Alternative History

What this is

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

Pre-1917, Great Britain was ruled as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. For a list of prime ministers prior to 1908, see List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.
Deputy Prime Minister Party Prime Minister Additional Positions Term
11 Heseltine.jpg Michael Heseltine
(1933–)
National David Owen
(Social Democratic-National Coalition)
Home Secretary 1991-1995
12 Kenneth Clarke.jpg Kenneth Clarke
(19??–)
National David Owen
(Social Democratic-National Coalition)
Home Secretary 1995-2000
13 Margaret-beckett.jpg Margaret Beckett
(1943–)
Republican Labour Tony Blair
(Social Democratic-Republican Labour Coalition)
Foreign Secretary 2000-2008
14 Liam fox.jpg Liam Fox
(1961–)
National David Davis
(National-BIP Coalition with NLP Confidence and Supply)
Foreign Secretary 2008-2012
15 Theresa May - Home Secretary and minister for women and equality.jpg Theresa May
(1956–)
National Alan Johnson
(Social Democratic-National Coalition)
Foreign Secretary 2012-2016
16 Liz Kendall
(1971–)
Social Democratic Andy Burnham
(Republican Labour-Social Democratic Coalition)
Foreign Secretary 2016-

Current Cabinet

First Clegg Ministry (2017-)
Party Title Name
Head of Government
   Prime Minister:       Andy Burnham   
   Deputy Prime Minister & Foreign Secretary:       Liz Kendall  
Cabinet Ministers
   Leader of the Commons:       Ed Davey   
   Chancellor of the Exchequer:       John Healey   
   Secretary of State for the Home Department:       [[Wikipedia:|]]  
   Secretary of State for Justice:       Keir Starmer   
   Secretary of State for Defence:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills

President of the Board of Trade:   

   Steve Webb   
   Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change:       Lisa Nandy   
   Secretary of State for Work and Pensions:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Health:       Rebecca Long-Bailey   
   Secretary of State for Education:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Transport:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
Regional Ministers
   Secretary of State for Cornwall:       Dan Rogerson   
   Secretary of State for the South West:       Martin Horwood   
   Secretary of State for the South East:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for London:       David Lammy   
   Secretary of State for the East of England:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for the East Midlands:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for the West Midlands:       [[Wikipedia:|]]   
   Secretary of State for Yorkshire:       Jon Trickett   
   Secretary of State for the North West:       Angela Rayner   
   Secretary of State for Northumbria:       Ian Lavery   



1996

1991 DukeDevon/Sandbox/Bismarck’s Delight 2000
British General Election, 1996
631 Seats for Election
326 Needed for a Majority
Turnout 73.1% (5.1)
First party Second party Third party
David Owen.png Malcolm Rifkind.jpg Robin Cook.jpg
Leader David Owen Malcolm Rifkind Robin Cook
Party SDP National Republican Labour
Leader since 4 April 1988 2 February 1994 21 July 1994
Leader's seat Plymouth Scotland (List) Scotland (List)
Seats won 224[1] 171[2] 120[3]
Seat change
Percentage 35.8
6.2 p.p.
27.3
5.3 p.p.
19.1
2.1 p.p.
Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Sara Parkin.jpg James Goldsmith.jpg Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland (cropped).jpg
Leader Sara Parkin James Goldsmith Alex Salmond
Party Greens Referendum Party of Scotland
Leader since 1986 1995 1987
Leader's seat South East England (List) South East England (List) Scotland (List)
Seats won 49[4] 37 [5] 18 [6]
Seat change
Percentage 8.1
2.7 p.p.
6.1
6.1 p.p.
2.9
0.4 p.p.
Prime Minister before election
David Owen
SDP-National Coalition
Elected Prime Minister
David Owen
SDP-National Coalition

The election saw the SDP-National Coalition led by David Owen retain a large, admittedly vastly decreased, majority. The SDP and National Party saw swings toward the smaller parties, most notably towards the Greens and the Referendum Party, which had been founded the previous year.

BNP - 6PR - 0.9% Plaid - 5 - 2 Con. 3PR - 0.7%

224 171 120 49 37 18 6 5
SDP National RP.LAB. Greens Ref. SNP BNP Plaid
  1. 132 Con. - 92 PR. 35.5%
  2. 72 Con. - 99 PR. 27.1%
  3. 96 Con. - 24 PR. 19.0%
  4. 49 PR - 7.7%
  5. 37 PR - 5.8%
  6. 13 Con. - 5 PR - 2.8%

English Assembly

389 FPTP, 202 PR = 491 Seats.

The National Assembly for England, sometimes known simply as the English Assembly or English Parliament, is the democratically elected, devolved, unicameral legislature of Wales. It represents the interests of the people of England, makes laws for England, agrees taxes and holds the English Government to account.

The National Assembly for England comprises 491 members who are known as Members of the National Assembly for England, abbreviated as "AM". Since 1999, members are elected for a four-year term of office under an additional member system, in which 389 AMs represent smaller geographical divisions known as "constituencies" and are elected by a plurality system, and 202 AMs represent 8 "electoral regions" using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Typically, the largest party in the Assembly forms the English Government. Since 2019, the Assembly has been governed by a coalition agreement made up of the DSLP, NDP and the Greens as part of a traffic light coalition (Red-Orange-Green)

South West Assembly

The Regional Assembly for South West England, sometimes known simply as the South West Assembly, is the democratically elected, devolved, unicameral legislature of South West England. It represents the interests of the people of South West England, makes laws for South-West England, agrees taxes and holds the South-West Government to account.

The Regional Assembly for the South West comprises 69 members who are known as Members of the Regional Assembly for South-West England, abbreviated as "AM". Since 1999, members are elected for a five-year term of office under an additional member system, in which 49 AMs represent smaller geographical divisions known as "constituencies" and are elected by a plurality system, and 20 AMs are elected using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Typically, the largest party in the Assembly forms the Government. Since 2018, the Assembly has been governed by a minority government, consisting of the Greens, Progressives, and one independent.

Party leaders:

LotO

  • Lloyd George (1918-23)
  • Belling (23-28)
  • Churchill (28-32)
  • (32-40)
  • Attlee (40-43)
  • Bevin (43-46)
  • Brown (46) *
  • Mosley (46-51)
  • Bevan (51-57)
  • Robens (57-66)
  • Oswald Mosley (1966-67) *
  • Heath (67-1976)
  • Thatcher (76-81)
  • Callaghan (81-82) *
  • Foot (82-87)
  • Owen (87-96)
  • Major (96-01) *
  • Portillo (01-06)
  • Davis (06-11)
  • Huhne (11) *
  • Clegg (11-16)
  • McDonnell (16-18)
  • Nandy (18-)

Colour Revolutions

The Colour Revolutions were a revolutionary wave that affected Eastern and Central Europe from the late 1980s to mid 1990s. Eastern and Central Europe had been materially, economically and politically dominated by the German Empire in a hegemony established after Germany’s victory over the allies in Early 1918. The CEEU, later the EEU, was created to make the transfer of goods from the east to the German Empire easier. Though this benefited Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, it had caused stagnation in the eastern economies, and limited these nations’ economic freedom.

The Revolutions led to the EEU being reformed into the European Community in 1991, as well as key changes to the economic and political circles of Europe. In Ukraine, Belarus and Poland, the revolutions resulted in political and governmental changes, such as the abolishment of the GH|Monarchy of Poland|Polish Monarchy}}. The name of the Colour Revolutions is in reference to the various individual revolutions, such as:

  • Germany (Blue Revolution)
  • Poland (Rose Revolution)
  • Ukraine (Yellow Revolution)
  • Belarus (White Revolution)
  • Romania (Black Revolution)
Romania

Under the Treaty of Bucharest (1918), Romania agreed to lease its oil fields to Germany for 98 years (1918-2016). This caused unrest and bitterness among the Romanian People.

Cold War/SA

1960-1970: Fight for Africa
1970-1975: War in Southeast Asia
1975-1984: Shift towards South America
1984-1990: Detente and the Undermining of Authority in Europe

Start Finish Name of conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1977 1979 Chilean War Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina
Flag of Bolivia (militar).svg Bolivia
Supported by:
(BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Flag of Chile.svg Chile
Supported by:
Flag of the United States.svg United States
1979 1980 Paraguayan War Flag of Bolivia (militar).svg Bolivia
Supported by:
(BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Flag of Paraguay (1842-1954).svg Paraguay
Supported by:
Flag of the United States.svg United States
1983 1984 Falklands Crisis Flag of Canada (No Napoleon).svg Canada

Supported by:
Flag of the United States.svg United States

Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina
Supported by:
(BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire

1947

Members of the Committee included:

America

‹ 2016 DukeDevon/Sandbox/Bismarck’s Delight 2024 ›
United States presidential election, 2020
November 8, 2020

Opinion Polls
Tim Kaine 116th official portrait (cropped).jpg Ted Cruz by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg
Nominee Tim Kaine Ted Cruz
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Virginia Texas
Running mate Elizabeth Warren Rand Paul
Electoral vote 323 215
States carried 25 + D.C. 25
Percentage 48.89% 44.11%
300px
President before election
Barack Obama
Democratic
Elected President
Tim Kaine
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 2020 was the 59th and most recent quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8th, 2020. The Democratic ticket of the-then incumbent Vice-President Tim Kaine of Virginia and Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, defeated the Republican Party's ticket of Senators Ted Cruz of Texas and Rand Paul of Kentucky. Kaine took office as the 45th President, with Warren as Vice-President (the first Woman to hold the office) on January 20, 2021.

Kaine clinched the Democratic Nomination after beating a wide field of candidates, including Elizabeth Warren, Bernie Sanders, Amy Klobachar and Tom Steyer.

Candidates

Democratic Nomination

Republican Nomination

India

Indian War of Independence
Italian Civil War (GH).jpg
Clockwise from top: Victor Emmanuel III moments before his assassination in Milan, Workers seize a factory in Milan, Right-Wing Paramilitaries retreating from Northern Italy, A Communist Worker Council c.1919
Date 13 April 1919 (1919-04-13) – 14 September 1924 (1924-09-14)
(5 years, 5 months and 1 day)
Location The British Raj (Present-day India and Pakistan)
Result
  • Independence of Burma and Eastern India and Bengal
Belligerents
Nationalists

Calcuttaflag.png Republic of India

CommunistTurkey.jpg Communist Party of India
The Fires of God Indian Flag.png Indian National Congress

Flag of Burma 1943.svg Burmese Republic
Flag of Ceylon 1951-1972.svg Sri Lankan Revolutionaries
Supported By:
(BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Afghanistan (1926–1928).svg Afghanistan

British Colonial Government

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Empire

British Raj Red Ensign.svg British Raj
Commanders and leaders
Nationalist Leaders

Calcuttaflag.png Mahendra Pratap
Calcuttaflag.png Chittaranjan Das

Communist Leaders

Notable Baltic Germans

  • Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter (21 January 1884 – 9 November 1923). Born in Riga, Left Latvia with the retreating Germans. Died in the Munich Putsch. In ATL, he would stay in Latvia, and with his Baltic German Heritage, he could be influential.
  • Andreas Meyer-Landrut (born 31 May 1929) Born in Tallinn, relocated with his family in 1939 as a result of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact.
  • Jakob von Uexkull (1944-) Born to Noble Baltic German parents who fled Estonia after WWI.
  • Alfred Rosenberg (1893 – 1946) born in Tallinn, fled with the German Army after WWI. He would have stayed - becoming a member of the cabinet, and possible prime minister?

Prime Ministers of the UBD

  • Adolf Pilar von Pilchau (1919-1924)
  • Andrievs Niedra (1924-1930)
  • Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter (1930-1946)
  • Alfred Rosenburg (1946-1949)
  • Ulmanis (1949-1953)

British Elections

SDLP

Though the SDLP has seen limited success in British parliamentary elections, it often exceeds its Westminster votes in elections to the Pan-European Parliament. Its best showing, in the 2011 Pan-European Parliament election, saw it emerge as the second-largest party in terms of British MPEPs (the party held 16 seats).

  • 1986: 24.3% - Foot
  • 1991: 19.8% - Benn
  • 1996: 10.1% - Benn
  • 2001: 8.9% - Short
  • 2006: 6.5% - Short
  • 2011: 15.5% - Corbyn
  • 2016:
  • 2021: Highest Polls: 28.1 (March 2019)
Leader of the Parliamentary Opposition: Lisa Nandy
Chancellor of the Exchequer: John Healey
Foreign Secretary:
Home Secretary: Angela Eagle

Turnout:28,270,411 0.2

A

World War II
Japanese battleships Yamashiro, Fuso and Haruna.jpg
Japanese battleships Yamashiro, Fuso and Haruna before the counterattack in Taiwan
Date April 4, 1924 – November 3, 1925
(1 year, 6 months, 4 weeks and 2 days)
Location The Pacific Islands, Taiwan and China
Result Allied victory;
  • Collapse of Soviet Russia to a rump state east of the Urals
  • Fall of the Japanese Empire
  • Allied military occupations of France, Russia and Japan
  • Beginning of the Nuclear Age
  • Creation of the League of United Nations
  • Emergence of the United States and the German Empire as rival superpowers and beginning of the Cold War
Belligerents
(BL)EastGermany.svg German Empire
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States

Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands
Flag of Fascist Italy (fictional).svg Italian Social Republic
State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Greece
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark
Border Free France
Flag of Spain (1938–1945).svg Spanish State
Flag of Iran with standardized lion and sun.svg Persia
Foreign Support:
Flag of Czechoslovakia (Cherry, Plum and Chrysanthemum).svg Czechoslovakia
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Communist French Flag minus rooster.png French Socialist Republic
Foreign Support:
Flag of Spain (No Napoleon).svg Spanish Republic
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Japan

Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand

Commanders and leaders
(BL)EastGermany.svg Wilhelm III
(BL)EastGermany.svg Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Franklin D. Roosevelt
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Harry S. Truman
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Joseph Stalin
Communist French Flag minus rooster.png Maurice Thorez
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Hirohito
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Hideki Tojo

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom-in-exile (1917-1944)

  • David Lloyd George (1916-1919)
  • George Curzon, Marquess of Kedleston (1919-1925)
  • Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe (1925-1928)
  • James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1928-1934)
  • Edward Wood, Viscount of Halifax (1934-1942)
  • Winston Churchill (1942-1945)

Georgia

ICW

Italian Civil War
Italian Civil War (GH).jpg
Clockwise from top: Victor Emmanuel III moments before his assassination in Milan, Workers seize a factory in Milan, Right-Wing Paramilitaries retreating from Northern Italy, A Communist Worker Council c.1919
Date 14 October 1918 (1918-10-14) – 9 September 1921 (1921-09-09)
(1 year, 10 months, 2 weeks and 5 days)
Location Italian Peninsula and Empire, with spillover in France and Austria
Result
  • Collapse of the Kingdom of Italy & the Italian Empire
  • Establishment of Various Italian & African Nations
Belligerents
Fascist Movement

Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg Blackshirts

Italian Nationalist Association


Foreign Support: Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958).svg Free France (From 1919)

Communist-Socialist Movement

Requested flag communist italy by dakyillustrations-d9vw5m4.jpg Italian Socialist Republic
Red flag.svg Local Worker Councils
Supported by:
French Communist Flag.png French Socialist Republic

Anti-Fascist Nationalists

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned alternate.svg Kingdom of Italy

  • Liberal Parties

Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg Catholic Nationalists



Foreign Support: Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Empire

Commanders and leaders
Fascist Leaders

Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg Benito Mussolini
Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg Michele Bianchi
Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg Italo Balbo
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958).svg Charles de Gaulle

Communist Leaders

Requested flag communist italy by dakyillustrations-d9vw5m4.jpg Nicola Bombacci
Requested flag communist italy by dakyillustrations-d9vw5m4.jpg Antonio Gramsci

Anti-Fascist Nationalist Leaders

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned alternate.svg Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned alternate.svg Pietro Badoglio
Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg Pope Benedict XV
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Herbert Plumer

The Italian Civil War (Italian:Guerra civile italiana), sometimes known as the Italian Collapse, was a multi-party war in the territory of the Kingdom of Italy, and by extension, the Italian Colonial Empire. The start of the conflict is usually seen as the assassination of Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy on the 14th of November, 1918, by Gino Lucetti, a 18 year-old anarcho-syndicalist. Right-wing Nationalist paramilitaries, on hearing the death of Victor Emmanuel, started a campaign against any local “reds”. Counter-Nationalist Armies soon formed and responded violently to the paramilitaries. In the first two months, the main fighting was mainly local and limited. However, as the crisis escalated, fighting became organised between more “professional” armies.




==Etymology In Socialist historiography, the Civil War is known as Italian Revolution. In the African Nations of Somalia and Libya, it is called the War of Independence. Other names include: the Italian Troubles and the Turbelent Years.

North America

Flag Name Government Type Current Head of State Current Head of Government Capital Date Founded
Flag of California (PMIV).png California Federal Semi-Presidential Parliamentary Republic Sacremento 1971
Flag of Louisiana (January 1861).svg Louisiana Federal Semi-Presidental Republic Marianne Monim Charles Hardouin New Orleans 1820
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec Federal Semi-Presidental Constitional Republic François Legault Pierre Arcand Quebec City 1990
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Federal Presidental Republic Porfirio Muñoz Ledo Mexico City ?
? United Provinces of America Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy ? Jacob E. Jackson New York 1865

Asia

===Northern Asia

  • Flag of the Great Region of Mongolia (Celestial Ascendance).png Mongolia
  • New ussr flag by glide08-d8kli0m.png Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

==Eastern Asia

  • Federal Republic of China Flag.png China
  • Flag of Hong Kong (1959–1997).svg Hong Kong
  • Flag of Japan.svg Japan
  • Flag of South Korea.svg Korea
  • Flag of Macau TBAC.svg Macau

===Southern Asia

  • Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan
  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bengali Republic
  • Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan
  • Flag of India.svg India
  • Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
  • Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka
  • Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan

===South-Western Asia

  • Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei
  • Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
  • 800px-Flag of East Timor.png East Timor
  • Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia
  • Laos Comm..png Loas
  • 1949 Malaya Flag Proposal 3.svg Malayan Federation
  • Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives
  • Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines
  • Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore
  • Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
  • Flag of South Vietnam (Pantone).svg Vietnam

===Central Asia

  • Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan
  • Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan
  • Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan
  • Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan

===Middle East

  • Flag of the Arab Federation.svg Arabia
  • Flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iranian Republic
  • Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait
  • Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar
  • Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24).svg Syria
  • Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
  • Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates
  • Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen

Western Europe

===Flanders and Wallonia

  • Wiser Kaiser Belgium.jpg Kingdom of Flanders-Wallonia (1918-1938)

===France

===Netherlands

  • Dutch.png Dutch Socialist Republic (1931-1942)

National Socialism

National Socialism is, unlike OTL, a left-wing nationalist ideology that came to prevalence in Britain, France and the Netherlands in the 1920-1930s. A inspiration for the movement was John Maclean, who was nominally communist with Scottish nationalist ideals. In the early-1920s, Maclean fell out with the communist party over Scottish independence. He went on to establish the Scottish National Worker’s Party (SNWP), which is viewed as a founding pillar of the NatSoc movement.

NatSoc agrees with the social and economic theories of Marxism, while disagreeing on Marx’s views on nationalism. NatSoc’s main purpose is that ethnic nationalism is a vital part of world society which cannot be destroyed, and that each ethnicity should have the right to self-determination.

==Stalinism As a result of the Revolutions of 1917-23 succeeding, the Stalinist ideology of Socialism in One Country never develops. Stalin remains a believer of world revolution, with the USSR at the seat of power.

Petainism

Une nouvelle renaissance pour la France

A New Renaissance Cover (GH).jpg

Author(s) Philippe Pétain
Country France (now Algeria)
Language French
Genre(s) Autobiography, Political theory
Publication date May 22, 1925
Published in English 17 July 1931 (abridged)

1932 (full)

Media type Hardback
Pages 523

Petainism, known variously as National Reformism, is a proto-fascist ideology developed mostly by Philippe Petain, the leader of Free France from 1919 to 1945, while in exile in Algiers. In 1925, Pétain wrote his first ideological book, ’A new renaissance for France’ (French: Une nouvelle renaissance pour la France) which is often regarded as the founding start of the ideology of Petainism.

Petainism became popular among the military personnel who had gone into exile in Free France after the First French Civil War. These military officers were opposed to both communism and the liberalism of the Third Republic, favouring a third way for France.

Petainism can be characterised by anti-parliamentarism, personality cultism, xenophobia, state-sponsored anti-Semitism, promotion of traditional values, corporatism rejection of the constitutional separation of powers, rejection of modernity, and opposition to the theory of class conflict.