco||Constituent Kingdom||Casablanca||1460|
|Kingdom of Cape Verde||Constituent Kingdom||Praia||1461|
|Lordship of Madeira||Colony||Funchal||1461|
Since its foundation, Great Iberia has been under the rule of the House of Trastamara.
The full royal title is as follows:
- His Majesty Ferdinand I, by the Grace of God, of the United Crown of Great Iberia and Her Realms and Territories Beyond the Seas, King; Sovereign of the Kingdoms of Aragon, Cape Verde, Castile, Catalonia, Gibraltar, Granada, Leon, Liguria, Majorca, Morocco, Navarre, Portugal and the Algarves, Sardinia and Valencia; Lord of Madeira, of Madrid, and of the West Indies, Defender of the Faith
Ferdinand I of Great Iberia (born 1459) currently rules as the King of Great Iberia.
- HRH Henry, Prince of Asturias, Count of Malta (born 1496) is the first son of Ferdinand I and his consort Margaret of England. He is the heir apparent to the throne of Great Iberia.
- HRH Prince Ferdinand of Great Iberia (born 1503) is the younger son of Ferdinand I and Margaret of England.
- HRH Prince Alfonso of Great Iberia, Governor General of Castile (born 1469) is the third child and second son of Sancho I and Eleanor I. Prince Alfonso was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom of Castile in 1496.
- HRH Prince Henry of Great Iberia, Regent-General of Sicily, Duke of Calabria (born 1469) is the twin brother of Prince Alfonso, although he is considered for purposes of succession younger than Alfonso, as Alfonso was born first. As such, Prince Henry is behind Prince Alfonso in the line of succession. In addition to holding a place in the line of succession, Prince Henry has also since 1496 been the Duke of Calabria and a noble in the court of Sicily. Henry was elected to the Regency-General of Sicily in 1509.
- HRH Princess Arianne of Great Iberia, Governor General of Aragon (born 1462) is the second child and only daughter of Sancho I and Eleanor I. Princess Arianne was appointed to the Governorship General of Aragon in 1496.
List of monarchs
(Born – Died)
| 1451 - 1487|
|Trastámara||Acts of Union, 1434||Queen of Aragon, Castile, Catalonia, Gibraltar, Granada, Leon, Liguria, Majorca, Navarre, Sardinia, and Valencia, Defender of the Faith|
|2|| Ferdinand I|
| 1487 - present|
|Son of Eleanor||King of the United Crown of Great Iberia and Her Realms and Territories Beyond the Seas; Sovereign of Aragon, Cape Verde, Castile, Catalonia, Gibraltar, Granada, Leon, Liguria, Majorca, Morocco, Navarre, Portugal and the Algarves, Sardinia and Valencia, Lord of Madeira, of Madrid, and of the West Indies, Defender of the Faith|