POD 1 december 1828 Dorrego left the city and organized his forces in the countryside to Santa Fe were he meets with the forces of Estanislao López. Later battle Dorrego wins and Juan Lavalle y José María Paz are defeated. Congress meets to draft constitution (similar to Federal Pact of 1831).
Liberal constitution of 1828 in Chile. Civil war in Chile between liberals and conservatives. dec 1829 - april 1830, victory of conservatives over liberals in Lircay (17 april 1830)
Exploratory letter exchange between Dorrego and Prieto later followed in more detail by Portales and Juan Manuel de Rosas for cooperation against the Peru and Bolivia and trade along the Andes (Buenos Aires-Cuyo-Valparaíso). Key aspect to solve trade deficit with England and France was protectionism for local production.
Federalists circles in Chile and Argentina published propaganda in favour of a closer union (Liga de Hermandad Argentino-Chilena). Liberal and federalist José Miguel Infante chief promoter in Chile. In Argentina after the defeat of unitarians several political and military leaders of the inner provinces see a union with Chile as a powerful check against the hegemony of Buenos Aires and the littoral provinces.
First elections (by the national congresses to a Constituent Bi-republican Congress. The delegates draft a Treaty of Union (the First Constitution in later historiography) that establishes a common president and State Council named by joint delegates of the executives and legislatures of each republic. The Common President is to be elected by the State Council plus a double number of electors from each republic. The treaty is approved by both Congress and elections for the President follow. (Note: It was established is a confederation of states that later evolved in a federal union of states, a true federal state would become a reality in the 1910s. Each period would have its constitutional reform)
Key measures of 1840-1870 (Period of Practical Economy) Classical liberal economy but safeguarding national interests and exportation of raw materials and incipient industrialization. Establishment of public bureaucracy, military territorial control and strong executive power and presence.
Prohibition to export gold and silver in Argentina. Use of silver and gold production from Chile. Basis of andean financial sector and intraregional loans. Free customs between Valparaíso and Buenos Aires, later it included Coquimbo, Concepción and Punta Arenas. Protection of national merchant navy and construction of public warehouses in the main ports (Valparaiso, Buenos Aires).
Union of Transandean Republics / Union de Repúblicas Trasandinas
Union of Transandean Republics
The Union of Transandean Republics (Union de Repúblicas Trasandinas) is a federal nation of South America. Its the union of the former Republic of Chile and the United Provinces of Río de La Plata.
- National political organization;
- Unity Congress and First elections
- First Constitution. Federalist. 1st generation of rights
- Civil War Unitarians versus Federalists. Winning the later. Recognition of Chile and Argentina as distinctive units with a resident president in each one. Constitutional reform. Chile (unitary republic) and Argentina (federal republic).
- Second Constitution. Mixed federal and confederal elements. 1st generation of rights
- Expansion and Conservative governments;
- 1820s or 1830s Consolidation of inner Argentinian provinces in Cuyo and Tucuman to counter the influence of Buenos Aires and littoral provinces.
- War with Brazil.
Recovers Uruguay (Cisplatina Province) and reestablishes it as province of the United Republics
- Freedom of navigation of Paraná, River Plate and Strait of Magallanes
- Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) State of Riograndese
becomes part of the Union of Transandean Republics as a member republic
- Common currency; National Peso -> United Peso -> Escudo -> Peso Austral
- Post Napoleonic Wars and revolutions of 1848 migration of French, Germans and Italians. British communities, established in the ports of Montevideo, Valparaiso and Buenos Aires.
- Liberal and Conservatives conflicts (Partido Autonomista Unido, liberal federalism - Partido Nacional Republicano - conservative unitarian/federalist - Partido Conservador, conservative). Military coups.
- War with Perú-Bolivian Confederation. Acquires mining provinces of the North.
- Radicalism (Liga Radical - Partido Radical and Union Radical)
- Liberal governments and internal development;
- Colonization of Southern lands (Patagonia, Aysén, La Araucanía and Magallanes). European emigration.
- Secular Laws (birth and deaths registrations, civil marriage and divorce, secular education, laicism)
- Universal male suffrage (read and wirte over 21 years of age)
- Direct elections, elimination of electoral assemblies.
- Autonomous Commune Laws
- War Paraguay
- Flag Crisis: Uruguay and Puerto Alegre become republics (1880s)
- Proportional representation (Republics and provinces and all elections)
- Economical and political crisis;
- Economic crack 1920s
- Neutral but with sympathies to the allies in World War I
- Surge of socialism, communism, nationalism and populism
- Center-left coalitions (Frente Popular) or populist governments (Partido Laborista Cívico / Partido Agrario Laborista, Partido Cívico Femenino)
- Social welfare and health
- Female suffrage (men and women read and write over 21 years of age)
- Establishment of national police
- Third Constitution (1st and 2do generation of rights). Senate ele3cted by national legislatures.
- New Model Laws of Uniformity
- Allied with USA in World War II
- Military dictatorship
- Industrial development;
- Full universal suffrage (men and women over eighteen years of age)
- Industrial development
- Government of Social Christian governments.
- Inflationary crisis.
- Left-center governments
- Antarctic Territory claimed by the United Republics
- State (National Government);
- President, elected for a five year term by the National Electoral Assembly. Names the Council of Ministers (or State Secretaries). Ins in charge for the federation of its defense, navy and army (War and Navy Ministers), foreign relationships (Foreign Affairs minister), international trade, national currency and finances (Ministry of Finance, later in the 1920s Ministries of Finances and Foreign Trade), Justice (Ministry of Justice), public education and religion (Ministry of Public Education and Cult, after secular laws ministry of Education), postal services, public works, railroads (Ministry of Public Works and Post Office, Ministry of Public Works, Railroads and Postal Services in the 1930 Ministry of Industries - Ministerio de Fomento), agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture). In the 1920s and 1930s labor and social welfare (Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare), health (Ministry of Health).
- National Congress, a bicameral legislative. Senate and Chamber of Deputies
- Supreme Court and inferior courts. There are common national civil and penal codes.
There is a national police, created in the 1930s. Each republic as an elected executive (Supreme Director ->President) and congress. Internally they have autonomy to organized as they please until the enactment of the Autonomous Commune Law and later reforms (Common Laws). Power of the republics: Internal order, domestic affairs, justice, republics budget, railroads, public works, health, education, labor affairs, economic development.
- Unitarians and Federalists
- Conservative. Liberals and Radicalism
- Communism and Socialism
- Populism (like Peronism and Ibañismo)
- Christian democracy
- New Right
- United Provinces of the River Plate / Argentine Republic / Argentine Confederation (Atlantic) Provinces have elected governors and legislative assemblies
- Republic of Chile (Pacific) Provinces have government-appointed intendants and elected Provincial Assemblies
- Republic of Magallanes (Atlantic-Pacific) Unitary republic
- Republic of Patagonia (Pacific) Unitary republic
- National Territories Delegate Governor named by the national government. In the future if they have enough population they are reorganized in provinces.
Early development grain and cattle. Later grain, cattle and nitrate with incipient industrialization in Valparaíso and Buenos Aires. World Crack of 1930s begins industrialization with electricity and protective tariffs. Building of steel mill and mid and light manufacturing in Concepción and Cordoba. During World War II heavy industry (airplanes and shipyards, later cars) develop as part of the war effort for the USA and allies. Discovery of oil and gas in the Patagonia. Petrochemical industry starts.
- Industrial areas- Valparaiso - Santiago - Cordoba - Mendoza
- Major ports: Valparaiso - Concepción - Buenos Aires - Montevideo - (Antofagasta)
- wheat, maize, rice, dairy products, fish, sheep, cattle, meat processing, nitrate, copper, oil, gas, (fruit)
National Peso -> United Peso -> Escudo (E°) -> Peso Austral
Details members Union of Transandean Republics
|Flag||Coats of Arms||Member||Regime||Capital||Established||Languages||Notes|
|Union of Transandean Republics||Presidential federal republic||Cordoba||Spanish and Portuguese|
|Argentine Confederation / Republic of Argentina||Presidential federal republic||Paraná||(1810-...)||Spanish and Mapudingun||Full member of the Union of Transandean Republics|
|Republic of Chile||Presidential unitary republic||Santiago||(1810-1814, 1817-...)||Spanish and Mapudungu||Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic|
|Republic of Magallanes||Presidential unitary republic||Punta Arenas||Spanish||Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic|
|Republic of Patagonia||Presidential unitary republic||Viedma -> Rawson||1840s||Spanish||Full member of the Union of Transandean Republic|
|Buenos Aires||Buenos Aires||1820||Spanish||Province of Argentina|
|Corrientes||Corriente||1814-1820 (Entre Ríos) 1821-||Spanish and Guarani||Province of Argentina|
|Córdoba||Córdoba||1820||Spanish||Province of Argentina|
|Santa Fé||Santa Fé||1816||Spanish||Province of Argentina|
|Entre Rios||Paraná (18??), Entre Rios (18??)||1814||Spanish and Guarani||Province of Argentina|
|Cuyo||Mendoza||1813-1820, 1820s||Spanish||Province of Argentina|
|Misiones||Candelaria||1810-1814 (Corrientes)||Spanish, Portuguese and Guarani||Province of Argentina|
|Tucuman||Santiago del Estero||1810-1820, 1820s||Spanish and Quechua||Province of Argentina|
|La Pampa||Santa Rosa||1880s||Spanish and Mapudungun||From Patagonia, and military campaign against Mapuches. Province of Argentina in 1880s|
|La Araucanía||Temuco||1870s-1880s||Spanish and Mapundungun||Military campaign against Mapuches. Became part of Chile in 1880s|
|Chaco||Spanish and Guarani||(Argentina)|
|Patagonia||Viedma -> Rawson||Spanish and Mapugundun||(Argentina)|
|Juan Fernández Islands||San Juan Bautista||Spanish||Insular territory (Chile)|
|Malvinas Islands||Puerto Soledad||Spanish||Insular territory (Argentina)|
|Aysén||Puerto Aysèn||Spanish||From Magallanes (Chile)|
|Easter Island||Hanga Roa||Spanish and Rapa Nui||Insular territory (Chile)|
|Antarctic Territory||Deception Island||Spanish|
First level internal administrative units of unitary republics
Chile Divided in provinces
- Tarapacá (conquered from Peru–Bolivian Confederation)
- Antofagasta (conquered from Peru–Bolivian Confederation)
- Atacama (Copiapó) (from Coquimbo)
- Coquimbo (Conquimbo)
- Aconcagua (Valparaíso)
- Santiago (Santiago)
- Colchagua (Curicó)
- Maule (Linares)
- Concepción (Concepción)
- Valdivia (Valdivia)
- Chiloé (Ancud)
- La Araucanía (Temuco) 1880s
- Territory of Palena (Chaiten)
Patagonia. Divided in provinces.
- Río Negro (Río Negro)
- Huemul (San Carlos de Bariloche)
- Futaleufú (Esquel)
- Chubut (Rawson)
- Santa Cruz (Puerto Santa Cruz)
Magallanes. Divided in provinces.
- Aysén (Coyhaique)
- Río Gallegos (Río Gallegos)
- Ultima Esperanza (Puerto Natales)
- Magallanes (Punta Arenas)
- Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)
- ↑ Provinces of Mendoza, San juan, San Luis and La Rioja
- ↑ Provinces of Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Juyjuy, Salta and Catamarca
- ↑ Supports a republican form of government, universal male suffrage, and, particularly, supported anti-clerical policies and public education.
- ↑ Provinces of Mendoza, San juan, San Luis and La Rioja
- ↑ Provinces of Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Juyjuy, Salta and Catamarca
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) is confederate state between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru) and Bolivia.
Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz promoted the project to reunite the two territories on the basis of a confederacy. The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a plan that attempted to reunite the Alto Perú (Upper Peru, Bolivia) and Bajo Perú (Lower Peru, Peru) into a single political and economic entity. This integration was based not only on historical, cultural and ethnic reasons, but also on economic motives. The union was attempting to restore the ancient commercial routes and promote a policy of open markets.
From its inception, the confederation was seen as a threat by influential politicians in the neighboring countries, and its support for Chilean and Argentine dissidents in exile caused Argentina and Chile to wage war separately against the confederation.
Also internal dissensions affected the Confederation since its creation. Both Gamarra and Santa Cruz agreed that the separation of Peru and Bolivia was a mistake that should be corrected. Their plan for a federation, or at least a confederation, was accepted by the legislative branches of both countries, but they personally disagreed on other issues. Gamarra was in favor of a Peruvian-led union, while Santa Cruz wanted to give more political power to Bolivia.
Their ideas crashed with Bolivar, who did not agree with either Gamarra or Santa Cruz, since Colombia was already his own project of federation to unite most of the former Spanish colonies.
- Supreme Protector. Elected by a joint session of the General Congress of the Confederation for a 10 year term with immediate reelection. Assisted by a Council of Minister (State Ministers) named by the Supreme Protector
- General Congress of the Confederation
- Senate - 5 senator from each member state
- Chamber of Deputies - 7 from each member state elected for a 6 year term. A third of Deputies are removed each 6 years
- Supreme Courts of each member states
- General Diet, called for constitutional reform. Integrated by 11 deputies from each republic.
The main administrative unit is the department under the direction of a Governor-Intendant
- Amazonas (Chachapoyas)
- Junín (Tarma)
- La Libertad (Trujillo)
- Huaylas (Huaraz)
- Ayacucho (Huamanga)
- Litoral (Tacna)
- La Paz
- Santa Cruz
- Tarapaca (Iquique)
- Proposal of a more federal Confederation (Andean Confederation)
The Republics of North Peru, South Peru and Bolivia would be subdivided in the following states:
- Santa Cruz (From Bolivia)
- Chuquisaca (From Bolivia)
- Potosí (From Bolivia)
- Tarapaca (From Bolivia)
- La Paz (From Bolivia)
- Arequipa (From South Peru)
- Cusco (From South Peru and North Peru)
- Ucayali (From South Peru and North Peru)
- Lima (From North Peru)
- Trujillo (From North Peru)
- Amazonas (From North Peru)
Colombia is a state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America. Since Colombia's territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it also claims the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast.
Its early existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a centralized government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized, federal form of government.
At the same time, another political division emerged between those who supported the Constitution of Cúcuta and two groups who sought to do away with the Constitution, either in favor of breaking up the nation into smaller republics or maintaining the union but creating an even stronger presidency. The faction that favored constitutional rule coalesced around Vice-President Francisco de Paula Santander, while those who supported the creation of a stronger presidency were led by President Simón Bolívar. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward.
- Political Institutions
- Executive: President and Vicepresident. Both elected for a 4 year term by the electoral assemblies. The President names the Ministers of State.
- Legislative: The Congress of Colombia that consists of the
- Senate (Senado), and
- House of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes)
- Council of Government
- Supreme Court of Justice
- Departments of Colombia
- Apure (Barinas)
- Azuay (Cuenca)
- Boyacá (Tunja)
- Cauca (Popayán)
- Cundinamarca (Bogotá)
- Ecuador (Quito)
- Guayaquil (Guayaquil)
- Istmo (Panamá)
- Magdalena (Cartagena)
- Orinoco (Cumaná)
- Venezuela (Caracas)
- Zulia (Maracaibo)
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil is state of South America. Its government is a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent, later King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI later returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil. The new country as huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse.
The separatists Balaiada social revolt (1838-1841) established the independent Federal República of the Amazons. The political crisis led to the Brazilian liberal constitution of 1849.
- Imperial Institutions
- Moderating power: Emperor of Brazil
- Executive power:
- Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
- Council of State
- Legislative power: General Assembly: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
- Judicial power: Supreme Court of Justice
Provinces of the Empire of Brazil
The main administrative unit is the province under the direction of a provincial president appointed by the national government.
- Alagoas (Maceió)
- Bahia (Salvador)
- Espírito Santo (Vitória)
- Goiás (Vila Boa de Goiás)
- Mato Grosso (Cuiabá)
- Minas Gerais (Vila Rica)
- Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro 1821-1834, Niterói 1834-1889)
- Santa Catarina (Desterro)
- São Paulo (São Paulo)
- Sergipe (São Cristóvão)
- Neutral municipality (Rio de Janeiro)
- Cisplatina (Montevidéu) (Independent Uruguay)
- São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul (Independant Riograndense)
- Ceará (Fortaleza), part of Amazonas
- Grão-Pará (Belém), part of Amazonas
- Maranhão (São Luís), part of Amazonas
- Paraíba (Parahyba)
- Pernambuco (Recife), part of Amazonas
- Piaui (Oeiras), part of Amazonas, part of Amazonas
- Rio Grande do Norte (Natal), part of Amazonas
The Federal República of the Amazon (República Federativa do Amazonas) is an independent state of South America that gained its independence from the Empire of Brazil in 1840. Its independence movement had its background in the Balaiada social revolt (1838-1841) that began in province of Maranhão and spread to Grão-Pará, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas.
During the imperial period, the Maranhão region, which exported cotton, suffered a severe economic crisis because of competition with the increasingly productive United States. In addition, the cattle industry consumed a large part of the workforce in this region. These factors explain the involvement of the slave and poorly paid free workers in the movement. The revolt that sparked into an independentist and republican movement started as a power dispute between liberals (bem-te-vis) and conservatives (cabanos) in Maranhão. As the imperial government intervened in the so-called regresso conservador ("conservative regression"), the Maranhão conservatives took advantage of the opportunity to remove the liberals in power, and at the same time, weaken them further by contracting the service of the cattle ranchers, traditionally supported by the liberals.
The revolt started with the detention of liberal rancher by order of a conservative mayor. Contesting the detention of his brother, and with the support of a contingent of the National Guard, invaded the municipal jail and freed him, in December 1838. Afterward, the support of Cosme Bento, an ex-slave with a force of 3,000 escaped Africans spread the revolt across the interior of Maranhão, conquering the second-most important city in the province, Caxias, and passing on to Piauí.
It disowned its claims over the Guianas (French, Dutch and English) in exchange of diplomatic recognition, free trade, military supplies and assistance in lifting the Brazilian naval blockade. It also established ties with the United Republics.
One of the first acts of the Constituent Assembly was to declared abolished slavery in all the territories of the Amazons.
- Federal Government
- President elected by the Federal Assembly for a five year term. Names the Ministers of State
- Council of State, 15 councillors elected by the General Assembly and the President for five year term
- Federal Assembly (Senate + Chamber of Deputies) elected for a five year term
- Supreme Tribunal of Justice and lesser courts
- States of Amazonia
- Each State as an elected State-President and State Assembly
- Ceará (Fortaleza)
- Grão-Pará (Belém)
- Maranhão (São Luís)
- Paraíba (Paraíba)
- Pernambuco (Recife)
- Piauí (Teresina)
- Rio Grande do Norte (Natal)
- São José do Rio Negro, later shorten to Rio Negro (Manaus)
Paraguay is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica ("Heart of South America").
Following independence from Spain in 1811, Paraguay is ruled by a series of dictators who generally implemented isolationist and protectionist policies.
Gains territories from Bolivia (Chaco) and Argentina (OTL Formosa province). Paraguay's economy is characterized as highly dependent on agriculture products and livestock. With the annexation of the Chaco region the country’s dairy and ranching industry became a relevant source of income and exportation to neighboring countries. Paraguay is know as the main producer yerba mate.
- Political Institutions
- Executive: The President elected for a 10 year term by the National Congress. The President names the Ministers of State.
- Legislative: The National Congress of Paraguay that consists of the deputies elected for a five year term
- Council of State
- Supreme Court of Justice
- Administrative division of Paraguay
- Capital District of Asunción
- Oriental Region
- Occidental or Chaco Region
Haiti (also Hayti or Ayiti) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
As compromise with former Spanish Haiti, Spanish language is co-oficial with French in the administration and education, the reopening of the University of University of Santo Domingo, public and military offices are open to all, local self government (communes) in departamental capitals, freedom of association, movement and press and repeal of the unpopular Code Rural in all of Hispaniola. It also included the establishment of the Vice-Presidency to be filled by a citizen from the territories of former Spanish Haiti.
The Constitution provides automatic Haitian citizenship to any black, Indian, or person of mixed race who resided in the nation for more than a year.
- President and Vice-president. The President is elected for life and the Vice-president is elected for a five year term limited to one successive reelection. The President names state secretaries. The President and Vice-president are elected by the Senate.
- National Assembly composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate is named by the House of Representatives from a a list of candidates provided by the President and serve for a nine year term. The representatives are directly elected for five year term.
- Court of Cassation and lower criminal and civil courts. All judges are appointed by the President.
- Jean-Pierre Boyer (1822-1843) President for Life
- Administrative division
Haiti distributed into Departments, and these subdivided into Districts (Arrondissements) and Communes. The Governor, named by the President, is political chief of the department
- Sud /Sid (Les Cayes)
- Ouest /Lwès (Port-au-Prince)
- Artibonite /Latibonit (Les Gonaïves)
- Nord /Nò (Cap-Haïtien)
- Ozama (Santo Domingo)
- Cibao (Santiago de los Caballeros also called Sant-Yago)
- Seybo (Azua)
The major crops are sugar, coffee and cocoa.
One very significant economic obstacle in Haiti's economic development is the necessary payment of 150 million francs to France beginning in 1825; this did much to drain the country of its capital stock. In 1838, France agreed to reduce the debt to 60 million francs to be paid over a period of 30 years.
State primary and secondary schools follow the French approach and organization to education. Primary education is compulsory. There are two universities: University of Santo Domingo (founded in 1538 closed in 1823 reopened in 1839) and Université d'Haïti (founded 1841).
The Federal Republic of Central America (Spanish: República Federal de Centroamérica / Federación de Centroamérica), is a sovereign state in Central America, which consisted of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Shortly after Central America declared independence from the Spanish Empire, some of its countries were annexed by the Mexican Empire in 1821 and then Central America formed the Federal Republic in 1823.
Liberals win civil war of 1826-1829. Presidencies of Francisco Morazán (Liberal, 1830-1834, 1838-1842) and José Cecilio Díaz del Valle (Conservative, 1834-1838). The constitutional reforms of 1833 establishes uniformity of laws at State and Federal and gave Congress sole right to legislate on certain matters.
Tensions between Mexico and Central America lead to the Yucatan War, that also included as theater of operation the State of Chiapas and the recently independent republic of Yucatan.
During the 19th century, many have described Central America as a buffer state between Mexico and Colombia. Attempts to build a Nicaragua canal connecting the Caribbean Sea and thus the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean goes back at least to 1825 when the Federal Republic of Central America hired surveyors to study a route via Lake Nicaragua.
The Mexican and Yucatan revolutions also had their echos in Central America. It started with a rebellion in Tegucigalpa that lead to the fall of the State government, however it soon spread to the rest of the Confederation. The Old and New Revolutions were carried out by conflicting factions each antagonized after sweeping away with the oligarchical liberal governments and federal administration (Old Revolution). The main factions were poor farmers seeking a land reform, Mayan communities demanding power sharing in their territories and land reform, urban workers seeking social reforms, radical liberals and reforming conservatives concerned with democratization and modernization of state, economical and educational institutions. Finally new reformists governments (New Revolution) prevailed and with it full male suffrage and most reforms except land and social ones, were enacted. A major outcome was the modernization of the armed forces, mainly the army.
A brief collective government, the Directorate integrated by one member of each republic, was established before returning to unipersonal presidential rule.
The economy of Central America is chiefly oriented to the production of bananas, coffee, sugar, cocoa and cotton.
- Federal institutions
- President and Vice-president, both elected for a four year term limited to one successive reelection. President names state secretaries. The President and Vice-president are directly elected in a joint ticket since 1926. From 1823 to 1926 they were elected by an federal electoral assembly.
- Federal Congress (Senate and Chamber of Representatives). In the late 1910s and early 1920 it was unicameral.
- Supreme Court of Justice
- Presidents of the Confederation
- Manuel José de Arce y Fagoaga (Liberal -> Conservative) 1825-1829
- Mariano de Beltranena y Llano (Conservative) 1829-1829
- Francisco Morazán (Liberal) 1829-1829
- José Francisco Barrundia y Cepeda (liberal) Interim President 1829-1830
- Francisco Morazán (liberal) 1830-1834
- José Cecilio Díaz del Valle (Conservative) 1834-1838
- Francisco Morazán (liberal) 1838-1842
- States institutions
Until 1836 when freedom to organize was given to the states, they were required to have an elected
- Chief of State and Second Chief of State, both elected for a four year term
- Representative Council (one member for each administrative division of State)
- Assembly of Representatives (11 to 21 deputies)
- Superior Court of Justice
Central America claims over territory between the Sibun and Sarstoon rivers of British Honduras (Belice). The claim covers approximately half of British Honduras, a de facto British dependency.
Oriental (Uruguay + Riograndense)
The United Oriental Republic (República Oriental Unida) is a state in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Transandean Union to its west and Brazil to its north and east. It is a unitary presidential republic established by the union of nations of Uruguay and Riograndense. From 1840 to 1860s it was a confederation of the republics of Uruguay and Riograndense.
- Uruguayan Independence
- Uruguayan Civil War
- War of independence or Ragamuffin War (Revolução Farroupilha) of Riograndense
- Brazilian-Transandean War (Transandean Intervention)
- Confederation of Uruguay and Riograndense (Union Oriental)
- Transition from confederal to unitary state.
- Battle of Masoller
- Batlle and reformism
- Effects of the Great Depression
- Gauchismo Decade
- Collapse of the Oriental economic miracle
- National Council of Government (installation and collapse)
- the reformist presidential republic
Colorados - liberalism - Batllismo (Socioliberalism) Blancos - Conservatives - Rural interests Left: Socialist - Communists Guachismo - populist movement - started as pressure group of Gauchos within the Blancos and later became an independent. It as left, center and right wing factions.
Details of former Oriental Union members
First level internal administrative units of member states
Uruguay. Divided in departments
- Montevideo (Montevideo)
- Maldonado (Maldonado)
- Canelones (Canelones)
- San José (San José de Mayo)
- Colonia (Colonia del Sacramento)
- Soriano (Mercedes)
- Paysandú (Paysandú)
- Durazno (Durazno)
- Cerro Largo (Melo)
- Salto (Salto)
- Tacuarembó (Tacuarembó)
- Lavalleja (Minas)
- Florida (Florida)
- Río Negro (Fray Bentos)
- Rocha (Rocha)
- Treinta y Tres (Treinta y Tres)
- Artigas (Artigas)
- Rivera (Rivera)
- Flores (Trinidad)
Ríograndense. Divided in departments.
- Porto Alegre (Porto Alegre)
- Litoral (Pelotas)
- Nordeste (Campo dos Bugres)
- Campanha Ocidental (Uruguaiana)
- Campanha Meridional (Bagé)
- Bento Gonçalves (Santa Cruz do Sul)
- Canabarro Santa Maria)
- Santo Ângelo (Santo Ângelo)
- Três Passos (Três Passos)
The Republic of Yucatan (República de Yucatán) is located in the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bordered by the México to the southwest and Central American Federation and Belize to the south , with the Gulf of Mexico off its north coast. The second Republic of Yucatán began in 1841, with its declaration of independence in protest at Santa Anna’s centralization of Mexico.
The Caste War began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the European-descended population, called Yucatecos. The latter had long held political and economic control of the region. A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the independent Maya in the south-east. There was regular raiding between them.
The Caste War caused the Republic of Yucatán to request military aid from Mexico and Central America Federation. The former was given on the condition that the Republic rejoin the Mexico. With the help of the Central American army the Caste War finish with the Mayan State of Chan Santa Cruz. The Treaty of Tzucacab signed between the Republic of Yucatan and the moderate rebel leaders ended the War. The more radical leaders holded up for a longer time in the south east of Yucatan until their definite defeat.
The Constitution of Yucatán provides that the government of Yucatán, consists of three powers: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary.
Executive power rests in the President of Yucatán, who is directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a six-year term with no possibility of reelection. Between 1841-1854 it was a four year term with no immediate reelection. Legislative power rests in the National Congress of Yucatán which is a bicameral legislature composed of a Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is invested in the Superior Court of Justice of Yucatán.
The Constitution of 1841, one of the most advanced of its time, guaranteed individual rights, religious freedom and what was then a new legal form called amparo (English: protection).
- 1840-1841 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)
- 1841-1844 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)
- 1844-1844 Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo (Federalist)
- 1844-1844 José Tiburcio López Constante (Liberal)
- 1844-1849 Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo (Federalist)
- 1849-1854 Santiago Méndez Ibarra (Centralist)
- 1854-1860 Justo Sierra O'Reilly
The main parties are
- National Party (Partido Nacional, PN)
- Liberal Constitutional Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, PLC)
- Yucatec Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Yucateco, PLY)
- Democratic Party (Partido Democrático, PD)
- Socialist Party of Yucatan (Partido Socialista del Yucatan PSY)
The Yucatán is divided into 5 departments, each subdivided in districts and municipalities. The departments and districts are headed by a governor and delegate, respectively named by the President. The municipalities are headed by a municipal president (mayor).
Departments of Yucatan
Mexico is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Central American Federation, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.
According to the constitution, Mexico is a federal presidential republic organized as follows
- The President, that is the head of state and government. The vicepresident, who in case of physical or moral impossibility of the president, exercise the powers and prerogatives of the latter. The term of the president and vice president is four years with reelection after one period. The President and vicepresident are elected by electors
- Legislative power deposited in a Congress of two chambers—a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Senators.
- Judiciary power lies in a Supreme Court, the Circuit Courts and the District Courts. The Supreme Court consists of eleven members divided into three rooms and a prosecutor.
- The individual state governments will be formed by the same three powers.
Administrative organization of Mexico
- States of Mexico
- San Luis Potosí
- Yucatán (became independent republic of Yucatan in 1841)
- Nuevo León
- Coahuila y Tejas ((later split in the states of Coahuila and Tejas)
- Chiapas (became part of the Central American Fderation)
- Sonora y Sinaloa (later split in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa)
- Federal territories
- Mexico Federal District
- Alta California
- Baja California
- Nuevo México
Cuba is a country comprising the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico as well as Isla de los Pinos and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica.
Independence of Cuba and end of slavery. Civil war between liberal and radical factions. American intervention.
- Provinces of Cuba
- Pinar del Río (Pinar del Río)
- La Habana (La Habana)
- Matanzas (Matanzas)
- Las Villas (Santa Clara)
- Camagüey (Camagüey)
- Oriente (Santiago de Cuba)
- Puerto Rico (San Juan de Puerto Rico)
Cuba produces sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans and livestock.
America (At 1828 and onward)
- Union douanière française (UDF)
members: France (Tier 1), Rheinland (tier 1)
Liga de Repúblicas Americanas
- League of American Republics / Ligue des Républiques américaines / Liga das Repúblicas Americanas
Biannual General Assembly meets in Panama City. Meeting of ambassadors and envoys (Asamblea general de Ministros Plenipotenciarios). Votes resolutions that states can adopt or ignore. "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation
- Perú -> Peru–Bolivian Confederation
- Bolivia -> Peru–Bolivian Confederation
- Peru-Bolivian Confederation
- Central America
- United States
- Transandes (observer)
- United Kingdom (observer)
- Netherlands (observer)
- Uruguay -> Oriental
- Riograndese -> Oriental