Alternative History

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Sub-Sandboxes: Nations

Southern Asia

State Map Capital Government Leadership OTL Notes

Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh

Bangladesh (GH).png Dhaka Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Republic Bangladesh, North Eastern Council Formerly part of the British Raj
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia Cambodia (GH).png Phnom Penh Unitary Parliamentary Monarchy King Norodom Sihamoni
Prime Minister
Ung Huot
Cambodia In 1919, Prince Norodom Yukanthor overthrew the French Colonial government and declared independence.
648px-Flag of India CV.png Republic of India India (GH).png Bangalore Federal Parliamentary Republic President Biswabhusan Harichandan
Prime Minister
Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy
South India
Jammu-Kashmir-flag.svg Jammu and Kashmir J&K (GH).png Srinagar, Jammu Unitary Parliamentary Monarchy Maharaja Karan Singh
Chief Minister
Mehbooba Mufti
Jammu and Kashmir (India), Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan The only remaining independent Princely State on the Indian Subcontinent.
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Thailand (GH).png Bangkok Unitary Parliamentary Monarchy King Vajiralongkorn
Prime Minister
Jurin Laksanawisit
Thailand, parts of Northern Laos and Eastern Cambodia Still scarred from the Thai-Vietnamese War and ensuring civil war that created the current democratic constitution.
Flag of the UIC (GH).jpeg Union of Indian Communes UIC (GH).png Delhi Federal Anarcho-Syndicalist Republic Chairman of the SFC
Ram Nath Kovind
North India One of the remaining socialist states in the world.
Flag of the Vanguard Youth of Vietnam.svg Vietnam Vietnam (GH).png Hanoi Unitary Parliamentary Republic President Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Vietnam, with parts of Southern Laos and Western Cambodia Involved in the Thai-Vietnamese War of 1966-1974.

Northern Africa

State Capital Government OTL Organization Notes
Flag of Cyrenaica.svg Cyrenaica Benghazi Unitary Semi-Parliamentary Monarchy Cyrenaica region of Libya, excluding part of the Kufra District. Arab League An Egyptian-Aligned State, Cyrenaica gained independence from 1918-1936, before reclaiming it in 1957.
Flag of the Tripolitanian Republic.svg Tripolitania Tripoli Unitary Parliamentary Republic Tripolitania Region of Libya. African Union Tripolitania gained independence in 1958.
Flag of Egypt (1952-1958).svg Egypt Cairo Federal Parliamentary Monarchy Egypt, Sudan
Flag of Cameroon.svg Kamerun Jaunde Unitary Parliamentary Republic Cameroon with the borders of 1911-1916 German Kamerun African Union A German colony until 1962.

Southern Africa

Not to be confused with the nation of South Africa.
State Capital Government OTL Organization Notes

Flag of Botswana.svg Kingdom of Botswana

Gaborone Elective Constitutional Parliamentary Monarchy Botswana African Union Gained independence in 1918-19.
Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia Windhoek Constitutional Parliamentary Republic Namibia German Association Former German Colony that gained independence in 1971.
Flag of South Africa.svg Republic of South Africa Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein Constitutional Parliamentary Republic South Africa African Union Under German Influence until 1991.
Zambia-Malawi (GH).png Federation of Zambia and Malawi Harare Federal Parliamentary Republic Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi African Union Formerly known as Rhodesia-Nyasaland.

Central Africa

State Capital Government OTL Organization Notes
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Congo Kinshasa Federal Semi-Presidential Republic Democratic Republic of Congo and Congo-Brazzaville (barring Sangha and Likouala) German Association Former German Colony that gained independence in 1959.
Flag of Gabon.svg Gabon Librestadt Dominant-Party Presidential Republic Gabon without Nyanga, Ogooué-Maritime and parts of Woleu-Ntem African Union Dominated by the Nationalist AKBBG Party
Flag of Israel.svg Israel Tel Aviv Unitary Parliamentary Republic Nyanga and Ogooué-Maritime Provinces of Gabon The only white-majority nation in Africa.
Flag of Cameroon.svg Kamerun Jaunde Unitary Parliamentary Republic Cameroon with the borders of 1911-1916 German Kamerun African Union A German colony until 1962.


Kingdom of Buganda
Flag of Buganda Coat of Arms
AnthemEkitiibwa kya Buganda
Official languages Luganda, English
Demonym Arabic
Government Unitary constitutional monarchy
 -  Kabaka (King) Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda
 -  Katikkiro (Prime Minister) Charles Mayiga
Legislature Lukiiko
 -  Independence 1919 (Declared) 
 -  Recognised 7 June 1924 
 -  2017 estimate 8,500,000 
Drives on the right

The Kingdom of Buganda, commonly known as Buganda, is a constitutional monarchy located in East-Central Africa. Baganda’s position on Lake Victoria also shares land borders with Busoga and Kenya to the East, Bunyoro, Acholiland and Langoland to the north, and Toro, Ankole and Tanzania to the South.

The kingdom of the Ganda people, Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms in the former Uganda, containing 7 million Baganda (singular Muganda; often referred to simply by the root word and adjective, Ganda). After being under the British Uganda Protectorate from 1894, Buganda regained independence in 1919. After the British Monarchy fled to Canada in 1917, the colonies soon devolved into chaos as British troops were minimised. Riots in Kenya dragged most of the British East African Forces away from Uganda, which led to Buganda declaring independence in an attempt to restore order. The remains of the British administration fled northwards, towards Lake Kyoga, where they set up a provisional capital at Soroti.

The remaining kingdoms fearing Baganda domination under a proposed “Bantu Confederation” and formed a co-official alliance to combat Baganda expansion.

==History One of the most powerful appointed advisers of the Kabaka was the Katikkiro, who was in charge of the kingdom's administrative and judicial systems - effectively serving as both prime minister and chief justice. The Katikkiro and other powerful ministers formed an inner circle of advisers who could summon lower-level chiefs and other appointed advisers to confer on policy matters. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Kabaka had replaced many clan heads with appointed officials and claimed the title "head of all the clans".

The sophisticated structure of governance of the Baganda so impressed British officials, but political leaders in neighboring Bunyoro were not receptive to British officials who arrived with Baganda escorts. Buganda became the centrepiece of the new protectorate, with a degree of control over the other kingdoms: Toro, Nkore, Busoga and Bunyoro. Many Baganda conceived the need to educate their children and proceeded to construct institutions of higher learning in Buganda. Baganda civil servants also helped administer other ethnic groups, and Uganda's early history was written from the perspective of the Baganda and the colonial officials who became accustomed to dealing with them. At independence in 1918, Buganda had achieved the highest standard of living and the highest literacy rate in the country.

Western Asia

  • Flag-of-the-FR-Syria-TMTC.png Arab Republic (Aleppo)
    الجمهورية العربية
  • Flag of Armenia.svg Democratic Republic of Armenia (Yerevan)
    Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն
  • Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (Baku)
    Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası
  • Flag of Iran with standardized lion and sun.svg Imperial State of Iran (Tehran)
    Keshvar-e Shâhanshâhi-ye Irân


Flag Name Government Type Current Head of State Current Head of Government Capital Date Founded
Flag-of-the-FR-Syria-TMTC.png Arab Republic Federal semi-presidential parliamentary republic Ossama Mohammed Tareck Zaidan El Aissami Maddah Aleppo 1939
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia Unitary parliamentary republic Armen Sarkissian Nikol Pashinyan Yerevan 1938
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan Unitary semi-presidential republic Ilham Aliyev Noveuz Mammadov Baku 1918
Flag of Georgia (1918-1921).svg Georgia Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy David VIII Irakli Kobakhidze Tbilisi 1919
Flag of Iran with standardized lion and sun.svg Iran Constitutional Parliamentary Monarchy Reza Pahlavi Ali Larijani Tehran 1925
Flag of Kurdistan.svg Kurdistan Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy Abdullah Barzanji Yılmaz Erdoğan Hewlêr 1938
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy Salman Riyadh 1932
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey Unitary Presidental Constitutional Republic Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Binali Yıldırım Istanbul 1926
Republic of Korea
대한민국 大韓民國 (Korean)
Flag of Korea Coat of Arms
Official languages Korea
Demonym Korean
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Moon Jae-in
 -  Prime Minister Ri Yong-ho
Legislature National Assembly
 -  Joseon Dynasty 1392-1897 
 -  Korean Empire 1897-1910 
 -  Provisional Government-in-Exile 1919 
 -  Republic Formed 1949 
 -  219,155 km2 
84,616 sq mi 
 -   estimate 82,000,000 (2017)
Time zone UTC (UTC+9)
Drives on the right

Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a republic in Eastern Asia. It borders China, and shares maritime borders with Japan.

After being liberated from the Empire of Japan in mid-1945 by joint US-Chinese forces, it was provisionally divided into two occupation zones, with the Chinese holding the north, and the Americans holding the South. In early 1947, the second-wave of the Chinese Civil War started. The Americans, worried about a communist-held North Korea, reoccupied the Chinese zone with the permission of China. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea formed the base of the newly-founded republic.

Today, Korea is a highly developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index. Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the one of the world's largest exporter and importer. Its export-driven economy primarily focuses production on electronics, cars, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and robotics.


Syngman Rhee, leader of Korea (1948-1960)

The first leader of Independent Korea, Syngman Rhee, was chosen due to his strict anti-communist stance. In the September of 1950, a communist revolt in the North that was supported by People’s Republic of China was brutally put down by the Korean Army. Mass imprisoning and killings of suspected communists followed suit and earned Rhee the reputation of being an authoritarian dictator.


In 1919, with the approval of the German Empire, Sweden annexation the Swedish-speaking Åland Islands, much to chagrin of Finland. As a part of the agreement dealing with the annexation, Sweden also joined the new Central European Economic Union, as well as signing a military cooperation agreement with Germany. Later, in 1925, Sweden also founded the Nordic Union, a political-economic alliance which was dependent on the CEEU and Germany for support.



  • Zentrum 123
  • BVP 46
  • SPD 127
  • DVP 76
  • FDP 90
  • Greens 71
  • AFD 108
  • DSP 68

Government 123+46+76+90+71

Current composition of the Reichstag

1919 Parliament



  • Labour - 57.2% - 387 Seats - 7,235,800 votes
  • Conserative - 19.6 - 133 Seats
  • National - 14.1 - 96 Seats
  • Liberal - 8.3 - 57 Seats
  • Communist - 0.5% - 6 seats - 101,200 Votes
  • Agriculturalist - 0.2% - 2 Seats - 25,300
  • Prohibition - 0.1% - 1 Seat - 12,000 Votes


  • The British Heritage Series is a series of five books written by Edward J. Blair (1930-2017).
    • The Internal Front (1961) - Set during 1917-1918
    • Dishonourable Peace (1965) - 1918-1919
    • How the Mighty Fall (1969) - 1920, 1934
    • Bayernkorps (1971) - 1944-45
    • Effects of the Past (1974) - 1952

Nations in Europe

The Rhenish Republic (German: Rheinische Republik), commonly known as the Rhineland (German: Rheinland), is a parliamentary republic located in Western Europe. The Rhineland borders (BL)EastGermany.svg Germany to the east, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg to the west, and France to the south.

Nations and Territories of Asia


Internationally Administrated Zone of the Straits
— Mandate of the UN
Timeline: British Heritage (German Heritage)

OTL equivalent: Parts of Turkey
Flag of UN
Flag of UN
Location of UN
Territories administered in blue.

Peace and Unity ()

(and largest city)
Constantinople (De Facto)
Religion No set Religion
Government Demilitarised Zone controlled by the UN
High Commissioner André Malraux
Senate President Fahrettin Kerim Gökay
Established 1920 (LN), 1945 (UN)
Time zone UTC+2


State of Cilicia
Etat de Cilicie (French)
Kilikya Devleti (Turkish)
— Protectorate of France
Timeline: British Heritage (German Heritage)

OTL equivalent: Cilicia
Flag of Cilicia
Flag of Cilicia
Location of Cilicia
Territories administered in blue.

Liberté, égalité, fraternité (French)

Anthem "La Marseillaise"
(and largest city)
Language French (official) and Turkish, Armenian and Arabic (lingua franca)
  others Christianity
Government French Mandate
High Commissioner Georges Catroux
President of the Council Abdurrahman Melek
Established 1921
Currency Cilician Pound, French Franc
Time zone UTC+3

The State of Cilicia (French: Etat de Cilicie) is a French Protectorate formed after the partition of the Ottoman Empire after its loss in the First World War. Cilicia borders the Italian colony of Lycia, the British protectorate of Kurdistan, the Syrian Republic and the Turkish Republic.

Cilicia is a troubled nation, with the underground All-Turkish Liberation Army (TTKO) attempting to reunify Cilicia with Turkey by bombing and assassinating key members of the French Administration. Since the independence of Syria, the French administration is becoming strained, with many believing that Cilicia will soon become free of French influence.


Italian Lycia
Lycia italiana (Italian)
İtalyan Likyası (Turkish)
— Colony of Italy
Timeline: British Heritage (German Heritage)

OTL equivalent: Lycia
Flag of Lycia Coat of Arms of Lycia
Flag Coat of Arms
Location of Lycia
Territories administered in blue.

FERT (Italian)

Anthem "Marcia Reale"
(and largest city)
Language Italian (official) and Turkish, Arabic (lingua franca)
  others Christianity
Government Italian Colony
King Umberto II
Viceroy Ugo Cavallero
Established 1921
Currency Italian Lira
Time zone UTC+3

Under British Influence

  • Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg British Mesopotamia (1920-1946)
  • Flag of Iraq (1921–1959).svg Kingdom of Iraq and Jordan (1946-)
  • Flag of Israel.svg State of Zion (1921-)
  • Kurdistan.png Kurdistan Protectorate

French Possessions

  • Syria-flag 1932-58 1961-63.svg French Syria
  • Cilicia Protectorate (1921-)


  • Italian Lycia
  • Kingdom of Greece Flag.svg Kingdom of Greece
  • Flag of Armenian SSR.svg Armenian SSR (1947-)

German East Africa

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Timeline: Gunpowder Coup

OTL equivalent: United Kingdom and Ireland
Flag Coat of Arms
Location of United Kingdom

Britons never will be slaves! (unofficial) (English)

Anthem "God Save The King"
(and largest city)
Other cities Edinburgh, Dublin, Norwich and Bristol
  others Irish Gaelic, Welsh, Scots and Scottish Gaelic
  others Catholicism and Judaism
Demonym Briton or British (or English in a broad sense)
Government Unitary parliamentary monarchy
  legislature Parliament
King James III
Chief Minister
Area 315,159 km²
Established 19 May 1711
Currency Pound sterling (£)
Time Zone UTC


Operation Sea Lion is a popular concept in alternate history. The thought of a Nazi Occupation, which would lead to a Nazi Victory, is chilling. However, many of the German High Command believed that the plan wouldn’t work.

This Timeline asks the Question: What if Operation Sea Lion had been executed?


Vladimir IV of Hohenzollern
His Royal Highness,
the Grand Duke of White Ruthenia
Belarus Flag with COA.png Grand Duke of White Ruthenia
Reign 1 June, 1920 - 25 March, 1948
Predecessor Jan Sierada (as President of the Rada)
Successor Boris III
Born 29 January 1887
Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia, (BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Died 9 August, 1968 (Aged 74)
Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia, (BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Spouse Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (m.1908)
Issue Boris III (b.1912)
Full name
Alexandra Victoria Augusta Leopoldine Charlotte Amalie Wilhelmina
German: Alexandra Viktoria Auguste Leopoldine Charlotte Amalie Wilhelmine
House Hohenzollern
Father Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Mother Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein
Religion Orthodox (1919-)
Lutheran (1887-1919)
  • Großherzog von Weißruthenien / Вялікі князь Белай Русі

Vladimir IV (born August Wilhelm Heinrich Günther Viktor, 29 January 1887 – 25 March 1949) was the first Grand Duke of White Ruthenia from the creation of the Grand Duchy in 1920 until his death in 1949.

During his rule, Vladimir was disliked by both the socialists, for his actions in Minsk and his rich lifestyle, and the conservatives, who disliked his liberalism, his lack of devotion to the Orthodox faith, and his complicated personal life.

During his rule, Minsk was transformed into a modern European city. Peasant houses were torn down to make way for the new palace, streets, shops, clubs and Prussian-style houses. Much of the Government and royal budget was invested into the transformation of Minsk, which led to an amount of discontent among peasants and socialists. Vladimir surrounded himself with artists, musicians and performers, and the rich quarter of Minsk became famed for its caberet culture and liberalism. A number of White Russians made Minsk their residence in the interwar period - many refused to go to Paris (then under communist rule) or Berlin, which to some was the “home of the enemy”.


Following the German-Austrian advance through Italian lines in late 1917, the Italian faced near-constant retreat. On 28 January 1918, Italy negotiated for an armistice with the Central Powers. The Treaty of Trieste, which dealt with Italy, was signed on 3 December 1918. The Treaty had various consequences on Italy, which included:

  • War Reperations of 8,000,000 Krone.
  • Creation of a Venetian Republic along the border of Austria-Hungary.
  • Reduction of the Italian Military.

The economic and political situation brought on by the loss of the war led to discontent towards the government of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and the monarchy. On the 7th of June 1920, during a visit to Milan, Victor Emmanuel III was assassinated by a anarchist. This prompted a Communist uprising in Lombardy, led by Nicola Bombacci. The Red Forces soon gained a advantage over the weak governmental army and started to advance towards Central Italy and by December 1920, the Imperial government had fled to Sardinia. The 16 year-old Umberto II was inaugurated as monarch, with Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta as regent.

Pietro Badoglio, Pictured in 1936 in East Africa.

The Italian Colonial Empire, which encompassed Libya and parts of East Africa, collapsed under the strain placed on the Italian Government. The Kingdom of Libya and Tripolitania gained independence, while Italian Eritrea was annexed by Ethopia and Somaliland was absorbed into the Somali Republic. Pietro Badoglio became the first prime minister, and led Sardinia under a de facto military dictatorship, with strict anti-leftist laws. Suspected Communists and Socialists were interrogated, and in some cases, imprisoned.

During World War II, Sardinia was invaded by a joint Franco-Italian invasion from the island of Corsica. The Monarchy and its government attempted to flee to Free French-held Tunisia, but failed due to the naval blockade placed on the island. King Umberto II was placed in a prison just north of Rome, while Pietro Badoglio was sentenced to life imprisonment as a so-called “enemy of the revolution” in Regina Coeli. Sardinia was integrated back into the larger Italian Socialist Republic in 1941, under the leadership of the exiled Antonio Cassitta. After being liberated by in late-1944, a provisional government led by Mario Berlinguer was formed as both the King and the Prime Minister hadn’t been liberated from Rome at this point in time. The bad conditions of Regina Coeli affected Badoglio’s health, which led to him stepping away from political life in 1945, before finally dying of pneumonia on the 6th of December, 1945 at the age of 75. The first free elections were held in 1946, with the Christian Democratic Party winning a majority.


  • Queen Elizabeth II (1605-1662)
  • King Edward VIII (1662-1688)
  • King James II and V (1688-1716)
  • King Charles I (1716-1742)
  • Queen Anne (1742-1774)
  • King Charles II (1774-1818)
  • King James III (1818-)
    • Heiress:Victoria

Date:1st January 1861

HRH James III (1793-)

[[File:Young_Queen_Victoria.jpg|thumb|Victoria, Princess of Wales (1825-)]p

WW1 (GH)

World War I
Scenes of WW1, clockwise from Top. The Western Front after battle, British Tanks in France, German ship destroyed in the Atlantic, German Soliders on the Western Front , planes of the Luftstreitkräfte.
Date 28 July 1914 - 3 March 1918
Location Europe, Africa, Asia, Australasia
Result Central Powers Victory in Europe, Allied Powers Victory in Asia and Oceania
  • Dissolution of the French Republic and Italy.
  • Communist Revolutions in Russia, Britain and France.
  • Expansion of Germany’s Colonial and Political Empire.
  • German Loss of Samoa.
Central Powers
  • 33px German Empire
    • 33px German Colonies
    • Flag of Poland (Polskie Swiat).png Poland (1916-)
  • Civil ensign of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary
  • Flag of Bulgaria (3-2).svg Bulgaria
  • Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom (1914-1917)
  • Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958).svg French Republic
  • Flag of Russia ( Russian Empire (1914-1917)
    • Flag of Russia ( Russian Republic (1917)
  • Flag of Serbia (Alternative 2014, war flag).svg Serbia
  • Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium (1914-1917)
  • Flag of the Kingdom of Montenegro.svg Montenegro
  • State flag of Greece (1863–1924;1935–73).svg Greece
  • Flag of Italy (1946–2003).svg Italy (1914-1918)
  • Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal
  • Flag of the United States (1908-1912).svg United States (1917-)



  • Bill Clements (1990-1995)
  • Bob Bullock (1995-1999)
  • Rick Perry (1999)
  • George H. Bush (1999-2009)
  • Greg Abbott (2009-)


  • Dan Qyuale (1989-2000)
  • Al Gore (2000-2008)
  • Douglas Wilder (2008-2016)
  • John Kasich (2016-)


  • George Deukmejian (1989-1998) (de facto)
  • Gary Locke (1999-2007) (First Official President)
  • Linda Lingle (2007-2015)
  • Gavin Newson (2015-)


  • Jan Dee Hull (1995-2000)
  • Bill Richardson (2000-2010)
  • Butch Otter (2010-)


  • James R. Thompson (1989-1996)
  • George Ryan (1996-2000)
  • Bill Owens (2000-2008)
  • Tim Pawlenty (2008-2012)
  • Mark Dayton (2012-)


Map Of America 1989 War.png

Successor States:

  • Flag of the United States (1837-1845).svg Eastern States of America (ESA)
  • Flag of Pacific America 1989 War.png Pacific States Of America (PSA)
  • Flag of Central America 1989 War.png Heartland States of America (HSA)
  • Flag of Mountain America 1989 War.png Rocky States of America (RSA)
  • Flag of Texas.svg Second Texan Republic (STR)


Host cities