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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa with 47 semiautonomous counties governed by elected governors. At 580,367 square kilometres (224,081 sq mi), Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret. Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Buganda to the west, Tanzania to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast.
Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day southern Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC. European contact began in 1500 with the Portuguese Empire, though effective colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and from the subsequent white-dominated “Dominion of Kenya”. After World War I and the resulting collapse of British colonial authority, white landowners took control of the government and crown land, taking much of Kenya into private ownership. Throughout the 1920s, Kenya became the centre point of British white settlement in Africa - the Kenyan administration offered free land to British settlers, spurring a wave of emigration. However, by the late 1920s, high taxes, unfair practices and left-wing ideological inspirations culminated in a successful African Revolution in 1928, funded by the British Republic and Soviet Union.
Kenya is a member of the League of United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the UIDD and other international organisations. Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa, with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub. Agriculture is the largest sector: tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa. Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the British Commonwealth and the European Community.
Hugh Cholmondeley, 3rd Baron Delamere (28 April 1870 – 13 November 1931) was a British Peer and one of the most influential leaders among the Whites in Kenya and the first Prime Minister of Kenya from 1921 until 1928. His actions to annex vast amounts of former crowd land led to disagreements between the British Royalist government in Canada and the African and Asian inhabitants of Kenya, which ultimately led to his, and the white government’s downfall after the Kenyan Revolution.
The efforts of Harry Thuku and Jomo Kenyatta to gain foreign support for the Kenyan Nationalist cause resulted in a shipment of supplies from the Left-leaning government of Ramsay MacDonald in the British Commonwealth, as well as mercenaries from the Soviet Union. The MacDonald government wanted to gain allies in the former Empire, and signed the Thuku-MacDonald Agreement, which guaranteed support for Kenyan Independence and democracy and the creation of an economic agreement between Britain and Kenya.
Politics of Kenya
- Kenya People's Union (KPU) - Social Democracy, African Nationalism
- Kenya African National Union (KANU) - Conservatism,
- Kenyan Democratic Party (KDP) - Christian Democracy, Economic Liberalism
|Kimgdom of Hanover|
Königreich Hannover (German)Timeline: German Heritage
|Government||Unitary parliamentary Constitutional monarchy|
|-||Monarch||Ernest Augustus II|
|-||Chancellor||Ernst von Richter (VLP)|
|Kingdom of Ukraine|
Королівство України (Ukrainian)Timeline: German Heritage
Shche ne vmerla Ukraina
|Government||Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|-||Monarch (King)||Leo Stefan (Vasyl Vilnyy)|
|-||Prime Minister||Arseniy Yatsenyuk|
|-||August 2018 estimate||50 million|
|Drives on the||right|
==Politics Politics in the Canary Islands are divided by the issue of national identity - whether the Canaries are Spanish, or part of a separate Canarian identity. Due to the proportional allotment of seats in elections, no single party can gain a complete majority and must enlist other smaller parties to create a majority. The current coalition consists of the People’s Party and Progressive Party
- Canarian People’s Party: Canarian Nationalism, Economic Liberalism, Liberal Conservatism, Pro-European
- Social Democratic Party: Spanish Nationalism, Social Democracy, Republicanism
- Progressive Party: Liberalism, Canarian Nationalism
- Canarian United Left: Socialism, Republicanism, Communism
- National Populist Party: Spanish Nationalism, Monarchism, Neo-Falangism
- Independent Herrenian Group: El Hierro Regionalism
As German-Ottoman relations rapidly deteriorated as a result of the Caucasian dispute, Germany began gradually withdrawing from the continued Middle-Eastern war. In September 1918, the Ottoman Empire under Enver Pasha invaded Georgia in an attempt to overthrow the pro-German government. The remaining German forces in Turkey were interned and the advance against the Hejaz halted as the Ottoman war machine geared towards the grand offensive.
As the war began to turn against Turkey (around February 1919), popular Turkish opinion turned against the imperial government and the rule of the Three Pashas.
- Total: 4,000 total
The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire is a term used to describe the events that took place from the end of World War I in March 1918 until the End of the Turkish Revolution in 1921.
Included with this period are; the Ottoman-Georgian War, the Ottoman-Armenian War, the later Arab Revolt and the Turkish National Revolution.
- Paul Schiemann (1924-1930)
- Andrievs Niedra (1930-1940)
- Alfred Rosenberg (1940-1954)
- Uldis Ģērmanis (1954-1962)
- Oskars Perro (1962-1966)
- Walter Zapp (1966-1974)
- Lennart Meri (1980-1981)
- Jānis Streičs (1981-1989)
- Stanislaw Subrabkalms (1989-2001)
- Andris Šķēle (2001-2009)
- Anna Kucinskis (2009-2017)
- Raimonds Vējonis (2017-)
Prime Ministers of British Government-in-Exile (1917-1954)
- Lloyd George (1917-1918)
- George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (1918-1925)
- Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (1925-1932)
- Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster (1932-1934)
- Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 7th Marquess of Londonderry (1934-1945)
Population 4,000,000 (excluding Bristol and Cornwall)
- 25,000 = 1 Seat = 160 Seats/81 Needed for a Majority
- Green Party: 55
- Independents: 54
- National: 34
- Progressive Party: 10
- Forward Britain: 7
54,500,000 total population (2001) = 683 Seats 502 PR Seats 181 Con Seats
- SW - 4,200,000 = 18/35 ConSeats - 11 FDP, 6 National, 1 Green
- London - 6,200,000 = 26/52 ConSeats - 17 FDP, 4 National, 3 Progressive, 2 Greens
- Wales - 2,000,000 = 9/17 ConSeats 87 - 6 FDP, 1 Progressive, 2 Plaid
- Scotland 4,200,000 = 18/35 ConSeats - 10 FDP, 7 SNP, 1 Progressive,
- SE - 6,500,000 = 27/54 ConSeats 227 - 17 FDP, 9 National, 1 Green
- East - 4, 500,000 = 19/38 Seats 173 - 10 National, 9 FDP,
- EMid - 3,500,000 = 15/29 Seats 135 - 6 FDP, 6 National, 3 Progressive
- WMid - 1,700,000 = 9/14 Seats 106 - 2 Nat, 5 FDP, 2 Pro.
- YRK - 4,000,000 = 19/33 Seats 92 - 10 National, 6 Progressive, 3 FDP
- NE - 1,600,000 = 9/13 Seats 59 - 5 National, 3 Progressive, 1 FDP
- NW - 5,500,000 = 23/46 Seats - 9 Progressive, 7 FDP, 7 National
342 Needed for a majority
- FDP - Tony Blair - 36.6% - 82 CS + 184PR = 259 Total
- National - William Hague 28.8% - 59 CS + 145PR = 204 Total
- Progressive - Jack Straw 21.8% - 28 CS + 109PR = 137 Total
- Greens - Mike Woodin 7.2%- 3 CS + 36 PR = 39 Total
- SNP 1.9% - 7 CS + 10PR = 17 Total
- Liberal - 1.2% = 6
- PC 0.7% - 2CS + 3PR = 5 Total
- Socialist Labour 0.3% - 2 Total
- Labour 36.1%
- Rexist 2
In 1918, King Albert and the government returned humiliated. There was no victorious crowds, no proud soldiers. When the soldiers did come home, they were now the symbols of a grand failure - a painful memory. Belgium had been devastated—not so much by combat, but rather by German seizure of valuable machinery. Only 81 operable locomotives remained, out of the 3,470 available in 1914. 46 of 51 steel mills were damaged, with 26 destroyed totally. More than 100,000 houses had been destroyed, as well as more than 300,000 acres of farmland. In the Treaty of Rotterdam, Belgium was forced to make huge concessions to the German Empire. Much of the eastern parts of the Liège Province and Belgian Luxembourg were ceded to the Reich, and the ports and surrounding cities of Antwerp and Bruges were made into “states under exclusive German economic and military sovereignty”. The years immediately following the War were marked by widespread political agitation - to the left, the banned Communist legions dominated the urban and rural areas as many desperate Belgians were forced into the political extremes, and to the right, the nationalist “Free Corps” offered a purpose to unemployed soldiers returning home.
- “In the Military, in the government, in the ministries and in the courts, they is only one God, and his name is Rosenberg - Attributed to Emile Vandervelde during his imprisonment, c.1922
The German Ambassador Hans von Rosenberg was often seen visiting the King, the ministries and the high courts and is sometimes known as de facto ruler of Belgium from 1918-1933. As ambassador, Rosenburg sentenced prominent Socialist and Communist officials to imprisonment (such as Emile Vandervelde and Edward Anseele) or, in some cases, execution (as Joseph Jacquemotte and War Van Overstraeten). A series of general strikes forced Rosenburg to release Vandervelde and Anseele, though they were banned from participating in political activities.
The Raad van Vlaanderen was divided into two main factions: those who supported Pieter Tack’s authoritarian anti-Semitic Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV), and supporters of Joris Van Severen and his populist Vlaamse Volkspartij (VVP). In contrast to the VNV, the VVP was based in a left-wing ideology, which contributed to its popularity. The VVP gained a massive majority over Tack’s unpopular government, and quickly passed more populist reforms in Flanders.
While many of the moderate parties didn’t actively support the pro-German administration, they were still viewed by many as traitors due to their passive stance - the Liberal and Catholic Parties still remained in parliament between 1919-1933. At the 1934 Belgian General Election, the social democratic Labour Party, the Flemish and left-wing VVP and the catholic, proto-fascist Rexist Party saw a sharp increase in votes.
- ↑ (The German Ambassador to Belgium; From Germany to Belgium)
President of France
- Lionel Jospin (1990-1997)
- Jacques Chirac (1997-2009)
- Ségolène Royal (2009-2014)
- François Bayrou (2014-)
- 2014 Election: Bayrou 65.1% / Le Pen 34.9%
- 2019 Election: Bayrou 57.9% / Nicolas Dupont-Aignan 42.1%
North France, officially known as the Kingdom of France (French: Royaume de France), was a state that existed from 1948 until 1990, when the northern portion of France was part of the Berlin Pact during the Cold War. It consisted of territory that was administered and occupied by German forces following the end of World War II as part of a wartime agreement between the Free French and Germans. The German zone surrounded South Paris but did not include it; as a result, South Paris remained outside the jurisdiction of the Kingdom.
The Kingdom of France was established in the German zone, while the French Republic was established in the southern Free French zone. North France was a satellite state of the German Empire. German occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to French monarchist leaders in 1947, and the Kingdom began to function as a state on 7 October 1948. However, German forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War. Until 1989, the Kingdom was governed by the Action Française Party, a monarchist party that had policies not dissimilar from fascist nations. Action Française made the teaching of Maurrassisme and the German language compulsory in schools.
The Nationalists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a heavy allegiance to the catholic church. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its southern borders and, in 1961, built the Paris Wall - a line of fortifications along the northern bank of the Seine. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Many others spent large amounts of time imprisoned for attempting to escape.
- Capital: South Paris (De jure)
South France was the informal name for the French Republic (French: République française), a country in Western Europe, in the period between its formation in 1947 and French reunification on 31 December 1990. During this Cold War period, the southern portion of France was part of the Eastern Bloc. The Republic was created from the remnants of the Free French administration that existed in Algeria since 1919. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Toulouse, though officially its capital was located in South Paris. The Cold War era South France is unofficially designated the Toulouse Republic by historians.
At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and German blocs. France was de facto divided into two countries - the Republic and the Kingdom. Initially, the French Republic claimed an exclusive mandate for all of France, considering itself to be the sole democratically reorganised continuation of the 1870-1919 French Republic. It took the line that the Kingdom of France was an illegally constituted puppet state. Though the Kingdom did hold regular elections, these were neither free nor fair. From the South France perspective, the Northern Kingdom was therefore illegitimate.
Following the collapse of fascism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Paris wall, there was a rapid move towards French reunification. North France voted to dissolve itself and accede to the democratic Republic in 1990. The northern provinces and North Paris formally joined the French Republic on 31 December 1990, ending the division of France. The reunion did not result in a new country; instead, the process was essentially a voluntary act of accession, whereby South France was enlarged to include the additional provinces of North France, which had ceased to exist. The expanded Republic retained South France’s political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like LUN, NATO, OECD and the Pan-European Community.
|Australian Federation||Canberra||English, Aboriginal||Australia||Auszeal, AN|
|New Zealand||Wellington||English||New Zealand||Auszeal, AN|
|Federation of New Guinea||Port Moresby||English, Hiri, MotuPNG, Sign Language, Tok Pisin||New Guinea, Micronesia, Solomon Islands||AN|
Poblacht Uladh (Irish) Ulster RepublicTimeline: Agadir War
OTL equivalent: Ulster
Max territory occupied by the Ulster State in 1946. (Blue)
|Capital||Belfast (1940-1947), Bangor (1947)|
|Official languages||Ulster Scots, English|
|Regional Languages||Ulster Scots, English and Irish|
|Ethnic groups||Irish and English|
|Religion||Protestant, with catholics|
|-||Grand-General||Basil Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough|
|William V of Windsor|
|Official Portrait of William V, photographed in 2017|
|King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain|
|Reign||25 August 2011 -|
|Born||London, Great Britain|
|Spouse||Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza|
|Issue|| Isabelle, Princess Pierre Murat
Françoise, Princess Christopher of Greece and Denmark
Princess Anne, Duchess of Aosta
|Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern|
William V (William David George Windsor; b. 4 September 1981)
- George VI (1946-1953)
- Edward IX (1931-1988) (1953-2011)
- William V (1981-)