POD 1 december 1828 Dorrego left the city and organized his forces in the countryside to Santa Fe were he meets with the forces of Estanislao López. Later battle Dorrego wins and Juan Lavalle y José María Paz are defeated. Congress meets to draft constitution (similar to Federal Pact of 1831).

Liberal constitution of 1828 in Chile. Civil war in Chile between liberals and conservatives. dec 1829 - april 1830, victory of conservatives over liberals in Lircay (17 april 1830)

Exploratory letter exchange between Dorrego and Prieto later followed in more detail by Portales and Juan Manuel de Rosas for cooperation against the Peru and Bolivia and trade along the Andes (Buenos Aires-Cuyo-Valparaíso). Key aspect to solve trade deficit with England and France was protectionism for local production.

Federalists circles in Chile and Argentina published propaganda in favour of a closer union (Liga de Hermandad Argentino-Chilena). Liberal and federalist José Miguel Infante chief promoter in Chile. In Argentina after the defeat of unitarians several political and military leaders of the inner provinces see a union with Chile as a powerful check against the hegemony of Buenos Aires and the littoral provinces.

First elections (by the national congresses to a Constituent Bi-republican Congress. The delegates draft a Treaty of Union (the First Constitution in later historiography) that establishes a common president and State Council named by joint delegates of the executives and legislatures of each republic. The Common President is to be elected by the State Council plus a double number of electors from each republic. The treaty is approved by both Congress and elections for the President follow. (Note: It was established is a confederation of states that later evolved in a federal union of states, a true federal state would become a reality in the 1910s. Each period would have its constitutional reform)

Key measures of 1840-1870 (Period of Practical Economy) Classical liberal economy but safeguarding national interests and exportation of raw materials and incipient industrialization. Establishment of public bureaucracy, military territorial control and strong executive power and presence.

Prohibition to export gold and silver in Argentina. Use of silver and gold production from Chile. Basis of andean financial sector and intraregional loans. Free customs between Valparaíso and Buenos Aires, later it included Coquimbo, Concepción and Punta Arenas. Protection of national merchant navy and construction of public warehouses in the main ports (Valparaiso, Buenos Aires).

Union of Transandean Republics / Union de Repúblicas Trasandinas

Union of Transandean Republics

Union of Transandean Republics
Union de Repúblicas Trasandinas
OTL equivalent: Argentina and Chile
Flag United Republics Andes var01 Escudo de Armas Chile (1818)
United Republics Argentina Chile Uruguy

En Unión y Libertad (Spanish)
("in unity and freedom")

Anthem "National Anthem of the Transandean Republics"
Capital Cordoba
Largest city Buenos Aires
Other cities Santiago, Concepción, Valparaíso, La Serena, Rosario and Mendoza
  others Mapudungun, Guarani, Aymara, Quechua, Lunfardo, German, Italian, French, English, Welsh
Secular state
  others Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, Deism and Atheism
Demonym Transandean (trasandino/a) or Chilean (chileno/a) or Argentinean (Argentino/a)
Government Federal presidential republic
  legislature National Congress
Currency Peso Austral
Time Zone UTC -4
Organizations Concert of Europe (observer) and League of American Republics (observer)

The Union of Transandean Republics (Union de Repúblicas Trasandinas) is a federal nation of South America. Its the union of the former Republic of Chile and the United Provinces of Río de La Plata.

National political organization;
  • Unity Congress and First elections
  • First Constitution. Federalist. 1st generation of rights
  • Civil War Unitarians versus Federalists. Winning the later. Recognition of Chile and Argentina as distinctive units with a resident president in each one. Constitutional reform. Chile (unitary republic) and Argentina (federal republic).
  • Second Constitution. Mixed federal and confederal elements. 1st generation of rights
Expansion and Conservative governments;
  • 1820s or 1830s Consolidation of inner Argentinian provinces in Cuyo[1] and Tucuman[2] to counter the influence of Buenos Aires and littoral provinces.
  • War with Brazil. Recovers Uruguay (Cisplatina Province) and reestablishes it as province of the United Republics
  • Freedom of navigation of Paraná, River Plate and Strait of Magallanes
  • Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) State of Riograndese becomes part of the Union of Transandean Republics as a member republic
  • Common currency; National Peso -> United Peso -> Escudo -> Peso Austral
  • Post Napoleonic Wars and revolutions of 1848 migration of French, Germans and Italians. British communities, established in the ports of Montevideo, Valparaiso and Buenos Aires.
  • Liberal and Conservatives conflicts (Partido Autonomista Unido, liberal federalism - Partido Nacional Republicano - conservative unitarian/federalist - Partido Conservador, conservative). Military coups.
  • War with Perú-Bolivian Confederation. Acquires mining provinces of the North.
  • Radicalism[3] (Liga Radical - Partido Radical and Union Radical)
Liberal governments and internal development;
  • Colonization of Southern lands (Patagonia, Aysén, La Araucanía and Magallanes). European emigration.
  • Secular Laws (birth and deaths registrations, civil marriage and divorce, secular education, laicism)
  • Universal male suffrage (read and wirte over 21 years of age)
  • Direct elections, elimination of electoral assemblies.
  • Autonomous Commune Laws
  • War Paraguay
  • Flag Crisis: Uruguay and Puerto Alegre become republics (1880s)
  • Proportional representation (Republics and provinces and all elections)
Economical and political crisis;
  • Economic crack 1920s
  • Neutral but with sympathies to the allies in World War I
  • Surge of socialism, communism, nationalism and populism
  • Center-left coalitions (Frente Popular) or populist governments (Partido Laborista Cívico / Partido Agrario Laborista, Partido Cívico Femenino)
  • Social welfare and health
  • Female suffrage (men and women read and write over 21 years of age)
  • Establishment of national police
  • Third Constitution (1st and 2do generation of rights). Senate ele3cted by national legislatures.
  • New Model Laws of Uniformity
  • Allied with USA in World War II
  • Military dictatorship
Industrial development;
  • Full universal suffrage (men and women over eighteen years of age)
  • Industrial development
  • Government of Social Christian governments.
  • Inflationary crisis.
  • Left-center governments
  • Antarctic Territory claimed by the United Republics
State (National Government);
  • President, elected for a five year term by the National Electoral Assembly. Names the Council of Ministers (or State Secretaries). Ins in charge for the federation of its defense, navy and army (War and Navy Ministers), foreign relationships (Foreign Affairs minister), international trade, national currency and finances (Ministry of Finance, later in the 1920s Ministries of Finances and Foreign Trade), Justice (Ministry of Justice), public education and religion (Ministry of Public Education and Cult, after secular laws ministry of Education), postal services, public works, railroads (Ministry of Public Works and Post Office, Ministry of Public Works, Railroads and Postal Services in the 1930 Ministry of Industries - Ministerio de Fomento), agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture). In the 1920s and 1930s labor and social welfare (Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare), health (Ministry of Health).
  • National Congress, a bicameral legislative. Senate and Chamber of Deputies
  • Supreme Court and inferior courts. There are common national civil and penal codes.

There is a national police, created in the 1930s. Each republic as an elected executive (Supreme Director ->President) and congress. Internally they have autonomy to organized as they please until the enactment of the Autonomous Commune Law and later reforms (Common Laws). Power of the republics: Internal order, domestic affairs, justice, republics budget, railroads, public works, health, education, labor affairs, economic development.

  • Unitarians and Federalists
  • Conservative. Liberals and Radicalism
  • Nationalism
  • Communism and Socialism
  • Populism (like Peronism and Ibañismo)
  • Christian democracy
  • New Right
  • Flag of Argentina United Provinces of the River Plate / Argentine Republic / Argentine Confederation (Atlantic) Provinces have elected governors and legislative assemblies
  • Flag of Chile Republic of Chile (Pacific) Provinces have government-appointed intendants and elected Provincial Assemblies
  • Flag of Magallanes, Chile Republic of Magallanes (Atlantic-Pacific) Unitary republic
  • Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz Republic of Patagonia (Pacific) Unitary republic
  • National Territories Delegate Governor named by the national government. In the future if they have enough population they are reorganized in provinces.

Early development grain and cattle. Later grain, cattle and nitrate with incipient industrialization in Valparaíso and Buenos Aires. World Crack of 1930s begins industrialization with electricity and protective tariffs. Building of steel mill and mid and light manufacturing in Concepción and Cordoba. During World War II heavy industry (airplanes and shipyards, later cars) develop as part of the war effort for the USA and allies. Discovery of oil and gas in the Patagonia. Petrochemical industry starts.

  • Industrial areas- Valparaiso - Santiago - Cordoba - Mendoza
  • Major ports: Valparaiso - Concepción - Buenos Aires - Montevideo - (Antofagasta)
  • wheat, maize, rice, dairy products, fish, sheep, cattle, meat processing, nitrate, copper, oil, gas, (fruit)

National Peso -> United Peso -> Escudo (E°) -> Peso Austral

Details members Union of Transandean Republics

Flag Coats of Arms Member Regime Capital Established Languages Notes
Flag United Republics Andes var01 Union of Transandean Republics Presidential federal republic Cordoba Spanish and Portuguese
Flag of Argentina Coat of arms of Argentina Argentine Confederation / Republic of Argentina Presidential federal republic Paraná (1810-...) Spanish and Mapudingun Full member of the Union of Transandean Republics
Flag of Chile Coat of arms of Chile Republic of Chile Presidential unitary republic Santiago (1810-1814, 1817-...) Spanish and Mapudungu Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic
Flag of Magallanes, Chile Republic of Magallanes Presidential unitary republic Punta Arenas Spanish Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic
Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz Republic of Patagonia Presidential unitary republic Viedma -> Rawson 1840s Spanish Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic
Bandera Estado de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Buenos Aires 1820 Spanish Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Corrientes Corrientes Corriente 1814-1820 (Entre Ríos) 1821- Spanish and Guarani Province of Argentina
Flag of Cordoba Province in Argentina Escudo de la Provincia de Córdoba Córdoba Córdoba 1820 Spanish Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Fe Santa Fé Santa Fé 1816 Spanish Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Entre Ríos Entre Rios Paraná (18??), Entre Rios (18??) 1814 Spanish and Guarani Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Mendoza Cuyo[4] Mendoza 1813-1820, 1820s Spanish Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Misiones Misiones Candelaria 1810-1814 (Corrientes) Spanish, Portuguese and Guarani Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de Tucumán Tucuman[5] Santiago del Estero 1810-1820, 1820s Spanish and Quechua Province of Argentina
Bandera de la Provincia de La Pampa La Pampa Santa Rosa 1880s Spanish and Mapudungun From Patagonia, and military campaign against Mapuches. Province of Argentina in 1880s
National Territories
Flag of Magallanes, Chile Magallanes Punta Arenas Spanish (Chile)
La Araucanía Temuco 1870s-1880s Spanish and Mapundungun Military campaign against Mapuches. Became part of Chile in 1880s
Chaco Spanish and Guarani (Argentina)
Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz Patagonia Viedma -> Rawson Spanish and Mapugundun (Argentina)
Juan Fernández Islands San Juan Bautista Spanish Insular territory (Chile)
Flag of the Falklands (Night of the Living Alternate History Map Game) Malvinas Islands Puerto Soledad Spanish Insular territory (Argentina)
Aysén Puerto Aysèn Spanish From Magallanes (Chile)
Easter Island Hanga Roa Spanish and Rapa Nui Insular territory (Chile)
Antarctic Territory Deception Island Spanish

First level internal administrative units of unitary republics

Chile Divided in provinces

  • Tarapacá (conquered from Peru–Bolivian Confederation)
  • Antofagasta (conquered from Peru–Bolivian Confederation)
  • Atacama (Copiapó) (from Coquimbo)
  • Coquimbo (Conquimbo)
  • Aconcagua (Valparaíso)
  • Santiago (Santiago)
  • Colchagua (Curicó)
  • Maule (Linares)
  • Concepción (Concepción)
  • Valdivia (Valdivia)
  • Chiloé (Ancud)
  • La Araucanía (Temuco) 1880s
  • Territory of Palena (Chaiten)

Patagonia. Divided in provinces.

  • Río Negro (Río Negro)
  • Huemul (San Carlos de Bariloche)
  • Futaleufú (Esquel)
  • Chubut (Rawson)
  • Santa Cruz (Puerto Santa Cruz)

Magallanes. Divided in provinces.

  • Aysén (Coyhaique)
  • Río Gallegos (Río Gallegos)
  • Ultima Esperanza (Puerto Natales)
  • Magallanes (Punta Arenas)
  • Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)

  1. Provinces of Mendoza, San juan, San Luis and La Rioja
  2. Provinces of Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Juyjuy, Salta and Catamarca
  3. Supports a republican form of government, universal male suffrage, and, particularly, supported anti-clerical policies and public education.
  4. Provinces of Mendoza, San juan, San Luis and La Rioja
  5. Provinces of Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Juyjuy, Salta and Catamarca

Peru–Bolivian Confederation

Peru–Bolivian Confederation
Confederación Perú-Boliviana
OTL equivalent: Perú and Bolivia
Peru-Bolivian Flag Emblem of Peru–Bolivian Confederation
Flag of Peru–Bolivian Confederation Emblem of Peru–Bolivian Confederation
Location of Peru–Bolivian Confederation

Firme por la Unidad (Spanish)

Capital Tacna
Largest city Lima
Other cities La Paz, Cusco and Sucre
  others Quechua and Aymara
Religion Catholicism
Ethnic Groups
  others Quechua and Aymara
Demonym Confederal or Peruvian / Bolivian (the later two are the most commonly used)
Government Confederation (Presidential system)
  legislature General Congress of the Confederation
Supreme Protector
Established 1836
Currency Peso (South and North Peru) and Escudo (Bolivia)
Time Zone UTC -5 / -4
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) is confederate state between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru) and Bolivia.

Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz promoted the project to reunite the two territories on the basis of a confederacy. The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a plan that attempted to reunite the Alto Perú (Upper Peru, Bolivia) and Bajo Perú (Lower Peru, Peru) into a single political and economic entity. This integration was based not only on historical, cultural and ethnic reasons, but also on economic motives. The union was attempting to restore the ancient commercial routes and promote a policy of open markets.

From its inception, the confederation was seen as a threat by influential politicians in the neighboring countries, and its support for Chilean and Argentine dissidents in exile caused Argentina and Chile to wage war separately against the confederation.

Also internal dissensions affected the Confederation since its creation. Both Gamarra and Santa Cruz agreed that the separation of Peru and Bolivia was a mistake that should be corrected. Their plan for a federation, or at least a confederation, was accepted by the legislative branches of both countries, but they personally disagreed on other issues. Gamarra was in favor of a Peruvian-led union, while Santa Cruz wanted to give more political power to Bolivia.

Their ideas crashed with Bolivar, who did not agree with either Gamarra or Santa Cruz, since Colombia was already his own project of federation to unite most of the former Spanish colonies.

Confederal Institutions

  • Supreme Protector. Elected by a joint session of the General Congress of the Confederation for a 10 year term with immediate reelection. Assisted by a Council of Minister (State Ministers) named by the Supreme Protector
  • General Congress of the Confederation
    • Senate - 5 senator from each member state
    • Chamber of Deputies - 7 from each member state elected for a 6 year term. A third of Deputies are removed each 6 years
  • Supreme Courts of each member states
  • General Diet, called for constitutional reform. Integrated by 11 deputies from each republic.
Flag Country Regime Capital Established Languages Notes
Flag of Peru (1825 - 1950) North Peru Presidential republic (President) Lima 1836 Spanish, Quechua and Aymara
Flag of South Peru South Peru Presidential republic (President) Tacna --> Cusco 1836 Spanish, Quechua and Aymara
Bolivien 1826-1851 Bolivia Presidential republic (President) La Paz 1825 Spanish, Quechua and Aymara

Administrative Divisions

The main administrative unit is the department under the direction of a Governor-Intendant

North Peru

  • Amazonas (Chachapoyas)
  • Lima
  • Junín (Tarma)
  • La Libertad (Trujillo)
  • Huaylas (Huaraz)

South Peru

  • Arequipa
  • Ayacucho (Huamanga)
  • Cusco
  • Puno
  • Litoral (Tacna)


  • Cochabamba
  • Chuquisaca
  • La Paz
  • Potosí
  • Santa Cruz
  • Tarapaca (Iquique)
Proposal of a more federal Confederation (Andean Confederation)
Flag of the Inca Empire

Proposal of new flag (Andean Confederation.

Peru-Bolivian Flag

Old flag of the former confederation considered to be used by Andean Confederation.

The Republics of North Peru, South Peru and Bolivia would be subdivided in the following states:

  1. Santa Cruz (From Bolivia)
  2. Chuquisaca (From Bolivia)
  3. Potosí (From Bolivia)
  4. Tarapaca (From Bolivia)
  5. La Paz (From Bolivia)
  6. Arequipa (From South Peru)
  7. Cusco (From South Peru and North Peru)
  8. Ucayali (From South Peru and North Peru)
  9. Lima (From North Peru)
  10. Trujillo (From North Peru)
  11. Amazonas (From North Peru)


Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia
OTL equivalent: Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama
Flag of the Gran Colombia Coat of arms of Gran Colombia (1821)
Great Colombia (orthographic projection)

Union (Spanish)

Anthem "Marcha Libertadora"
(and largest city)
Other cities Caracas and Quito
Language Spanish
Religion Catholicism
Demonym Colombian
Government Presidential republic
  legislature Congress of Colombia
Established 1819
Independence from Kingdom of Spain
Currency Colombian real
Time Zone UTC -5 / -4
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

Colombia is a state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America. Since Colombia's territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it also claims the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast.

Its early existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a centralized government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized, federal form of government.

At the same time, another political division emerged between those who supported the Constitution of Cúcuta and two groups who sought to do away with the Constitution, either in favor of breaking up the nation into smaller republics or maintaining the union but creating an even stronger presidency. The faction that favored constitutional rule coalesced around Vice-President Francisco de Paula Santander, while those who supported the creation of a stronger presidency were led by President Simón Bolívar. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward.

Political Institutions
  • Executive: President and Vicepresident. Both elected for a 4 year term by the electoral assemblies. The President names the Ministers of State.
  • Legislative: The Congress of Colombia that consists of the
    • Senate (Senado), and
    • House of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes)
  • Council of Government
  • Supreme Court of Justice
Departments of Colombia
  • Apure (Barinas)
  • Azuay (Cuenca)
  • Boyacá (Tunja)
  • Cauca (Popayán)
  • Cundinamarca (Bogotá)
  • Ecuador (Quito)
  • Guayaquil (Guayaquil)
  • Istmo (Panamá)
  • Magdalena (Cartagena)
  • Orinoco (Cumaná)
  • Venezuela (Caracas)
  • Zulia (Maracaibo)

Empire of Brazil

Empire of Brazil
Império do Brasil
OTL equivalent: Empire of Brazil
Flag of Brazil (1870–1889) CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870)
Republic of Brazil (The Purple Mantle)

Independência ou Morte! (Portuguese)
("Independence or Death!")

(and largest city)
Rio de Janeiro
Other cities Sao Paulo, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Salvador and Recife
  others Tupi–Guarani languages
  others Protestantism, Afro-Brazilian religions (Candomblé, Umbanda and Quimbanda), Islam, Judaism, Spiritism and Deism
Ethnic Groups
Brancos (Whites)
  others Pardos (Mestizos), negros (Blacks), indígenas (native Indians)
Demonym Brazilian
Government Constitutional parliamentary monarchy
  legislature General Assembly
Prime Minister
Established 1822
Independence from Kingdom of Portugal
Currency Réis (Rs)
Time Zone UTC -3
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The Empire of Brazil is state of South America. Its government is a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent, later King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI later returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil. The new country as huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse.

The separatists Balaiada social revolt (1838-1841) established the independent Federal República of the Amazons. The political crisis led to the Brazilian liberal constitution of 1849.

Imperial Institutions
  • Moderating power: Emperor of Brazil
  • Executive power:
    • Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
    • Council of State
  • Legislative power: General Assembly: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
  • Judicial power: Supreme Court of Justice

Provinces of the Empire of Brazil

The main administrative unit is the province under the direction of a provincial president appointed by the national government.

  • Alagoas (Maceió)
  • Bahia (Salvador)
  • Espírito Santo (Vitória)
  • Goiás (Vila Boa de Goiás)
  • Mato Grosso (Cuiabá)
  • Minas Gerais (Vila Rica)
  • Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro 1821-1834, Niterói 1834-1889)
  • Santa Catarina (Desterro)
  • São Paulo (São Paulo)
  • Sergipe (São Cristóvão)
  • Neutral municipality (Rio de Janeiro)

Former provinces

  • Cisplatina (Montevidéu) (Independent Uruguay)
  • São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul (Independant Riograndense)
  • Ceará (Fortaleza), part of Amazonas
  • Grão-Pará (Belém), part of Amazonas
  • Maranhão (São Luís), part of Amazonas
  • Paraíba (Parahyba)
  • Pernambuco (Recife), part of Amazonas
  • Piaui (Oeiras), part of Amazonas, part of Amazonas
  • Rio Grande do Norte (Natal), part of Amazonas


Federal República of the Amazons
República Federativa do Amazonas
OTL equivalent: North and part of Northeast of Brazil (includes basin of the Amazon river)
Flag of the Amazons (alternate) Brasão do Amazonas
Republic of Amazons (alternate)
Amazons (pink) and disputed territories

Independência, União e Liberdade (Portuguese)
("Independence, Union and Liberty")

Anthem "National Anthem"
(and largest city)
São Luís
Other cities Belem, Teresina, Natal, Fortaleza and Manaus
  others Tupi and Arawakan languages
Secular state
  others Catholicism, Afro-Brazilian religions (Candomblé, Umbanda and Quimbanda), Protestantism, Islam, Judaism, Spiritism and Deism
Ethnic Groups
Pardos (Mestizos)
  others Brancos (Whites), negros (Blacks), indígenas (native Indians)
Demonym Amazonian (amazonense)
Government Presidential federal republic
  legislature Congress of the Amazonas
Established 1840
Independence from Empire of Brazil
  declared 1840
  recognized 1845
Currency Amazonian pataca (PtA)
Time Zone UTC -3
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The Federal República of the Amazon (República Federativa do Amazonas) is an independent state of South America that gained its independence from the Empire of Brazil in 1840. Its independence movement had its background in the Balaiada social revolt (1838-1841) that began in province of Maranhão and spread to Grão-Pará, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas.

During the imperial period, the Maranhão region, which exported cotton, suffered a severe economic crisis because of competition with the increasingly productive United States. In addition, the cattle industry consumed a large part of the workforce in this region. These factors explain the involvement of the slave and poorly paid free workers in the movement. The revolt that sparked into an independentist and republican movement started as a power dispute between liberals (bem-te-vis) and conservatives (cabanos) in Maranhão. As the imperial government intervened in the so-called regresso conservador ("conservative regression"), the Maranhão conservatives took advantage of the opportunity to remove the liberals in power, and at the same time, weaken them further by contracting the service of the cattle ranchers, traditionally supported by the liberals.

The revolt started with the detention of liberal rancher by order of a conservative mayor. Contesting the detention of his brother, and with the support of a contingent of the National Guard, invaded the municipal jail and freed him, in December 1838. Afterward, the support of Cosme Bento, an ex-slave with a force of 3,000 escaped Africans spread the revolt across the interior of Maranhão, conquering the second-most important city in the province, Caxias, and passing on to Piauí.

It disowned its claims over the Guianas (French, Dutch and English) in exchange of diplomatic recognition, free trade, military supplies and assistance in lifting the Brazilian naval blockade. It also established ties with the United Republics.

One of the first acts of the Constituent Assembly was to declared abolished slavery in all the territories of the Amazons.

Federal Government
  • President elected by the Federal Assembly for a five year term. Names the Ministers of State
  • Council of State, 15 councillors elected by the General Assembly and the President for five year term
  • Federal Assembly (Senate + Chamber of Deputies) elected for a five year term
  • Supreme Tribunal of Justice and lesser courts
States of Amazonia
Each State as an elected State-President and State Assembly
  • Ceará (Fortaleza)
  • Grão-Pará (Belém)
  • Maranhão (São Luís)
  • Paraíba (Paraíba)
  • Pernambuco (Recife)
  • Piauí (Teresina)
  • Rio Grande do Norte (Natal)
  • São José do Rio Negro, later shorten to Rio Negro (Manaus)


Republic of Paraguay
República del Paraguay (Spanish)
Tetã Paraguái (Guaraní)
OTL equivalent: Paraguay
Flag of Paraguay 1842 Coat of arms of Paraguay

Paz y justicia - Py’aguapy ha Tekoyvi (Spanish and Guaraní)
("Peace and justice")

Anthem "National Anthem"
(and largest city)
Language Spanish and Guaraní
Religion Catholicism
Ethnic Group Mestizo
Demonym Paraguayan
Government Presidential republic
  legislature Congress of Paraguay
Established 1811
Independence from Kingdom of Spain
Currency Paraguayan real and Argentine real (until 1845)
Time Zone UTC -4
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

Paraguay is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica ("Heart of South America").

Following independence from Spain in 1811, Paraguay is ruled by a series of dictators who generally implemented isolationist and protectionist policies.

Gains territories from Bolivia (Chaco) and Argentina (OTL Formosa province). Paraguay's economy is characterized as highly dependent on agriculture products and livestock. With the annexation of the Chaco region the country’s dairy and ranching industry became a relevant source of income and exportation to neighboring countries. Paraguay is know as the main producer yerba mate.

Political Institutions
  • Executive: The President elected for a 10 year term by the National Congress. The President names the Ministers of State.
  • Legislative: The National Congress of Paraguay that consists of the deputies elected for a five year term
  • Council of State
  • Supreme Court of Justice
Administrative division of Paraguay
  • Capital District of Asunción
  • Oriental Region
  • Occidental or Chaco Region


Republic of Haiti
République d'Haïti (French)
República de Haití (Spanish)
Repiblik Ayiti (Haitian Creole)
OTL equivalent: Hispaniola (Haiti + Dominican Republic)
Flag of Haiti Coat of arms of Haiti

Liberté, égalité, fraternité / Libète, egalite, fratènite (French / Haitian Creole)
("Liberty, Equality, Fraternity")

Anthem "Quand nos Aïeux brisèrent leurs entraves"
(and largest city)
Other cities Saint-Domingue (Santo Domingo), Cap-Haïtien, Les Cayes and Santiago de los Caballeros
French and Spanish (co-official)
  others Haitian Creole (Kreyol)
Secular State
  others Catholicism, Protestantism and Vodou
Ethnic Groups
  others Mestizo/Mulatto and Europeans
Demonym Haitian
Government Presidential unitary republic
  legislature National Assembly
Area 76,480 km²
Established 1804
Independence from France
  declared 1804
  recognized 1825
Currency Gourde (G)
Time Zone UTC−5
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

Haiti (also Hayti or Ayiti) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

As compromise with former Spanish Haiti, Spanish language is co-oficial with French in the administration and education, the reopening of the University of University of Santo Domingo, public and military offices are open to all, local self government (communes) in departamental capitals, freedom of association, movement and press and repeal of the unpopular Code Rural in all of Hispaniola. It also included the establishment of the Vice-Presidency to be filled by a citizen from the territories of former Spanish Haiti.

The Constitution provides automatic Haitian citizenship to any black, Indian, or person of mixed race who resided in the nation for more than a year.

  • President and Vice-president. The President is elected for life and the Vice-president is elected for a five year term limited to one successive reelection. The President names state secretaries. The President and Vice-president are elected by the Senate.
  • National Assembly composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate is named by the House of Representatives from a a list of candidates provided by the President and serve for a nine year term. The representatives are directly elected for five year term.
  • Court of Cassation and lower criminal and civil courts. All judges are appointed by the President.
  • ...
  • Jean-Pierre Boyer (1822-1843) President for Life
Administrative division

Haiti distributed into Departments, and these subdivided into Districts (Arrondissements) and Communes. The Governor, named by the President, is political chief of the department


  • Sud /Sid (Les Cayes)
  • Ouest /Lwès (Port-au-Prince)
  • Artibonite /Latibonit (Les Gonaïves)
  • Nord /Nò (Cap-Haïtien)
  • Ozama (Santo Domingo)
  • Cibao (Santiago de los Caballeros also called Sant-Yago)
  • Seybo (Azua)

The major crops are sugar, coffee and cocoa.

One very significant economic obstacle in Haiti's economic development is the necessary payment of 150 million francs to France beginning in 1825; this did much to drain the country of its capital stock. In 1838, France agreed to reduce the debt to 60 million francs to be paid over a period of 30 years.


State primary and secondary schools follow the French approach and organization to education. Primary education is compulsory. There are two universities: University of Santo Domingo (founded in 1538 closed in 1823 reopened in 1839) and Université d'Haïti (founded 1841).

Central America

Federal Republic of Central America
República Federal de Centroamérica
OTL equivalent: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
Flag of Guatemala (1825-1838) Escudo de la República Federal de Centro América
Location Federal Republic of Central America
Location of Central America

Dios, Unión y Libertad (Spanish)
("God, unity and liberty")

Anthem "La Granadera"
Capital Guatemala City (1823-1834), El Salvador (1834-...)
Largest city Guatemala City
Other cities Managua, Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula and San Jose
Spanish (official)
  others Maya languages, Miskito and Arawakan languages
Religion Catholicism
Ethnic Groups
  others Indians and Europeans
Demonym Central American
Government Presidential federal republic
  legislature Central American Congress
Established 1823
Independence from Mexican Empire
Currency Central American real (1823-1844), Centroamerican escudo (1844-1932), Central American colon (₡ 1932-...)
Time Zone UTC -6
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The Federal Republic of Central America (Spanish: República Federal de Centroamérica / Federación de Centroamérica), is a sovereign state in Central America, which consisted of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.

Shortly after Central America declared independence from the Spanish Empire, some of its countries were annexed by the Mexican Empire in 1821 and then Central America formed the Federal Republic in 1823.

Liberals win civil war of 1826-1829. Presidencies of Francisco Morazán (Liberal, 1830-1834, 1838-1842) and José Cecilio Díaz del Valle (Conservative, 1834-1838). The constitutional reforms of 1833 establishes uniformity of laws at State and Federal and gave Congress sole right to legislate on certain matters.

Tensions between Mexico and Central America lead to the Yucatan War, that also included as theater of operation the State of Chiapas and the recently independent republic of Yucatan.

Flag of the Federal Republic of Central America

First flag of of the Federal Republic of Central America (1823-1830s).

During the 19th century, many have described Central America as a buffer state between Mexico and Colombia. Attempts to build a Nicaragua canal connecting the Caribbean Sea and thus the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean goes back at least to 1825 when the Federal Republic of Central America hired surveyors to study a route via Lake Nicaragua.

The Mexican and Yucatan revolutions also had their echos in Central America. It started with a rebellion in Tegucigalpa that lead to the fall of the State government, however it soon spread to the rest of the Confederation. The Old and New Revolutions were carried out by conflicting factions each antagonized after sweeping away with the oligarchical liberal governments and federal administration (Old Revolution). The main factions were poor farmers seeking a land reform, Mayan communities demanding power sharing in their territories and land reform, urban workers seeking social reforms, radical liberals and reforming conservatives concerned with democratization and modernization of state, economical and educational institutions. Finally new reformists governments (New Revolution) prevailed and with it full male suffrage and most reforms except land and social ones, were enacted. A major outcome was the modernization of the armed forces, mainly the army.

A brief collective government, the Directorate integrated by one member of each republic, was established before returning to unipersonal presidential rule.

The economy of Central America is chiefly oriented to the production of bananas, coffee, sugar, cocoa and cotton.

Federal institutions
  • President and Vice-president, both elected for a four year term limited to one successive reelection. President names state secretaries. The President and Vice-president are directly elected in a joint ticket since 1926. From 1823 to 1926 they were elected by an federal electoral assembly.
  • Federal Congress (Senate and Chamber of Representatives). In the late 1910s and early 1920 it was unicameral.
  • Supreme Court of Justice
Presidents of the Confederation
  • Manuel José de Arce y Fagoaga (Liberal -> Conservative) 1825-1829
  • Mariano de Beltranena y Llano (Conservative) 1829-1829
  • Francisco Morazán (Liberal) 1829-1829
  • José Francisco Barrundia y Cepeda (liberal) Interim President 1829-1830
  • Francisco Morazán (liberal) 1830-1834
  • José Cecilio Díaz del Valle (Conservative) 1834-1838
  • Francisco Morazán (liberal) 1838-1842
States institutions

Until 1836 when freedom to organize was given to the states, they were required to have an elected

  • Chief of State and Second Chief of State, both elected for a four year term
  • Representative Council (one member for each administrative division of State)
  • Assembly of Representatives (11 to 21 deputies)
  • Superior Court of Justice

Member State

Flag Coat of Arms Member Capital Established Notes
Flag of Guatemala (1838-1843) State of Guatemala Guatemala City 1823 (1823)
Flag of El Salvador State of El Salvador San Salvador 1823 (1823)
Flag of Honduras (1839-1866) State of Honduras Tegucigalpa 1823 (1823)
Flag of Nicaragua (1839-1858) State of Nicaragua Managua 1823 (1823) Includes former Mosquito Kingdom
Flag of Costa Rica (1840-1842) State of Costa Rica San José 1823 (1823)
Flag of Los Altos State of Los Altos Quetzaltenango 1837 (1838) Formed from western section of Guatemala
Bandera de Chiapas State of Chiapas San Cristóbal de las Casas 1840s Independence from Mexico

Territorial disputes

Central America claims over territory between the Sibun and Sarstoon rivers of British Honduras (Belice). The claim covers approximately half of British Honduras, a de facto British dependency.

Oriental (Uruguay + Riograndense)

United Oriental Republic
República Oriental Unida
OTL equivalent: Uruguay and Riograndense
Naval Jack of Uruguay
Naval Jack
Location of Uruguay-Riograndense

Con libertad ni ofendo ni temo / Com a liberdade não ofende nem teme (Spanish / Portuguese)
("With freedom I neither offend nor fear")

(and largest city)
Other cities Porto Alegre, Rio Grande, Rivera and Pelotas
Spanish and Portuguese (co-official languages)
  others Portuñol
Secular state (Catholicism was official religion from 1840 to 1905)
  others Catholicism, Protestantism, Afro-Brazilian religions (Candomblé, Umbanda and Quimbanda), Spiritism, Deism and Atheism
Ethnic Groups
  others Whites (European)
Demonym Oriental also still used: uruguayan (uruguayo/a) and riograndense
Government Confederation (1840-1860s)- Unitary presidential republic (1860s) - Directorial executive (1940s) - presidential republic (1950s)
  legislature General Assembly
Established 1840
Currency Confederal real -> Oriental Peso
Time Zone UTC-4
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The United Oriental Republic (República Oriental Unida) is a state in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Transandean Union to its west and Brazil to its north and east. It is a unitary presidential republic established by the union of nations of Uruguay and Riograndense. From 1840 to 1860s it was a confederation of the republics of Uruguay and Riograndense.


  • Uruguayan Independence
  • Uruguayan Civil War
  • War of independence or Ragamuffin War (Revolução Farroupilha) of Riograndense
  • Brazilian-Transandean War (Transandean Intervention)
  • Confederation of Uruguay and Riograndense (Union Oriental)
  • Transition from confederal to unitary state.
    • Battle of Masoller
  • Batlle and reformism
  • Effects of the Great Depression
  • Dictatorship
  • Gauchismo Decade
  • Collapse of the Oriental economic miracle
  • National Council of Government (installation and collapse)
  • the reformist presidential republic


Colorados - liberalism - Batllismo (Socioliberalism) Blancos - Conservatives - Rural interests Left: Socialist - Communists Guachismo - populist movement - started as pressure group of Gauchos within the Blancos and later became an independent. It as left, center and right wing factions.

Details of former Oriental Union members

Flag Coats of Arms Member Regime Capital Established Languages Notes
Confederal (1840-1860)
Naval Jack of Uruguay United Oriental Republics Montevideo Confederation 1840 - Unitary Republic 1860s to date Spanish, Portuguese and Portuñol
Member states
Flag of Uruguay Coat of arms of Uruguay Oriental Republic of Uruguay Presidential unitary republic Montevideo 1828 Spanish
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Sul Coat of Arms of the Riograndesnse Republic Riograndense Republic Presidential unitary republic Porto Alegre 1836 Portuguese, Spanish and Portuñol

First level internal administrative units of member states

Uruguay. Divided in departments

  • Montevideo (Montevideo)
  • Maldonado (Maldonado)
  • Canelones (Canelones)
  • San José (San José de Mayo)
  • Colonia (Colonia del Sacramento)
  • Soriano (Mercedes)
  • Paysandú (Paysandú)
  • Durazno (Durazno)
  • Cerro Largo (Melo)
  • Salto (Salto)
  • Tacuarembó (Tacuarembó)
  • Lavalleja (Minas)
  • Florida (Florida)
  • Río Negro (Fray Bentos)
  • Rocha (Rocha)
  • Treinta y Tres (Treinta y Tres)
  • Artigas (Artigas)
  • Rivera (Rivera)
  • Flores (Trinidad)

Ríograndense. Divided in departments.

  • Porto Alegre (Porto Alegre)
  • Litoral (Pelotas)
  • Nordeste (Campo dos Bugres)
  • Campanha Ocidental (Uruguaiana)
  • Campanha Meridional (Bagé)
  • Bento Gonçalves (Santa Cruz do Sul)
  • Canabarro Santa Maria)
  • Santo Ângelo (Santo Ângelo)
  • Três Passos (Três Passos)


Republic of Yucatan
República de Yucatán
Mayab (Yucatec Maya)
OTL equivalent: Yucatán, Campeche and Quintana Roo.
Flag of the Republic of Yucatan Coat of arms of Yucatan
Location Republic of Yucatan (1841-1848)
Anthem "National Anthem of Yucatan"
(and largest city)
Other cities Campeche and Valladolid
  others Yucatec Maya
  others Protestantism, traditional and syncretic Maya religions, Spiritism, Deism and theism
Ethnic Groups
  others Indians and Whites
Demonym Yucatecan (Yucateco(a))
Government Presidential unitary republic
  legislature National Congress
Area 139,426 km²
Established 1841
Independence from México
Currency Yucatec Peso ($Y)
Time Zone UTC-6
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

The Republic of Yucatan (República de Yucatán) is located in the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bordered by the México to the southwest and Central American Federation and Belize to the south , with the Gulf of Mexico off its north coast. The second Republic of Yucatán began in 1841, with its declaration of independence in protest at Santa Anna’s centralization of Mexico.

Caste War

The Caste War began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the European-descended population, called Yucatecos. The latter had long held political and economic control of the region. A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the independent Maya in the south-east. There was regular raiding between them.

The Caste War caused the Republic of Yucatán to request military aid from Mexico and Central America Federation. The former was given on the condition that the Republic rejoin the Mexico. With the help of the Central American army the Caste War finish with the Mayan State of Chan Santa Cruz. The Treaty of Tzucacab signed between the Republic of Yucatan and the moderate rebel leaders ended the War. The more radical leaders holded up for a longer time in the south east of Yucatan until their definite defeat.


The Constitution of Yucatán provides that the government of Yucatán, consists of three powers: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

Executive power rests in the President of Yucatán, who is directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a six-year term with no possibility of reelection. Between 1841-1854 it was a four year term with no immediate reelection. Legislative power rests in the National Congress of Yucatán which is a bicameral legislature composed of a Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is invested in the Superior Court of Justice of Yucatán.

The Constitution of 1841, one of the most advanced of its time, guaranteed individual rights, religious freedom and what was then a new legal form called amparo (English: protection).


  • 1840-1841 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)


  • 1841-1844 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)
  • 1844-1844 Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo (Federalist)
  • 1844-1844 José Tiburcio López Constante (Liberal)
  • 1844-1849 Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo (Federalist)
  • 1849-1854 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)
  • 1854-1860 Justo Sierra O'Reilly
  • 1860-...


The main parties are

  • National Party (Partido Nacional, PN)
  • Liberal Constitutional Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, PLC)
  • Yucatec Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Yucateco, PLY)
  • Democratic Party (Partido Democrático, PD)
  • Socialist Party of Yucatan (Partido Socialista del Yucatan PSY)

Administrative division

The Yucatán is divided into 5 departments, each subdivided in districts and municipalities. The departments and districts are headed by a governor and delegate, respectively named by the President. The municipalities are headed by a municipal president (mayor).

Departments of Yucatan

  • Mérida
  • Izamal
  • Valladolid
  • Campeche
  • Tekax


United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
OTL equivalent: Mexico
Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893) Coat of arms of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893)
Mexico orthographic map (No Napoleon)
Anthem "National Anthem of Mexico"
Capital Mexico D.F.
Largest city Mexico City
Other cities Queretaro, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla and Toluca
  others Nahuatl and other languages
  others Protestantism, traditional and syncretic native religions, Spiritism, Deism and theism
Ethnic Groups
  others Indians and Whites
Demonym Mexican
Government Presidential federal republic
  legislature Congress of the Union
Established 1821
Independence from Spanish Empire
Currency Spanish dollar and Mexican peso
Time Zone UTC-6 to UTC-8
  summer UTC-6 to UTC-7
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

Mexico is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Central American Federation, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.

Politics Mexico

According to the constitution, Mexico is a federal presidential republic organized as follows

  • The President, that is the head of state and government. The vicepresident, who in case of physical or moral impossibility of the president, exercise the powers and prerogatives of the latter. The term of the president and vice president is four years with reelection after one period. The President and vicepresident are elected by electors
  • Legislative power deposited in a Congress of two chambers—a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Senators.
  • Judiciary power lies in a Supreme Court, the Circuit Courts and the District Courts. The Supreme Court consists of eleven members divided into three rooms and a prosecutor.
  • The individual state governments will be formed by the same three powers.

Administrative organization of Mexico

States of Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Guanajuato
  • Oaxaca
  • Puebla
  • Michoacán
  • San Luis Potosí
  • Veracruz
  • Yucatán (became independent republic of Yucatan in 1841)
  • Jalisco
  • Zacatecas
  • Querétaro
  • Sonora
  • Tabasco
  • Tamaulipas
  • Nuevo León
  • Coahuila y Tejas ((later split in the states of Coahuila and Tejas)
  • Coahuila
  • Tejas
  • Durango
  • Chihuahua
  • Chiapas (became part of the Central American Fderation)
  • Sonora y Sinaloa (later split in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa)
  • Sinaloa
  • Sonora
Federal territories
  • Mexico Federal District
  • Alta California
  • Baja California
  • Colima
  • Nuevo México
  • Tlaxcala


Republic of Cuba
República de Cuba
OTL equivalent: Cuba and Puerto Rico
Flag of Cuba Coat of arms of Cuba
Location of Havana

Viva Cuba Libre (Spanish)
("Long live free Cuba")

Anthem "La Bayamesa"
(and largest city)
La Habana
Other cities Santiago de Cuba, Camagüey and San Juan de Puerto Rico
Language Spanish
Secular state
  others Catholicism, Protestantism, Afro-Caribbean syncretic religions, Spiritism, Deism and theism
Ethnic Groups
  others Whites and Europeans
Demonym Cuban
Government Presidential unitary republic
  legislature National Congress
Independence from Spanish Empire
Currency Cuban peso
Time Zone UTC -5
Organizations League of American Republics (member)

Cuba is a country comprising the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico as well as Isla de los Pinos and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica.


Independence of Cuba and end of slavery. Civil war between liberal and radical factions. American intervention.

Provinces of Cuba
  • Pinar del Río (Pinar del Río)
  • La Habana (La Habana)
  • Matanzas (Matanzas)
  • Las Villas (Santa Clara)
  • Camagüey (Camagüey)
  • Oriente (Santiago de Cuba)
  • Puerto Rico (San Juan de Puerto Rico)

Cuba produces sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans and livestock.

America (At 1828 and onward)

Independent States

Flag Country Regime Capital Established Languages Notes
US flag 15 stars United States of America Presidential federal republic District of Columbia 1788 English
Flag of Haiti Haiti Presidential unitary republic Port-Républicain 1804 French and Kreyol
Flag of Argentina Argentina Presidential federal republic Buenos Aires 1810-1832 Spanish and Mapudungu Part of the Union of Transandean Republics
Flag of Chile Chile Presidential unitary republic Santiago 1810-1814, 1817-1832 Spanish and Mapudungu Part of the Union of Transandean Republics
New Granada Republic Tunja 1810-1821 Spanish Part of Colombia
Venezuela Republic Caracas 1811-1821 Spanish Part of Colombia
Flag of Paraguay 1842 Paraguay Presidential unitary republic Asunción 1811 Spanish and Guarani
Flag of the Gran Colombia Colombia Presidential unitary republic Bogota 1821 Spanish
Flag of Peru (1825 - 1950) Perú Presidential unitary republic Lima 1821-1836 Spanish, Aymara and Quechua Part of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
Flag of Mexico (1821-1823) Mexican Empire Constitutional monarchy Mexico 1821–1823 Spanish Became Mexican Republic
Flag of Brazil (1870–1889) Empire of Brazil Constitutional monarchy Rio de Janeiro 1822 Portuguese and Tupi languages
Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893) Mexican Republic Presidential republic Mexico 1823 Spanish, Nahuatl and others
Flag of Guatemala (1825-1838) Federal Republic of Central America Presidential federal republic Guatemala City -> El Salvador 1823 Spanish, and Mayan languages
Bolivien 1826-1851 Bolivia Presidential unitary republic Chuquisaca (Sucre) 1825-1836, 18 Spanish, Aymara and Quechua Part of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay Presidential unitary republic Montevideo 1828-1860 Spanish Admitted to Oriental
Flag United Republics Andes var01 Union of Transandean Republics Presidential federal republic Cordobá 1832 Spanish and Mapudungu Confederation/Union of Argentina and Chile
Flag of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation Peru–Bolivian Confederation Confederation (Protector) Tacna 1836- Spanish, Aymara and Quechua Confederation of Bolivia, North Peru, South Peru
Flag of Texas Texas Presidential unitary republic Columbia (1836–37), Houston (1837–39) and Austin (1839–46) 1836-1846 English and Spanish Annexed by the US
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Sul Riograndese Presidential unitary republic Porto Alegre 1840-1860 Portuguese Admitted to Oriental
Flag of the Amazons (alternate) Federal Republic of Amazon Presidential federal republic São Luís 1840 Portuguese, Tupi and Arawakan languages
Flag of the Republic of Yucatan Yucatan Presidential unitary republic Merida 1841 Spanish and Yucatec Maya
Naval Jack of Uruguay Oriental Presidential federal republic Montevideo 1860 Spanish and Portuguese union of Riograndense and Uurguay
Flag of the Confederate States of America (1861-1863) Confederate States of America Presidential federal republic Montgomery (1861-1861), Richmond (1861-1865) 1861–1865 English Dissolved
Flag of Mexico (1864-1867) Second Mexican Empire Federal constitutional monarchy Mexico City 1863–1867 Spanish Dissolved
Flag of Cuba Cuba Presidential unitary republic Havana 1898 Spanish

Dependent States

Flag Country Colony of Regime Capital Established Languages Notes
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931) / Flag of PuertoRico TBAC Captaincy General of Puerto Rico Spain Constitutional monarchy (colony, province with special status) San Juan 1580 Spanish
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931) Captaincy General of Cuba Spain Constitutional monarchy (colony) Havana 1607-1898 Spanish
Dominion of Newfoundland Red Ensign Newfoundland United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (colony 1610, Dominion 1907) St. John's 1610 English (also aboriginal language groups)
Flag of British Honduras Settlement of Belize (1638-1862) British Honduras (1862) United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (colony) Belize City (1638) 1862 English Spanish, Garifuna and Mayan languages
Flag of France French Guiana France Republic (colony) Cayenne 1643 French (also aboriginal language groups)
Flag of Jamaica (1906-1957) Jamaica and Dependencies United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (colony) Spanish Town (1692–1872), Kingston (1872–to date) 1655 English, Jamaican Patois and Spanish
Flag of the Netherlands Surinam Netherlands Constitutional monarchy (colony) Fort Zeelandia (Paramaribo) 1667 Netherlands (also aboriginal language groups)
Flag of the Bahamas (1953-1964) Bahamas United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (colony) Nassau 1718 English and Bahamian Creole
Flag of British Guiana 1954-1966 British Guiana United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (colony) Georgetown 1796 English (also aboriginal language groups)
Flag of the Russian-American Company Russian America Russian Empire Absolute monarchy (colony) New Archangel 1784, 1796–1867 Russian (also aboriginal language groups) Purchased by the US
Canadian Red Ensign 1868-1921 Dominion of Canada United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy (federal dominion with home rule) Ottawa 1867 English and French (also aboriginal language groups)

International organizations

  • Union douanière française (UDF)

members: France (Tier 1), Rheinland (tier 1)

Liga de Repúblicas Americanas

Liga de Repúblicas Americanas
Liga das Repúblicas Americanas

Ligue des Républiques américaines
League of American Republics

Coat of Arms League of American Republics (CtG).png
Seal of the LRA
Abbreviation LRA
Motto Libertas perfundet omnia luce
Formation Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation
Type Intergovernmental organization
Purpose/focus To promote peace and cooperation
Location Panama City
Region served America
Membership Independent republics
Official languages English, French, Spanish and Portuguese (working languages)
President of the Continental Board (elected by the Directors of the Continental Board)
Directors of the Continental Board (elected by the General Assembly)
Main organ General Assembly of Plenipotentiary Ministers
League of American Republics / Ligue des Républiques américaines / Liga das Repúblicas Americanas

Biannual General Assembly meets in Panama City. Meeting of ambassadors and envoys (Asamblea general de Ministros Plenipotenciarios). Votes resolutions that states can adopt or ignore. "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation


  1. Colombia
  2. Perú -> Peru–Bolivian Confederation
  3. Bolivia -> Peru–Bolivian Confederation
  4. Peru-Bolivian Confederation
  5. México
  6. Central America
  7. Brazil
  8. United States
  9. Haiti
  10. Transandes (observer)
  11. United Kingdom (observer)
  12. Netherlands (observer)
  13. Amazonia
  14. Uruguay -> Oriental
  15. Riograndese -> Oriental
  16. Oriental
  17. Yucatan
  18. Cuba

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