FANDOM


Ideas, drafts and snippets of From Sea to Shining Sea

Differences OTL and ATL

Guidelines and Differences OTL and ATL
  • A Second American Revolution triumphs in USA and its socialists in its nature.
  • The general purpose of this ATL is to develop a story that tries not to be black and white, but that things fall more in a grey area.
  • We are more interest in describing cultural and social changes. In United America there still exist ethnic tensions.
  • The main ideological divide in the left is between Leninism and Trotskyism.
  • Trotskyism is not a fringe theory of Marxism like in OTL and its influential in United America and Japan. The main ruling party of United America, the AWP, is Trotskyists.
  • The tensions between the Old and New Left happen earlier. Sooner than the 1960s has in OTL.
  • The main socialist states embrace ideological and political pluralism to a certain extent. They also try to forge a synthesis between central planning and market socialism.
  • Japan, loses the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1953) and becomes a Socialist State.

General Ideas and To Do List

  • One POD and butterfly effect.
  • An entry of Sarah Leslie (19??-February 28, 1986), (plus a photo)
  • American transnational corporations (see below)
  • An entry of the American Workers Party (see below)
  • The Far East with the establishment the PR of Japan its region with ongoing tensions and conflicts. The situation is similar to a regional Cold War that is not settled until at least the 1980s.
  • Europe unifies earlier due to the perceived military and economical threats from USSR and United America.
  • A socialist Japan — Japan (From Sea to Shining Sea).
  • United America's southern ally — Mexico (From Sea to Shining Sea).
  • Korea, a united capitalist nation bordering hostile countries like North China (PRC), USSR and PR of Japan. — Korea (From Sea to Shining Sea).
  • Capitalist South China (Republic of China) and socialist China (PR of China).

Drafts Ideas

Three Key Technologies

Three key technologies missing in the narration.

Atomic-explosion-from-nuclear-weapons Country Atomic test

and weapons

Nuclear

power

FBU (UK+France) et al

later Association of European States

United Socialist America
Soviet Union
PR of Japan 1960 (A-bomb) and

1962 (H-bomb)

First nuclear reactor (1963) Commercial reactor connected to a power grid (1967)
China
50 years of human spaceflight (365-101) Country Space

satellite

Manned

orbit

Space

Station

Moon

landing

Soviet Union
United Socialist America
FBU (UK+France) et al

later Association of European States

PR of Japan 1960s 1970s 1970s 1980s
China
Xerox Alto computer Country Walled

Internet

Open

Internet

Soviet Union National Production Information Network (NPIN (Опи-сеть /OPI-Network) or сеть (Network)[1]
United Socialist America Defense Data Network (DDN) National Telenet
FBU (UK+France) et al

later Association of European States

NPL Data Communications Network, later CYCLADES (initially a FBU joint project). Current European Information Network (EIN).

Telephone subsystems: Minitel (France, Spain, Portugal and Italy) and Videotex (UK, Germany, and Nordic Countries)

PR of Japan
China

America's neighbours
  • Mexico
  • Canada
  • Cuba? Machado's dictatorship.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Panama Canal Zone. League of Nations mandate under British and Colombian supervision.
  • Haiti. United States occupation ended (between Dec 1932 or late 1933 or early 1934) as US Marines leave the island to strengthen the Canal Zone or US territory.
Central America (How far does Mexico intervene?)
  • Guatemala. Jorge Ubico's dictatorship. Banana Republic
  • El Salvador. Maximiliano Hernández Martínez's dictatorship. Banana Republic
  • Honduras. Tiburcio Carías' dictatorship. Banana Republic
  • Nicaragua. US troops leave to America in Dec 1932 as part of planned pull out. Return of Augusto C. Sandino from his asylum in México. (Nicaraguan history goes the same way as OTL or Mexico helps Sandino?)
  • Costa Rica. Constitutional government with free democratic elections.
  • Panama. Dependent of the British and Colombian supervision of the Canal and their influence.
Rest of the Americas (at least between 1932-1936)
  • Venezuela. Juan Vicente Gómez's dictatorship
  • Colombia. Liberal's hegemony with free democratic elections
  • Ecuador. Constitutional government with free democratic elections
  • Peru. Same as OTL?
  • Chile. Alessandri. Same as OTL?
  • Argentina. Infamous Decade. Same as OTL?
  • Bolivia. Same as OTL?
  • Brazil. Getúlio Vargas. Same as OTL?
  • Paraguay. Same as OTL?
  • Uruguay. Gabriel Terra. Same as OTL?

;Names ATL

  • From Sea to Shining Sea
  • Red Star and Red Sun
  • The Other Revolution
  • Welcome to the Revolution
  • Red Banners and Stars
  • The Coal Miner's Daughter (I know, I know It is already used but it could something similar in reference to Sarah Leslie the key protagonist of the ATL)
  • Rebirth of a Nation
Names Country (former US)
  • United Socialist Republics of America (USAR) / United Socialist Republics of North America (USNAR)
  • United/Union of North American Socialist Republics (UNASR)
  • United/Union of American Socialist Republics (UASR)
  • North American Socialist Union (NASU) / North American Socialist Federation (NASF)
  • American Socialist Union (ASU) / American Socialist Federation (ASF)
  • United Socialist Republics of America (USRA) / United Socialist Republics of North America (USRNA)
  • Federation of American Socialist Republics (FASR)
  • United Socialist States of America (USSA)

United America

American transnational corporations

A Draft

With the triumph of the Revolution Corporate US had ceased to exist. The Revolution besides making wide scale changes in the property and management of private corporations being the most important ones like the automobile, mining, coal, steel, and manufacturing trusts and large companies nationalized had also to deal with overseas properties and interests of these. Despite the Law on the Overseas Property of Former US Companies, that established a process to inventory and evaluate their assets and allowed their full nationalization or joint State ownership by the country were they operate, came to null in most of the cases save for the ones operating in Mexico that were de facto nationalized by its government. Overseas property and Foreign interest were retaken or recognized by the capitalists countries in favor of expatriated Americans. The Treaty of Economic Cooperation and Mutual Assistance signed between Mexico and Revolutionary America enable the exchange of managers, built local management abilities and technological transfer to key areas like petroleum, chemicals, heavy industry and construction.

American capitalists (Blue Expats) were able to transfer their properties and control to newly created overseas headquarters in Europe (mainly London and Paris) and other countries. Surviving corporations were able to keep their patents outside America and successfully contest their rights at law courts where cases were resolved in their favor.

For example The Mobil and Exxon Corporations were able to keep running their oil extraction and refineries after establishing in Canada and UK. American Tobacco Company, AT&T Corp already having interests outside America keep their managements and boards but settled in London. The big three automobile manufactures Ford Motor Company, General Motors and Chrysler consolidate of what was left outside America and force the merger of smaller American companies and dealers. United Fruit, Standard Fruit, and Cuyamel moved to the Panama Canal and functioned as before the Revolution in Central America and the Caribbean but now adding as new market for their products the British Commonwealth and Europe. High technology companies like aircraft, chemical, electrical and mechanical manufacturers were reestablished under new names and fought over many years the control of their patents outside America.

Other like U.S. Steel, Kennecott, and Anaconda Copper that lost all of their American assets were brought out by German, French and British interests, or like DuPont Chemicals and Pfizer, had new foreign partners and shareholders brought in and keep its patents outside of America. Only Alcoa Corporation keep its production of aluminum production mainly in Australia and Africa.

And the Fields of the South Burned

The Revolution meant a rapture but its climax happen in the South. At first it was distant whisper the outbreak of the revolution in the main cities but a week later the decades of racial segregation and white chauvinism erupted as volcano. The quiet violence expresses itself in hoes, pitchforks, rifles, lynching, killings, hangings and burning. Everywhere the fields were taken by force in most cases by blacks. The white landowners and their agents fought back with the usual violence but with state and federal breaking down and not holding them back all sides took the worst acts of violence in their hands. If you can picture the most extreme of class warfare the South was its uglier example. Besides cities towns, villages and cities fought with revolutionary councils and courts springing out.

The AWP at first providing help to all revolutionaries was rapidly overtaken (Note: develop more the ideological break within the southern AWP). The black, with the help sympathetic whites organized themselves in their communes and revolutionary council. The most radicals joined in starting their revolutionary vanguard thus the Black Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Party came to being with the armed militias protecting and enforcing this new freedom. The poor farmer and his wife began to awake at the greatest change they foresaw under the Red flag with the Black Fist.

In many areas this control became an established government that after the triumph of the revolution did not easily gave its share of power to the newly established Socialist Workers Republics. Negotiations at national level gave back ample self government - Autonomous Regional Community (ARC).

National Constitution of the Revolutionary America

In 1937 the Constituent Assembly of Workers, Farmers and Indians approved the national constitution of Revolutionary America. This document replaced the provisional Principles of the Democratic Dictatorship of the Proletariat of 1933 that serve as the main charter of the incipient political apparatus the Workers sate during the revolution.

The main chapters are

  • Preamble
  • A Bill of Political and Social Rights
  • Social and public ownership of land, means of production and natural resources. The Indian communities have the collective ownership of the land and natural resources within their political territories.
  • Statement and guarantee of the sovereignty and source of all political power comes from the working people and the powers delegated on the branches of government of the Republic
  • The right of Initiative, referendum, and recall and law process making of the legislative and executive branches. Qualifications, term limits and recall of the legislative, executive and judiciary branches.
  • Characteristics the polities of the Union. |Workers Socialist Republic (or American Socialist Republic?) as main and basic constituent polity, Autonomous Indian Community (AIC) and Autonomous Regional Community (ARC), Local Indian Region, Communes and National Territory.
  • Relationship and coordination between the Republics and National Government. Also the mandate and ability to make compacts of interest or cooperation between the Republics.
  • an elected bicameral legislature that is the supreme ruling body with dual legislative and executive functions. The first chamber ( Workers' Congress of America) is composed of deputies elected by each Republic, Autonomous Indian Community, Commune and Autonomous Regional Community. A second chamber (Council of the Union) composed of representatives of the government of each Republic, Autonomous Indian Community, Commune and Autonomous Regional Community
  • Legislative process of national laws, budget, taxation and revenue. Regulation of emergency powers of the executive.
  • An unipersonal elected executive (President) assisted by a council of ministers named by the President and approved by the legislature.
  • A unified federal judiciary with National Supreme Court, named by the legislature in a mixed system composed of the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The state supreme court is the nations final court of appeal in all civil, criminal, labor, social and Indian cases, supervises the republican supreme courts. The guarantee of right of appeal to National Supreme Court. All judges served for fix terms and until the age of retirement of 65.
  • Safeguard clause of form of government of the republics that are part of the federation. Mechanism of intervention and necessity clauses in republican administrations.
  • Constitutional reform (legislative process, constituent assembly or referendum)

American Labor Unions

American Congress of Labor
Abbreviation ACL
Predecessor American Federation of Labor (AFL), International World Workers (IWW), Workers' Industrial Union (WIU) and Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)
Formation 1938
Type National federation of labor unions
Purpose/focus Representation of the interest of the workers
Headquarters Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Main organ Industrial Worker, Solidarity and The Labor Herald

(Note: for the moment American Congress of Labor - Not the best name but a provisional one. Other names: Workers Alliance of America (WAA), Labor Alliance of America (LAA), National Congress of Labor, )

On the eve of the Second American Civil War (1932-1936) there were three main national labor unions. The craft unions dominated American Federation of Labor (AFL), the revolutionary and industrial unions lead International World Workers (IWW) and the Workers' Industrial Union (WIU). In the 1930s the IWW and WIU were bitter rivals in unionization of labor leaving aside the AFL that began to slowly lose its influence. The IWW and WIU also organized the unemployed and homeless in the Depressions of 1920–21 and 1929–33 by the unemployed councils, unemployed leagues, etc.

An example of the change of times was the disaffiliation of the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) from the AFL, and later its membership to the AWA. The IWW and WIU adopted a more radical and socialist platforms after the failure of the 1925 American Revolution and joined with other organizations in the AWA (1928).

During the revolutionary years the IWW and WIU and despite their rivalry, grew in strength as they organized and established workers and farmers militias, workers' councils, pushed for the merger of unions according to industry and helping the WTUL organize women workers. The AFL unprepared for events of the revolution became a shell of its previous national presence.

At the end of revolution the WIU was the main labor union, though it had agreed on joint action with the IWW in the final years of the Revolution. In an effort to unite American labor the IWW, WIU, WTUL and several other political workers union revived the Conference for Progressive Labor Action. The CPLA called organized and called for a meeting of a Congress of American Labor in 1938, inviting the leadership of the AFL and its associated unions.

At the unity congress all four national unions agreed of establishing the American Congress of Labor (ACL) and its support to the nascent socialist state. The unity congress approved as guiding principle of its by-laws: organize all workers along industrial union lines or manufacturing combines, promote the welfare and fair salaries to all workers, mutual aid and cooperation among workers, non-discrimination of women and blacks nor discrimination by skills, race, creed, or national origin in union membership and leadership, participation of workers in the management and safety in the workplace.

Organization

  • National Congress (meets every two years)-> elects National Executive Council every two years. Between National Congress meetings a Federative Meeting is held with representatives of each state/regional Executive Council and leadership of the affiliated organizations.
  • State / Regional Convention -> State/Regional Executive Council
  • District Convention -> District Executive Council
Affiliated organizations
  • United Mine Workers of America (UMW or UMWA)
  • United Automobile Workers (UAW)
  • Union of United Brewery, Soft Drink, and Distillery Workers of America
  • United Textile Workers of America
  • American Railway Union (ARU), later becoming the Transport Workers Union of America (TWUA)
  • National Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (NAWIO)
  • Lumber Workers Industrial Union
  • Metal and Machinery Workers Industrial Union
  • American Postal Workers Industrial Union
  • Oil and Gas Workers Industrial Union (OGWIU)
  • United Steelworkers Industrial Union
  • United Teamsters of America
  • American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
  • Construction Workers Industrial Union
  • Banking and Financial Services Union
  • National Federation of Federal Employees
  • United Public Workers of America (republic and local workers)
  • Marine Workers Industrial Union
  • Education and Science Workers’ Union
  • Artists' Union
  • Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America
  • International Typographical Union
  • American Newspaper Guild
  • Food and Tobacco Workers, later the United Food, Services and Commerce Workers

Cooperatives

National Union of Cooperatives
Twinpines.svg
Abbreviation NU-Coop
Predecessor Cooperative League of the United States of America and several other cooperatives not associated to it.
Formation 1939
Type Cooperative and mutual societies confederation
Purpose/focus Representation of the interest of the cooperatives, mutual societies and its affiliates
Main organ Cooperation (monthly magazine)

The National Union of Cooperatives (NU-Coop) is the national confederation of cooperatives

The NU-Coop administers the National Cooperative Bank and the Credit Unions Association.

Organization
  • National General Assembly (meets every two years) that elects the National Board
  • State / Regional General Assembly (meets every two years) that elects State/Regional Board.
  • Local Coordination (meets every year) that elects the Coordinating Board

Types of cooperatives - workers, consumer, services, housing, retailers', agricultural and public utilities and Cooperative wholesale society.


Five Year Plans

I - 1937 to 1941 II - 1942-1946 III - 1947-1951

National Ministries Revolutionary America

Council of Ministers

  • Foreign Affairs (former State Department)
  • Finance and Treasury (former Treasury Department)
  • Justice (former Justice Department)
  • Attorney General
  • Interior Affairs (former Interior Department)
  • Republican Coordination and Affairs
  • Indian Affairs (former Bureau of Indian Affairs)
  • National Defense (former War and Navy Departments)
  • Labor and Cooperatives (former Labor Department)
  • Post, Cables and Telephones (former Post Office Department)
  • Education
  • Health and Social Welfare
  • Housing

Economical Production and Distribution ministries

  • Agriculture and Food (former Agriculture Department). Its main bureaus are: Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Food Industry and Land Reform)
  • Trade and Industry (Former Commerce Department) later split in
    • Foreign Trade
    • Home Trade
    • Public Works
    • Transportation and Associated Industries. Its main Bureaus are: Automobile Industry, Aviation Industry, Land Transport, Marine Transport, Railroad Transport and Air transport.
    • Manufacture and General Production. Its main Bureaus are: Chemical Industry, Energy and Electrical Engineering, Electronic Industry, Mechanical Industry, Printing, Textile and Clothes, and Other Industries.
    • Mining. Several Bureaus: Coal, Oil and Gas, Copper Mining, Iron mining, etc.

Boards, Committees and Commissions

  • National Coordinating Committee of the Civil Service
  • Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
  • Board of Governors of the National Bank of America
  • Board of Governors of the National Savings and Loans Union
  • Board of Governors of the Economical Development Bank
  • Board of Governors of the National Bank for Foreign Trade and Cooperation
  • National State Commission for Economic Planning
  • National State Commission of Public Works, later incorporated to the Planning Bureau of the Public Works Ministry
  • National State Commission of Science and Technology
  • National Research Council - National Academy of Sciences
  • Central Office of the Census and Statistical Information (former Bureau of the Census)

Regional development agencies/corporations. Administered by the Public Works Ministry

  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • Colorado River Authority (CRA)
  • Columbia River Basin Corporation (CRBC)
  • Missouri River Industrial Corportation
  • Ohio Valley Authority
  • Savannah River Authority
  • Arkansas Valley Development Board (AVDB)

Notable State and Public Industries and Cooperative

Between 1937 and 1942 the main nationalized industries were merged into large industrial combines and the Trade and Industry Ministry was split in distinct ministries with bureaus in charge of managing the nationalized economic sector under their administrative sphere.

  • American Motors Company (AMC) the main automobile company founded by the merger of the nationalized Ford Motor, General Motors, Chrysler Corporation.
  • National Harvester Company the main manufacturer of agricultural machinery.
  • National Steel Corporation formed from the nationalized US Steel, Bethlehem Steel and others.
  • National Coal Board. Merger of the nationalized Consolidation Coal Company, Pennsylvania Coal Co. and others. Organized in Coal Mining Provinces (Eastern, Gulf, Interior, Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast) and Districts.
  • North American Telephone and Telegraph (NATT) Merger of ATT and Western Union. Under management of the Ministry of Post, Cables and Telephones. Bell Telephone and private telephone companies became regional or republic public utilities.
  • National Railroad Administration
  • National Oil and Gas Corporation of America (NOGCA)
  • Federal Power Commission (FPC) administers, coordinates, maintains, regulates and builds the national electrical grid.
  • Pan American Airlines South American and international air carrier
  • North American Airlines national air carrier

Public utilities such as telephone, electricity, public and road cargo transport, water and waste disposal became republic or regional public utilities companies. Cooperatives also took up these services in rural and urban areas.

The tobacco industry is divided in two sectors that jointly produce and distributed all tobacco products. The nationalized American Tobacco Combine and tobacco producing cooperatives. A joint import-export company carries out all foreign trade.


Officially Prohibition at national level ended in 1937, however some republics during the Revolution had it abrogated within their territories. Alcohol production, quality, distribution and license of sales is regulated by republican governments. Production, distribution and sales of beer, wine and spirits are done by either republican, cooperatives or private retailers. Some republics have a complete state monopoly of the alcohol industry.

International and Regional Organizations

League of Nations

League of Nations
Société des Nations
Sociedad de Naciones
Völkerbund
Ligo de Nacioj
Flag of the League of Nations (No Napoleon).svg
Formation Treaty of Versailles 10 January 1920
Type Intergovernmental organization.
Purpose/focus To promote World peace and cooperation.
Headquarters Geneva (Switzerland)
Region served World
Official languages English, French, Spanish, German and Esperanto (Working languages).
Secretary‑General (Appointed by the Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly)
Council (representatives of member states)
Main organ Assembly

The League of Nations (LoN) is an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It is the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.

In 1936/1937 the LoN has the Panama Canal Zone has as mandate under British and Colombian supervision due to the collapse of the United States during the Second American Revolution and the establishment of the socialist United America.

The main constitutional organs of the League are the Assembly, the Council, and the Permanent Secretariat. It also has two essential wings: the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Labour Organization. In addition, there were several auxiliary agencies and commissions. Each organ's budget is allocated by the Assembly (the League is supported financially by its member states).

Auxiliary organisations: the Disarmament Commission (inactive since 1940), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Mandates Commission, the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation, the Permanent Central Opium Board, the Commission for Refugees, the Slavery Commission and the International Health Organization.


Secretaries General
Name Portrait Term and notes
Eric Drummond (United Kingdom) Sir Eric Drummond circa 1918 Term: 1920-1933
Joseph Avenol (France) Joseph Avenol 1932 Term: 1933-1940
Seán Lester (Ireland) SeanLester Term: 1940-1947

The Fixed Mandate Reform established a five-year term for the Secretary General limited to one consecutive reelection.

Gabriel Turbay (Colombia) CAM00051 Term: 1947-1957
Folke Bernadotte (Sweden) Folke-Bernadotte Term: 1957-1962
Member States
Founding members (1920)
  • Argentina (withdrew 1921, rejoined September 1933)
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil (withdrew June 1926)
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China (know as South China in 1954)
  • Colombia
  • Cuba
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Denmark
  • El Salvador
  • France
  • Greece
  • Guatemala
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • India
  • Italy
  • Japan (withdrew March 1933, rejoined in 1955 as the PR of Japan)
  • Liberia
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Norway
  • Panama
  • Paraguay (withdrew February 1935)
  • Persia/Iran
  • Peru
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Siam
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Uruguay
  • United Kingdom
  • Venezuela
  • Yugoslavia
New Members
  • Austria (joined December 1920)
  • Bulgaria (joined December 1920)
  • Costa Rica ((joined December 1920, withdrew January 1925)
  • Finland (joined December 1920)
  • Luxembourg (joined December 1920)
  • Albania (joined December 1920)
  • Estonia (joined September 1921)
  • Latvia (joined September 1921)
  • Lithuania (joined September 1921)
  • Hungary (joined September 1922)
  • Irish Free State/Ireland (joined September 1923)
  • Ethiopia (joined September 1923)
  • Dominican Republic (joined September 1924)
  • Germany (joined September 1926, withdrew October 1933)
  • Mexico (joined September 1931)
  • Turkey (joined September 1932)
  • Iraq (joined September 1932)
  • Soviet Union (joined September 1934)
  • Afghanistan (joined September 1934)
  • Ecuador (joined September 1934)
  • Egypt (joined September 1937)
  • United America (joined September 194?)
  • Korea (joined September 1954)
  • North China /PR of China (joined ??)
  • East Germany
  • West Germany
International Zone/Condominium
  • Panama Canal Zone -Jointly administered by UK and Colombia
  • Tangier International Zone
  • Antarctic Treaty System

Unión Panamericana

Unión Panamericana
Pan-American Union
União Panamerican
Union panaméricaine
Formation April 14 1890, reformed 1939
Extinction Inactive between 1932-1938
Type Intergovernmental organization
Purpose/focus To promote peace and cooperation in the Americas
Region served American continent
Official languages English, French, Spanish and Portuguese
Director General (named by Pan-American Congress)
Directive Council (representatives of member states)
Main organ Pan-American Congress

The Pan-American Union's Bureau and therefore the whole organization would be inactive and in recess with events of Second American Revolution (1932-1936). The dormant organization would be retaken by Mexican foreign affairs as part of their diplomatic offensive within Central and South America. Mexico’s effort was to widen the original commercial purposes of the Pan-American Unión to collaborate in the areas of health, cultural and scientific exchange, social improvement, resolution of inter state conflicts and move towards a defence pact.

Mexico’s ambitious plan was opposed by Colombia, Brazil and Argentina that wanted more limited goals and were more focused in commercial exchange. In the end at Mexico City the Pan-American Congress of 1939 approved a new Charter. It was the result of consensus between interest parties it would promote trade but also social and economic development.

As result a general reorganization dissolved and merge institution into new bodies such as the Inter-American Organization for Cultural and Scientific Cooperation, A proposal for a Pan-American Highway was approved. Perhaps the most significant milestone was the treaty establishing the Pan-American Court of Justice in that way arbitration became the norm to settle differences in the Americas.

Convention on the Pan-American Highway signed in 1942 that would build 30,000 kilometres of network of roads linking lost of the Pacific coastal countries of the Americas in a highway system.

On Mexico's insistence and lobby a Development and Investment Bank of America (DIBA/BDIA) was established in 1946

Organization of the Pan-American Union

  • Directive Council / Consejo Directivo
  • Director General Director General
  • Pan-American Congress / Inter-American Conference
  • National Commissions / Comisiones nacionales
Gabriela Mistral-01

Gabriela Mistral. First Director General of the Inter-American Organization for Cultural and Scientific Cooperation

Affiliated Institutions

  • Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana/Pan-American Sanitary Bureau -> OPS/PAHO Organización Panamerican de la Salud/Pan American Health Organization 1943 to date
  • Instituto Internacional Americano de Protección a la Infancia (1927-1944 part of OPS)
  • Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia/Pan American Institute of Geography and History (1928-1942 merged into the OICCC)
  • Comisión Interamericana de Mujeres/Inter-American Commission of Women (1928 to date)
  • Organización Interamericana de Cooperaciòn Cultural y Científica / Inter-American Organization for Cultural and Scientific Cooperation (1942 to date)
  • Comisión Interamericana de Comunicaciones/Inter-American Communications Commission (CIC/IACC) 1923, reformed 1942
  • Pan-American Highway Commission 1942 to date
  • Pan-American Court of Justice 1943
  • Development and Investment Bank of America (DIBA/BDIA, 1946 to date)
Members States
  • Argentina
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • United America
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela

Organisation for Economic and Social Co-operation and Development (OESC)

Organisation for Economic and Social Co-operation and Development (OESC)
Flag of Comecon.svg
Type Intergovernmental organization
Headquarters Moscow
Region served Eurasia
Official languages Russian and Esperanto
Director General (named by Executive Committee)
Executive Committee (elected delegates by the Session
Session (representatives of member states)
Main organ Executive Committee

The Organisation for Economic and Social Co-operation and Development (OESC)

Membership:

  • Flag of the Soviet Union USSR
  • Flag of Mongolia PR of Mongolia
  • Flag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1933-1939) Tuvan PR
  • Flag of Hungary Hungary
  • Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992) Yugoslavia
  • Flag of Albania Albania
  • Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Flag of the Czech Republic Czechoslovakia
  • Flag of East Germany East Germany
  • Flag of Poland Poland
  • Flag of Romania Romania
  • Mao Zedong's proposal for the PRC flag PR of China (North China)
  • Flag of the People's Republic of Japan (Proposal) PR of Japan
Affiliated agencies
  • International Broadcasting Organization (IBO-Intervision)
  • Interkosmos


East Asian Community

東亞共同體

東アジア共同体
동아시아 공동체
Cộng đồng Đông Á
Komunumo Orient-Azia


East Asian Community.png
Type Intergovernmental organization
Purpose/focus To promote peace and cooperation between East Asian countries
Region served East Asia
Official languages Chinese, Japan, Korean, Vietnamese and Esperanto
Director General (named by East Asian Summit)
Directive Council (representatives of member states)
Main organ Directive Council

The East Asian Community is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising eleven countries in Asia, which promotes and facilitates economic, political, security, educational, and cultural cooperation among its members .

Membership
  • Flag of South Korea R of Korea
  • Flag of the Republic of China R of China (South China)
  • Mao Zedong's proposal for the PRC flag PR of China (North China)
  • Flag of the People's Republic of Japan (Proposal) PR of Japan
  • Flag of Mongolia PR of Mongolia
  • Flag of the Philippines R of the Philippines
  • R of Vietnam
  • K of Cambodia
  • K of Laos
  • K of Thailand


People's Republic of China (North China)

People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
OTL equivalent: Manchuria and Inner Mongolia
Mao Zedong's proposal for the PRC flag National Emblem of the People's Republic of China
State Seal
China Map GNW
PR of China in red and yellow (not shown claims over the rest of China)
Anthem "March of the Volunteers"
Capital Harbin (1953-1956), Beijing (1956 to date)
Largest city Beijing
Other cities Harbin, Changchun, Dalian, Yingkou, Hohhot and Shenyang.
Language
  official
 
Chinese (Standard Mandarin, official).
  others Mongolian (Khalkha Mongol), Manchu, Korean, Japanese, Russian and Esperanto.
Religion
  main
 
Secular state
  others Atheism, Buddhism, Taoism, North east Chinese folk religion, Manchu Shamanism and Orthodox Christianism.
Ethnic Groups
  main
 
Han Chinese.
  others Manchu, Mongol, Korean, Japanese and Russians.
Demonym Chinese
Government Unitarian socialist republic
  legislature National People's Congress
President of the PPC
Premier of the State Council
Established Liberation from Japan 1953 and Proclamation of PRC 1954
Independence from Manchukuo
  declared March 1954
Currency Chinese Renminbi (元/¥)
Time Zone UTC+8.5 Chinese Standard Time (CST)
Drives on the Right

The People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国) is a socialist state established in Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia in 1953.

It claims sovereignty over Tibet and the provinces controlled by South China (Republic of China)

History

The PRC has its beginning in the liberation of Manchuria by the Soviet Army and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in the final months of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1953). The following day, after the Liberation from Japan, a People's Revolutionary Government Committee (PRGC) was proclaimed (October 19, 1953) to administer the Kingdom of Manchukuo that was dissolved. In the first months of the establishment of the PRGC a massive retreat of the communist guerrillas to northern China began as part of a planned campaign. The retreat allow a fast control of the provinces that would be part of PRGC. The seizure of Beijing was the high-point of this campaign.

In parallel the region of Xinjiang, with the help of Mongolian and Soviet forces proclaimed it allegiance to the PRGC. However the operations to capture the city of Qingdao and with it the whole of the province of Shandong were stopped by the army of the ROC on the shores of the Yellow River. The standstill of military actions and the stetting up of barricades for several months would afterwards became the de-facto frontier of North and South China.

Mao proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949

Mao proclaiming the People's Republic of China at Beijng.

In March 1954 the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in Beijing. The nascent PRC declared as its official policy the establishment of a socialist republic and the unification of China.

The PR of Japan would sign a Treaty of Friendship and Trade (1957) that would allowed Japan to import PRC's oil, coal and soybeans for its incipient industrial recovery and PRC would in exchange receive technological help, manufactured goods and weapons - Japan's first fighter jet along medium and heavy tanks were shipped.

The Sino-Korea War (1957-1959), was an attempt to invade and establish a friendly communist regime in Korea. Taking advantage of the apparent disorder of the Military Coup of 1956 the PLA invaded Korea being routed and coming to a standstill at Pyongyang by Korean Armed Forces, with covert support from China. By 1959 PRC had to retreat to to its previous limits and call for a truce.

The Sino-Korea War (1957-1959) among other factors meant the fall of Liu Shaoqi and his replacement by the more reliable and sensible leadership. The so called pro-war Liu clique was violently purged and removed from the administration of the State. The purge elevated the status of Mao as paramount leader of the CPC and the PRC.

Government

The Constitution approved in 1954 by the People's National Convention, establishes a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants and that the state organs apply the principle of democratic centralism. In its preamble it is also stated that unification of China is the Peoples and State goal.

  • the supreme organ of power is the National People's Congress (NPC). It is composed of directly elected deputies by the people, renewed every five years. In its first session, after elections, it elects the People's Political Commission (PPC), the State Council, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the People's Supervisory Commission (PSC).
  • The executive power resides in the People's Political Commission (PPC), that is the collective head of state. It is integrated by a President and three vice presidents and 3 other members. The State Council carries out all the executive and administrative functions. The PPC and the State Council are responsible before the NPC.
  • the judicial power resides in the Supreme People's Court (SPC). The judges of the SPC and lower courts are elected or appointed by people's congresses at the corresponding levels to serve a maximum of two five-year term. The SPC is the court of last resort for the whole of China The SPC supervises the administration of justice by all subordinate local people's courts and "special" people's courts. Local people's courts are organized in intermediate, and municipal districts people's courts.
  • The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest agency at the national level responsible for both prosecution and investigation. The Procurator-General is elected by the PPC, local people's procuratorates at different levels, military procuratorates and other special people's procuratorates are elected by or appointed by people's congresses at the corresponding levels. All procurators serve a maximum of two five-year term.
  • People's Supervisory Commission

All men and women that are citizens of the PRC and of eighteen years of age or more have the right to vote in all elections and referenda.

Administrative Divisions

Sub-national government is composed of people's congresses and people's committees of various levels (municipalities, autonomous regions, province, district and village or city).

The PR of China is divided in the following special cities and provinces:

Provinces
  • Longjiang
  • Jilin
  • Fengtian
  • Suiyuan, incorporated to Inner Mongolia AR
  • Chahar, incorporated to Inner Mongolia AR
  • Rehe
  • Liaobei
  • Xing'an
  • Heibe
  • Shanxi
Autonomous Regions
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Ningxia
  • Xinjiang
Municipalities
  • Beijing
  • Xinjing
  • Harbin
  • Tianjin
  • Shenyang
  • Dalian

Political Process

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), along minor parties in the People's United Front (PUF), have the monopoly of power. These parties are the following:

  • The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) founded in 1921 is a Marxist-Leninst party. The CCP is the sole governing party within North China, permitting other subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the PUF. The CCP is officially banned in South China.

Heads of State and Government

Name Portrait Term Party Notes
Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Government Committee (PRGC)
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong 1963 (cropped) 1952-1954 Communist Party of China (CPC) Also Chairman of the CPC.
President of the People's Political Commission (PPC)
Liu Shaoqi LiuShaoqi 1954-1960 CPC Relected in 1960. Removed by the National People's Congress.
Soong Ching-ling Soong Ching-ling1 1960-1964
1964-1969 CPC
Premier of the State Council
Name Portrait Term Party Notes
Gao Gang GaoGang 1953-1960 Communist Party of China (CPC)
Zhou Enlai 國共內戰時期周恩來 1960-... CPC

Economy

Showa Steel Works

Showa Steel Works, An example of the heavy industry of PR of China.

THe PR of China as an important agricultural production, being quoted as the breadbasket of Japan and Northern China. Its main crops were kaoliang, corn, maize, wheat, sorghum, and soybean. From kaoliang and corn liquors were made, including vodka, sake, beer, soy juices and vinegar. Soybean and wheat are PRC's main crops. Land was collectivized in the early years of the People's Republic. Opium production was prohibited and all its crops destroyed.

The industrial infrastructure built in Manchuria under the Japanese occupation established a solid based for economic development of PR of China. This tied to the abundance of iron and coal has made this region one of the most industrialized and urbanized hubs of former China. The first Five Year Economic Plan (1955-1959) repaired the existing heavy industry, mines, roads and railways and ports. It also started the race against South China in order to surpass it economically.

The Sino-Japanese Treaty of Friendship and Trade (1957) called for the coordination of the Economic Plans of both countries. So the II Chinese Plan (1960-1963) was a transitional phase but as in the First Plan it centered on reconstruction of supply and distribution infrastructure (roads, railways, canals, ports and airports) and the transformation of the agriculture and handicraft industries. The III Plan (1964-1968) was coordinated with its Japanese counterpart.

Armed Forces

Chinese People's Liberation Army
中華民國國軍
People's Liberation Army Flag of the People's Republic of China
Founded 1927
Current form 1955
Service branches Ground Force Flag of the People's Republic of China PLA Ground Force

Naval Ensign of the People's Republic of China PLA Naval Force

Air Force Flag of the People's Republic of China PLA Air Force
Headquarters Beijing
Manpower
Military age 18-40 years of age men and women
Conscription Army serve two years. Naval, Air Force and special forces conscripts serve three years.
Expenditures
Percent of GDP 2,2%
Industry
Foreign suppliers PR of Japan, United America and Soviet Union.

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is in charge of the national defense. It is organized in the following services:

  • PLA Ground Force
  • PLA Naval Force
  • PLA Air Force

At all levels of the PLA a political commissar is the supervisory political officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization, and committed to the civilian control of the military.

The armament of the PLA is mainly of Soviet and Japanese manufacture. The Ground Forces is equipped with Soviet and Japanese medium and heavy tanks. The Air Force had procured Japan's first fighter jets.

The Ministry of Public Security is in charge of public order and law enforcement.


Republic of China (South China)

Republic of China
中華民國
Zhōnghuá Mínguó
OTL equivalent: China
Flag of the Republic of China National Emblem of the Republic of China
Flag Coat of Arms
China Map GNW
Territory of the Republic of China in blue and light blue (Not shown caims over Manchuria, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang).
Anthem "National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Capital Nanjing (1927–1937), Chongqing (1937-1953), Beijing (de jure), Nanjing (1953 to date, de facto)
Largest city Shangai
Other cities Tianjin, Taiyuan, Nanjing, Chongqing and Xi'an.
Language
  official
 
Chinese (Standard Mandarin) and Traditional Chinese has official script.
  others Chinese (Wu, Yue (Cantonese), Min, Xiang, Gan, and Hakka), Zhuang (Thai), Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur (Turkic), Hmong, Korean and Esperanto.
Religion
  main
 
Secular state
  others Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism.
Ethnic Groups
  main
 
Han
  others Manchu, Mongol, Hui (Muslim Han) and Tibetan.
Demonym Chinese
Government Unitary presidential single party rule (1916-1926), unitary presidential republic (1926-1935) and unitary semi-presidential republic (1935 to date).
President
President of Executive Yuan
Established 1912, re-established in 1916
Independence from Chinese Empire
Currency Chinese Silver Dollar, Customs tael (海關両), Customs gold unit (CGU) and Yuan (元)
Drives on the Right
Organizations East Asian Community East Asian Community

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China.

From its founding the ROC is based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), the Second Sino-Japanese War, 1937–53), and a full-scale civil war (1927–...), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade (1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the authoritarian, one-party military dictatorship of the Kuomintang (KMT).

In 1953, at the end of World War II, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and Manchuria. China claims control over Tibet, Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Hong Kong (UK) and Macau (Portugal) and the territories controlled by PRC of China (North China).

History

State and Government

According to Sun Yat-sen's theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: a phase of military rule through which the KMT would take over power and reunite China by force; a phase of political tutelage; and finally a constitutional democratic phase. Thus, there have been at least three periods of constitutional organization.

The phases of force and political tutelage that overlap each other, roughly occurs between 1916 to 1935. This period was marked by the Southern and Northern Expeditions and the alliance with the CPC. According to the First provisional constitution of 1916 the President of the National Government was elected by the KMT central executive committee. In the absence of a National Assembly, the KMT's party congress functioned in its place. Since party membership was a requirement for civil service positions, the KMT was full of careerists and opportunists. The second provisional constitution of 1926 called for the election of the President of the Republic by National Assembly. Its delegates were elected by party nominations. The distribution was one-third Nationalists, one-third Communists, and one-third of members from other parties every four years. Overseas Chinese and minorities were represented in the party nominations. The President nominated the President of Executive Yuan and all its ministers and commissioners. The old Da-Li-Yuan was reformed as the Supreme Court.

In 1935 a The Second Constitution of the ROC was promulgated, the Five-power Constitution. This was based on Sun Yat-sen's idea of "separation of the five powers". The government of the ROC has five branches (executive, legislative, judicial, control and examination) and also embodies the Three Principles of the People (Sān Mín Zhǔyì).

  • The Executive is composed of
    • The President of the Republic, elected by the National Assembly for a term of six years, is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China.
    • Executive Yuan - led by the premier (President of the Executive Yuan) but in actuality it is the President who sets policy. The Executive Yuan is the "highest administrative authority" with oversight over domestic matters while giving the president of the Republic powers as commander-in-chief of the military and authority over foreign affairs;
  • The Legislative is composed of:
    • National Assembly, with the power to amend the constitution and elect the President and Vice President and the right to recall them if they failed to fulfill their political responsibilities.
    • Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislative chamber, elected by universal suffrage. Some seats a allocated for overseas Chinese;
  • Judicial Yuan serves as the highest judicial organ in Republic of China. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The Judicial Yuan is charged with interpreting the Constitution. It also supervises lower courts, which consist of the Supreme Court, the high courts, district courts, the Administrative Court, and the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries;
  • Control Yuan is the audit branch that monitors the other branches of government. Its members are elected by provincial, municipal, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Overseas Chinese representative councils.
  • Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil service personnel and examination exam. Its members are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Control Yuan.

Heads of State and Government

President of the Republic of China
Name Portrait Term Party Notes
Tan Yankai 1928-1928 Kuomintang
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek March, 1945 1928-1931 Kuomintang
Lin Sen ROC President Lin Sen 1931-1943 Kuomintang
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正) 1943-1955 Kuomintang Under his presidency Inner Mongolia was reincorporated to China.
Yan Xishan Yan Xishan 1955-... Kuomintang


Presidents of Executive Yuan
Name Portrait Term Party Notes
Tan Yankai 1928-1930 Kuomintang
Soong Tse-ven (T.V. Soong) 1930-1930 Kuomintang Acting
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek March, 1945 1930-1931 Kuomintang
Chen Mingshu 1931-1931 Kuomintang
Sun Fo 1931-1932 Kuomintang
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei 1932-1935 Kuomintang
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek March, 1945 1935-1938 Kuomintang
Kung Hsiang-hsi (H.H. Kung) 1938-1939 Kuomintang
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek March, 1945 1939-1945 Kuomintang
Soong Tse-ven (T.V. Soong) 1945-1947 Kuomintang Acting
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek March, 1945 1947-1947 Kuomintang
Chang Ch'ün 1947-1948 Kuomintang
Weng Wenhao 1948-1948 Kuomintang
Sun Fo 1948-1949 Kuomintang
Yan Xishan Yan Xishan 1949-1951 Kuomintang
Chen Cheng Chen Cheng in 1940's 1950-1956 Kuomintang

Politics

  • Kuomintang
  • Communist Party of China, Marxist-Leninist. Banned in 1954.
  • Productive People's Party / Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party. Left-wing of the Kuomintang.
  • Communist League of China / Revolutionary Communist Party of China. Marxist-Trotskyist party
  • China Democratic League. Progressivism and Chinese nationalism

Administrative Divisions

The ROC is administratively divided in provinces, special municipalities, special administrative regions, areas, and regions.

Provinces
  • Anhui
  • Zhèjiāng
  • Fújiàn
  • Hénán
  • Húnán
  • Hubei
  • Gānsù
  • Jiāngxī
  • Guǎngxī
  • Guǎngdōng
  • Guìzhō
  • Shānxī
  • Shandong
  • Xīkāng
  • Sìchuān
  • Táiwān
  • Yunnan
special municipalities
  • Guǎngzhōu
  • Chóngqìng
  • Hànkǒu
  • Nánjīng
  • Shànghǎi
  • Xī'ān
  • Qingdao
Areas
  • Tibet
Special Administrative Regions
  • Weihai (abolish and incorporated to Shandong)
  • Hǎinán

Economy

Armed Forces

Republic of China Armed Forces
中華民國國軍
Republic of China Army Flag
Founded 1955 (from the National Revolutionary Army)
Current form 1955
Service branches Republic of China Army Flag Republic of China Army

Republic of China Navy
Republic of China Force
Republic of China Corps

Republic of China Coast Guard
Headquarters Nanking
Manpower
Military age 18-40 years of age men and women
Conscription Army serve two years. Naval, Air Force and special forces conscripts serve three years.
Expenditures
Percent of GDP 2,5%



Soviet Union

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (CCCP)
Timeline: From Sea to Shining Sea

OTL equivalent: USSR
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Coat of arms of the Soviet Union 1946-1956
Flag of USSR Coat of Arms of USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (orthographic projection)

Motto
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Russian)
("Workers of the world, unite!")

Anthem "State Anthem of the Soviet Union"
Capital
(and largest city)
Moscow
Other cities Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk
Language
  official
 
Russian (de facto official language), Ukrainian Belarusian, Uzbek, Kazakh, Georgian, Azerbaijani, Lithuanian, Latvian, Kyrgyz, Tajik[2], Armenian, Turkmen, Estonian, Moldavian[3] and Finnish.
  others Esperanto, Abkhaz, Bashkir, Buryat, Volga German, Ossetian, Karelian, Tatar, Polish, Romani, Yiddish, Korean and several others.
Religion
  main
 
Secular state (de jure)
  others Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox Church, Greek Catholic, Protestant (mainly Calvinism), Sunni Islam, Judaism and Atheism.
Demonym Soviet
Government Federal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic.
  legislature Congress of Soviets (1922–38), Supreme Soviet (1938 to date)
Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Malkhazi Nazaretyan
Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Evdokiya Vinogradov
Established Treaty on the Creation of the USSR (30 December 1922)
Currency Soviet ruble (руб)
Time Zone (UTC+2 to +12)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .su
Organizations League of Nations

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), is a federal sovereign socialist state in northern Eurasia established in 1922.

Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy are highly centralized. The country is a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR).

Introduction

The Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced the autocratic regime of Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, after a civil war ending in the Bolsheviks' victory, the USSR was formed by a treaty which united the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.

Under Stalin the Soviet Union rapidly industrialized, fought and won along the Allies World War II against Nazi Germany. However Stalin's rule was characterized by its political repression that authoritarian and unwilling to accept or tolerate dissidents or questions of its rule. Thousands of militants of the Party were purged.

After Stalin's death in 1945, reforms began to be implemented first to return to socialist legality and improve basic liberties and right but keeping one-party rule. Thought industrialized, the Soviet Union lagged behind in scientific and technological innovation. However, heavy investment in science and technology in the 1960s led to several improvements in the centralized socialist economy and society of the Soviet Union coming at par in some areas with United America and the European Associated States (AES).

History

Vozhd Stalin (1922-1945)

Stalin formalized the Communist Party's ideology of Marxism–Leninism and replaced the market economy (NEP) with a planned economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During this period, rapid economic development resulted in dramatic improvements in the average standard of living, particularly in urban areas. Despite these improvements, major tragedies also occurred. In addition to drought, which was a primary factor in a long history of regularly occurring famines in the region, agricultural collectivization contributed to a major famine in 1932-33, causing millions of deaths. Political paranoia fermented, especially after the rise of the Nazis in Germany in 1933, culminating in the Great Purge, during which hundreds of thousands of persons accused of spying or sabotage were arrested and executed without trial.

In 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Lenin had appointed Stalin the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, which gave Stalin considerable power. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating and outmaneuvering his rivals within the party, Stalin became the undisputed leader of the country and, by the end of the 1920s, established a totalitarian rule. On October 1927, Zinoviev and Trotsky were expelled from the Central Committee and forced into exile.

In 1928, Stalin introduced the first five-year plan for building a socialist economy. In place of the internationalism expressed by Lenin and Trotsky throughout the Revolution, it aimed to build Socialism in One Country. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, rather than adhering to the "lead by example" policy advocated by Lenin, forced collectivization of farms was implemented all over the country.

Famines ensued as a result, causing deaths estimated at three to seven million; surviving kulaks were persecuted, and many were sent to Gulags to do forced labor. Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s. Despite the turmoil of the mid-to-late 1930s, the country developed a robust industrial economy in the years preceding World War II.

Closer cooperation between the USSR and the West developed in the early 1930s. From 1932 to 1934, the country participated in the World Disarmament Conference. On September 1934, the country joined the League of Nations. After the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, the USSR actively supported the Republican forces against the Nationalists, who were supported by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.

On December 1936, Stalin unveiled a new constitution. This text repealed restrictions on voting and added universal direct suffrage and the right to work to rights guaranteed by the previous constitution of 1924. In addition, the constitution of 1936 recognized collective social and economic rights including the rights to work, rest and leisure, health protection, care in old age and sickness, housing, education and cultural benefits. The constitution of 1936 also provided for the direct election of all government bodies and their reorganization into a single, uniform system.

In 1937, diplomatic relations between United America and the USSR were established. The socialist government of Sarah Leslie and the AWP also negotiated a trade and cultural agreement between the two countries. However, relations started to run afoul when it became obvious to Stalin that the AWP would not endorse Marxism-Leninism as its official ideology and instead proclaim itself a broad Marxist party with a key influence of Trotskyism. Relations where not broken but an ideological divide was effectively established. This was specially obvious during the Spanish Civil War were Leslie and Stalin gave support and aid to conflicting left-wing parties. The Communist International (Comintern) in several proclamations denounced the AWP as a pseudo-left opportunist bourgeois party.

Stalin's Great Purge (1936-1938) resulted in the detainment or execution of many "Old Bolsheviks" who had participated in the October Revolution with Lenin. Show trials were staged to incriminate political or ideological adversaries. the purge also included those that has sympathies or contacts with United America or AWP.

A number of Stalin's adversary choose to exile themselves in United America leading to tense and animosity between both socialist states. The American embassy was put under the security of the NKVD. Several people that attempted to gain asylum were detained.

World War II and the German invasion of the USSR gave space to breach and cooperation between United America and the USSR. Military aid, medicines, industrial supplies, fuel, metals were shipped to the Soviet Union, along American volunteers Brigades that took part in engagements against the Germans along the Red Army.

The Reforms (1945-1961)

Stalin's death in October of 1945 with no anointed successor nor a framework within which a transfer of power could take place opened a succession crisis. The system of collective leadership was restored, and measures introduced to prevent any one member attaining autocratic domination again. The collective leadership included senior members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: Georgy Malenkov, Lavrentiy Beria, Vyacheslav Molotov, Andrei Zhdanov, Kliment Voroshilov, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin, Lazar Kaganovich and Anastas Mikoyan. Of these Beria, head of the NKVD, was removed from power and subsequently arrested on charges of rape and treason. Georgy Malenkov, as First Secretary of the Party rapidly consolidated his power in the party and state. Later, hardliner Stalinist such as Zhdanov, Molotov and Kaganovich were removed from any post of political relevance.

Malenkov ruled over an uneasy compromise between hardline Stalinists and Reformers. The settlement broke down with the ascension of the reformist premiership of Khrushchev in 1954.

Perm-36-Gulag-Site, now a memorial 2011

An example of a forced-labour camp-system under administration of the Gulag (Main Administration of Camps). In existence between 1918-1962. Later political prisoners would serve in republican state prisons after the all-union administration was dissolved.

However one basic premise was the end of Stalinist purges and trials, political enemies were to be removed from post of political significance and not put in front of show trials nor killed. Surveillance of dissidents was still done but far from the violent and brutal methods and extermination of whole groups or families. A mass amnesty for those imprisoned for non-political crimes was issued, halving the country's inmate population, while the state security and Gulag systems were reformed, with torture being banned.

Under Malenkov more resources were diverted to consumer goods instead of concentrating on heavy industry. Reforms to the Soviet system were immediately implemented. Economic reforms scaled back the mass construction projects, placed a new emphasis on house building, and eased the levels of taxation on the peasantry to stimulate production.

Stalin's Socialism in one country, already challenged by the existence of Socialist United America, was abandoned as one of the tenets of the CPSU with the triumph of the Japanese Revolution and establishment of a third socialist state (1952) and the ongoing Chinese Civil War and Revolution were the Chinese Communist seemed to come close to victory. The new leaders and Malenkov's policies sought a rapprochement with the United America.

After WWII the Red Army had occupied central and eastern Europe. Malenkov's Eastern Europe foreign policy was to established regimes allied to the Soviet Union, weaken Western European influence and the payment of war reparations and use of their resources in rebuilding the war-torn European territories of the USSR. The regimes that had allied with the Axis Powers were dismissed and democratic coalition governments installed. Under democratic elections that forbade the participation of fascist and right wing authoritarian parties and personalities were new republican regimes established. A revived popular front policy led to the election of center-left governments in the Eastern Bloc. In some countries like Bulgaria, Romania and Albania ruthless reforms were pursued under the direction of Soviet advisors. A definite settlement for a united neutral Germany was pursued in the 1950s and 1960s with the Franco-British Union (FBU) and United America that also secured the German-Polish borders.

Heavy State emphasis, planning and investment on science and technology were placed in order to rebuilt postwar Soviet Union and to compete with the highly industrial United America. The development of nuclear weapons was pursued with success. A number of scientific and technological efforts such as the first artificial satellite and manned flight were accomplished.

The Storm Clashes (1961-1971)

From 1961 to 1971 was a period of fast and contradictory changes. The most enduring was the refute of Stalin's Cult of Personality and criticism of his period as leader of the USSR. Old Stalinist were dropped from position of power and influence. Several economic and political reforms were implemented some more successful than others.

Khrushchev's ascension to the leadership of the CPSU in the 21st Congress (1961) marked an acceleration of the reforms that he already advocated as premier (1954-1962). However, his leadership style alienated many members of the Central Committee and Politburo. Flaws in policies and poorly implemented reforms were to mark his downfall. Under attacks by allies and foes and already with severe health issues he tendered Khrushchev resignation to the party leadership in 1962. Fellow reformist and Deputy General Secretary Nikolai Podgorny took over the party.

A major turn was the approval of the Constitution of the USSR of 1965, after extensive debates in the Party and its preliminary approval by a plenary of the Central Committee and the Supreme Soviet. An important article was the limit of office terms in the State, recall of elected deputies, referendum, an administrative reform and its division in rural and urban areas, clarification of the power of judicial review between the Supreme Court and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, and new social rights (health, housing, protection of nature and its wealth, protection of children, access to the achievements of culture).

Tupolev TU-144 (6060104119)

Tupolev Tu-144, USSR's passenger SST. Used by Aeroflot for its Trans-Siberian and Far East air routes.

Despite Khrushchev's downfall important reforms were made to the State and Party. The 21st Congress voted to redact a new Soviet Constitution and the preparatory works for the reform of party rules and a new party program. The main economic reforms were the establishment of the Sovnarkhoz (Council of National Economy) for the planning and operational management at regional level of industry replacing many industrial ministries. The Vesenkha (Supreme Board of the National Economy) was in charge of coordinating the Sovnarkhoz and was subordinate to the Council of Ministers.

In keeping in line with the general policy of removal of the leadership of the party at all levels with a new generation of militants Podgorny strictly followed it dismissing from positions of power those oppose to it like the Brezhnev clique. A period of stabilization and grounding of what was already done characterized the tenure of Podgorny (1968-1971).

Under Khrushchev the relationships with the Eastern Bloc were eased and it stopped being a cheap source of materials and technology. Cooperation and reciprocity became the key guidelines in the relations between USSR and Eastern Bloc. To further communications the Friendship High Speed Railway begins its construction in 1968.

The Will of a New Generation (1971-1996)

N1 1M1 mockup on the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in late 1967

The N-1 (or H- in Russian) super heavy-lift launch vehicle. The main component of the Soviet Moonshot.

The period from 1971 to 1996 was characterized by the renewal of the ruling members of the CPSU and the other state bodies. A detente with Western and Central Europe was established removing the threat of a military conflict. Relationships with Northern China, Japan and United America, although ideologically fierce, became more amicably and cooperation open in outer space research. The swift and crashing reforms under Khrushchev were slowed down and in some cases reversed.

The 23rd Congress of the PCUS (1971) was marked by two events, the renewal of more than half of the members of the Central Committee and that its majority had been born after the October Revolution (1920-1940). The elected General Secretary Vladlen Kozlov being an example of the shaking up of the leadership by the new generation.

Previous reforms like the economic decentralization were reassigned. The Vesenkha was reformed and some its tasks re-assigned to the Gosplan, the newly created State Production Committees and the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. The Sovnarkhozy were keep but became more coordinate to the SSR's Council of Ministers and the All-Union Council of Ministers.

ЭР200 в пути

The EMU ER200 High Speed Train.

The Friendship High Speed Railway begins its services between Moscow, Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia in 1994.

The Party control of electoral process was relaxed allowing independent candidates to be nominated for elections if he or she collected a certain number of signatures from registered voters in their electoral district along a binding electoral platform. This enabled independent candidates from the political spectrum of the left and outside the CPSU, such as democratic socialists and left-wing nationalists, to stand in the elections. The prohibition of forming other parties besides the CPSU was kept in place. Anarchist, bourgeoisie liberals and similar groups were de jure banned from standing to elections.

To ensure party rule the elections of village, raion and workplace soviets candidates were to be nominated by meeting of electors under auspices of local branches of the CPSU. The newly created workplace soviets would also take part in the management of the work condition and cooperate with local trade unions. It reality trade unions informally approved and nominated the candidates.

Readjustment and Rectification (1996-2016)

The rise of Olga Ignatiev marked a reprise of reforms and anti-corruption campaigns. Though the Soviet Union had made several impressive scientific and technological firsts non marked an notable improvement in the daily life of citizens, workers and farmers.

The State and the Party

There are three major power centers in the Soviet Union: the legislature represented by the Supreme Soviet, the government represented by the Council of Ministers (Sovmin), and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only legal party and the final policymaker in the country.

The CPSU maintains its dominance over the state mainly through its control over the system of appointments. All senior government officials and most deputies of the Supreme Soviet are members of the Party.

The State and Government

The Soviet Constitution of 1965 redesigned the government of the Soviet Union. The USSR is defined as a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country. The Constitution nominally grants all manner of personal and social rights and freedoms, and spelled out a number of democratic procedures as in the Constitution of 1936. In practice, by asserting the "leading role" of the Communist Party. It cemented the complete control of the party over the State and society.

The Constitution of 1965, as in the previous ones of 1924 and 1936, kept the right of constituent Soviet republics to secede from the Union. The Defense Council, the main body of the national defense, was officially enshrined in the Constitution, with Presidium of the Supreme Soviet approving its composition and nomination. Key provisions are the limit of mandates for the deputies and limit to two consecutive term (8 years) of office for all elected offices, including the members of all Presidia within the USSR. Candidates for elections are approved and can be proposed by the CPSU, Komsomol, trade unions, scientific and cultural societies.

The 1965 Soviet constitution repealed restrictions on voting and added universal direct suffrage and the right to work to rights guaranteed by the previous constitution. In addition, the constitution recognizes collective social and economic rights including the rights to work, rest and leisure, health protection, care in old age and sickness, housing, education and cultural benefits. The constitution also provides for the direct election of all government bodies and their reorganization into a single, uniform system.

Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow

Grand Kremlin Palace, seat of the Supreme Soviet.

According to the Constitution of 1965 the Supreme Soviet[4] is the supreme state body of the Soviet Union. The Supreme Soviet is a bicameral body consisting of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities. The Supreme Soviet elects a Presidium to wield its power between plenary sessions, ordinarily held twice a year. The Soviet Supreme elects and appoints the Supreme Court, the Procurator General and the Council of Ministers[5],that manages an enormous bureaucracy responsible for the administration of the economy and society. The exclusive attribution of the Supreme Soviet are the admission of new republics, creation of new autonomous republics and autonomous regions, approval of the five-year plan for social and economic development and creation of the state budget. The Constitution of 1965 established a sort of parliamentary responsibility of the Council of Ministers to the Soviet Supreme.

KREMLIN

Kremlin Presidium.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, elected by joint session of the Supreme Soviet, functions as the collective head of state of the USSR. The Presidium consists of a chairperson, a first vice-chairperson, one deputy from each republic, a secretary, and 20 members. The Presidium is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for all its activities. The Constitution of 1965 gave more executive functions to the Presidium the such as the right dissolve the Supreme Council and call early elections, appoint and remove the Sovmin when the Soviet Supreme is not in sessions, and call for a referendums.

Kremlin Senate building on 2016-08-03

Kremlin Senate, seat of the Sovmin.

The Council of Ministers (Sovmin), is formed and elected by a joint meeting of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities. The Sovmin consists of a Chairperson (informally Premier), several First Deputies, Deputies, ministers, Chairpersons of the state committees and the Chairpersons of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Republics. The Premier, as head of government, is responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet (and its Presidium). The Presidium of the Council of Ministers was established for the purpose of supervising and coordinating the vast network of government committees, commissions, and other institutions that report to the Council of Ministers. In the USSR there are two types of ministries: all-union that oversee a particular activity for the entire Soviet Union, and union-republic that have central ministry in Moscow, which coordinates the work of counterpart ministries in the republic governments. This distinction also involves state committees and government agencies.

The Supreme Court supervises the lower courts (People's Court) and applies the law as established by the constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet. The Supreme Court and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet review the constitutionality of laws and acts. The Soviet Union uses the inquisitorial system of Roman law, where the judge, procurator, and defence attorney collaborate to establish the truth. The supreme courts of Union Republics and Autonomous Republics are elected by their respective supreme soviets. All courts are on the principle of the electiveness of judges and people's assessors, every four years.

State and party structures of the constituent republics, be it SSR, ASSR, autonomous oblasts and others, largely emulate the structure of the central federal institutions, although the Russian SFSR, unlike the other constituent republics, had no republican branch of the Communist Party until 1963, being ruled directly by the union-wide party. Local authorities are organized likewise into party committees, local Soviets and executive committees. While the state system is nominally federal, the party is unitary in its governance. Representatives of public organizations and of work collectives may take part in civil and criminal proceedings. The economic disputes between enterprises, institutions, and organizations are settled by state arbitration bodies (boards of arbitration) within their jurisdiction.

The state security police (the NKVD and its predecessor agencies) played an important role in Soviet politics. It was instrumental in the Great Purge, but was brought under strict party control after Stalin's death.

Chairpersons of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Portrait Name (Term) Party Notes
Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets
Portrait of Mikhail Kalinin (1922) Mikhail Kalinin

(1922-1938)

All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) AUCP(b) Also Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets (1919-1938).
Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938 to date)
Mikhail Kalinin Mikhail Kalinin

(1938-1946)

AUCP(b) Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1938.
NikolayShvernik Nikolay Shvernik

(1946-1958)

AUCP(b), from 1952 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1946, 1950 and 1954.
Brezhnev-color Leonid Brezhnev

(1958-1962)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1958.
Анастас Иванович Микоян, 1945 Anastas Mikoyan

(1962-1974)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1962, 1966 and 1970.
Nikolay Podgorny Official Nikolai Podgorny

(1974-1978)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1974.
Mikhail Yasnov Yosyp Vasylyshyn

(1978-1986)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1978 and 1982.
Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2 Klavdiya Matveev

(1986-1994)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1986 and 1990.
Hnatyshyn Gavriil Shvets

(1994-2002)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 1994 and 1998.
DanielaSantanche Ksenia Lagunov

(2002-2006)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 2002.
ChristineGregoireOfficial Halyna Aleksandrov

(2006-2014)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 2006 and 2010.
Andrej Kiska Malkhazi Nazaretyan

(2014 to date)

CPSU Elected by Supreme Soviet in 2014 and 2018.
Chairpersons (Premier) of the Council of Ministers
Chairperson of the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) / Council of Ministers (Sovmin)
Portrait (Name) Term Party Notes
Lenin portrait color Vladimir Lenin

(1923-1924)

All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) - AUCP(b) Also Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR (1917-1924). Died in office.
AlexeiRikov1924(cropped) Alexei Rykov

(1924-1930)

AUCP(b) Also Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR (1924-1929).
Molotov.bra Vyacheslav Molotov

(1930-1941)

AUCP(b)
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 Joseph Stalin

(1941-1945)

AUCP(b) Also General Secretary of the Central Committee of the AUCP(b). Died of heart attack in October of 1945.
Georgy-malenkov colour Georgy Malenkov

(1945-1953)

AUCP(b), from 1952 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) General Secretary of the CPSU (1945-1961).
Bulganin Nikolai Bulganin

(1953-1954)

CPSU
Nikita S. Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev

(1954-1962)

CPSU General Secretary of the CPSU (1961-1968).
A. Kosygin 1967 Alexei Kosygin

(1962-1974)

CPSU
Naidenova EI Yevdokiya Tsvetaeva

(1974-1984)

CPSU
Harry Strom Yaroslav Alekseev

(1984-1995)

CPSU
Belinda Stronach Head Darejani Chaykovsky

(1995-1998)

CPSU
Ciro gomes Mikhailo Vardanyan

(1998-2006)

CPSU
Bell Anastas Ignatov

(2006-2008)

CPSU
Gennady Zyuganov 2011 Kyrylo Stasiuk

(2008-2014)

CPSU
Eilionoir Rose Evdokiya Vinogradov

(2014 to date)

CPSU

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)

Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза
General Secretary Vikenti Filippov
Deputy General Secretary Lyubov Sokolovsky
Slogan Workers of the world, unite!
Founded January 1912 (as RSDLP(b)), March 1918 (as RCP(b)), December 1925 (as AUCP(b)) and October 1952 (as CPSU)
Preceded by Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP)
Headquarters Moscow
Newspaper Pravda
Youth wing Komsomol (includes Young Pioneers)
Ideology Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Political position Left-wing to Far-left
International affiliation Comintern (1919–1943)
Official colours      Red

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) is the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU is the sole governing party of the Soviet Union. Its named from 1918–1925: Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), and 1925–1952: All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks).

The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a majority faction detached from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in the October Revolution of 1917.

The CPSU is a Marxism–Leninism Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies.

Under Marxism–Leninism it is explained and legitimized the CPSU's right to rule while explaining its role as a vanguard party. For instance, the CPSU's policies, even if they are unpopular, are correct because the party is enlightened. Marxism–Leninism is the only truth that by by its very nature cannot become outdated. It represents as the only truth in Soviet society; the Party rejects the notion of multiple truths. Marxism–Leninism is used to justify CPSU rule and Soviet policy but it was not used as a means to an end. The relationship between ideology and decision-making is at best ambivalent; most policy decisions are made in the light of the continued, permanent development of Marxism–Leninism.

The highest body within the CPSU is the Party Congress, which is convened every five years. Delegates at the Party Congresses elected the members of the Central Committee and the Central Auditing Commission. When the Congress is not in session, the Central Committee is the highest body. Because the Central Committee meets twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat and the Orgburo[6] (until 1952).

The structure of the CPSU includes the 15 ruling republican Communist parties of the USSR. The Russian SFSR does not have a republican communist party structure, and was subordinated directly to the CPSU Central Committee: The 21st Congress (1961) approved a resolution of the establishment of a republican level branch in Russia. The Communist Party of the RSFSR (In short Communist Party of Russia) was officially founded in 1963.

Congresses of the CPSU: 1st (1898), 2nd (1903), 3rd (1905), 4th (1906), 5th (1907), 6th (1917), 7th (1918), 8th (1919), 9th (1920), 10th (1921), 11th (1922), 12th (1923), 13th (1924), 14th (1925), 15th (1927), 16th (1930), 17th (1934), 18th (1939), 19th (1952), 20th (1956), 21st (1961), 22nd (1966) 23rd (1971), 24th (1976), 25th (1981), 26th (1986), 27th (1991), 28th (1996), 29th (2001), 30th (2006), 31th (2011), 32th (2016), 33th (2021).

The party leader is the de facto paramount leader of the Soviet Union. The party leader has held the office of General Secretary along that of Premier or head of state, or some of the two offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time. The tensions between the party and the state (Supreme Soviet and Sovmin) for the shifting focus of power have never been formally resolved, but in reality the party dominates and a paramount leader has always existed (first Lenin and thereafter the General Secretary). Since the establishment of the USSR Defense Council, the Party leader is also its chairperson.

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) AUCP(b) / Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) 1952 to date.
Portrait Name Term Notes
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 Joseph Stalin 1922-1945 Also Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom, 1941-1945). Died of heart attack in October of 1945.
Georgy-malenkov colour Georgy Malenkov 1945-1961 Also Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Sovmin, 1945-1953). Confirmed in office by the 19th Congress of the CPSU of 1952. Also Chairman of the USSR Defense Council.
Nikita S. Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev 1961-1968 Also Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Sovmin, 1954-1962). Elected General Secretary by the 21st Congress (1961). Resigned due to health issues in 1968. Also Chairman of the USSR Defense Council.
Nikolay Podgorny Official Nikolai Podgorny 1968-1971 Became General Secretary after resignation of Khrushchev. Also Chairman of the USSR Defense Council.
Douglas-kirk Vladlen Kozlov 1971-1984 Elected General Secretary by the 23rd Congress (1971). Resigned after losing vote in plenary of Central Committee of 1984. Also Chairman of the USSR Defense Council.
Michael bloomberg Alexey Kohut 1984-1991 Became General Secretary after resignation of Kozlov. Elected Secretary General by the 26th Congress (1986). Also Chairman of the USSR Defense Council.
DanielaSantanche Ksenia Lagunov 1991-1996 Elected General Secretary by the 27th Congress (1991). Also Chairperson of the USSR Defense Council.
Julia Gillard Olga Ignatiev 1996-2011 Elected General Secretary by the 28th Congress (1996). Also Chairperson of the USSR Defense Council.
John Hurt Vikenti Filippov 2011 to date Elected General Secretary by the 31th Congress (2011). Also Chairperson of the USSR Defense Council.

Economy

The economy of the Soviet Union is based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning. The Soviet economy is characterized by state control of investment, public ownership of industrial assets, macroeconomic stability, negligible unemployment, high growth rates and high job security. However the later was reformed in the 1980s promoting a system of traineeship.

A major strength of the Soviet economy is its enormous supply of oil and gas, that is also an important source of foreign currency. Agriculture is organized into a system of collective farms (kolkhozes) and state farms (sovkhozes).

The Soviet economy is mainly managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Gosbank (the State Bank), the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply) and the Presidium of the Sovmin. Beginning in 1928, the economy is directed by a series of five-year plans. The initial five-year plans aimed to achieve rapid industrialization in the Soviet Union and thus placed a major focus on heavy industry. Later plans prioritized the light and technological industries and consumer goods and foodstuff.

These five-year plans have been: First plan, 1928–1932, Second plan, 1933–1937, Third plan, 1938–1941 (frustrated by beginning of WWII), fourth 1946-1950, fifth 1951–1955, sixth 1956-1960, Seventh plan, 1961-1965, Eighth plan, 1966–1970, Ninth plan, 1971–1975, Tenth plan, 1976–1981, Eleventh plan, 1981–1985, Twelfth plan, 1986–1990, Thirteenth plan, 1991–1995, 14th 1996-2000, 15th 2001-2005, 16th 2006-2010, 17th 2011-2015, 18th 2016-2020.

A number of economic reforms, some more successful than others, have been enacted. The most important ones been Khrushchev's reorganization of labor and its planning (1962), the implementation of the National Production Information Network (OPI-Network, 1971-1981), Kosygin's reforms (1973-1976), and Chaykovsky's territorial production complexes[7] (TPK, 1996).

The reforms of 1962 introduced regional planning and management by means of the sovnarkhozy (council of national economy SNK)[8] initially divided into 105 economic regions and doing away with the industrial ministries in Moscow. The economic disruption and inefficiency of these reforms led to dismantling aspects of it. For example due to high prices in food the agriculture was again centrally planned with its national ministry reestablished and the union-republic State Production Committee of Irrigation and Water Resources created.

Thin clients

Schematic of thin client of the OPI-Network. An important feature is the portable session. A user can go from one thin client to another and continue his work without closing or losing any programs or data, these are saved in the server. With a login authentication and later a smart card, the user is presented with his session.

The National Production Information Network[9] (NPIN, or the Network) was created with the original purpose of being a tool specifically for the sovnarkhozy and in a broader role as part of the national economic planning and management, was implemented in its first version between 1971-1981. Its second version would be enlarge to link all scientific research centers. The Armed Forces had in parallel develop their own closed network. The basic local unit of the OPI-Network at the production centers and TPK is the automated control system (ASU from the Russian translit АСУ). The ASU is a set of hardware and computer applications, that were latter interconnected in wider networks in the second version of the OPI-Network. As a by product local information networks as part of the Network for general use began to be implemented under the design of thin client computers. These thin clients were cheaper to manufacture and maintain than a conventional computer and the basic and sometimes the only equipment supplied and available for research and educational and personal use. Also conventional personal computers were more prone to failures due to defective manufacturing and lack of quality control in the 1980s and only supplied as part of the ASU.

The state policy for investment and improvement in science and technology was transferred to the State Committee for Science and Technology (GKNT). Exceptions to the GKNT were the space program and nuclear energy development that are supervised by the all-union ministries of the Space Exploration and Research and the Atomic Energy and Industries, respectively.

Member Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR)

Constitutionally, the USSR is a federation of constituent Union Republics - Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), which are either unitary states, such as Ukraine or Byelorussia (SSRs), or federations, such as Russia or former Transcaucasia (SFSRs).

Several of the SSRs, most notably Russia, are further subdivided into Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs). Though administratively part of their respective Union Republics, ASSRs are established based on ethnic/cultural lines. The ASSRs have a lower political rights and status than the SSR, but higher than the autonomous oblasts and the autonomous/national okrugs, the later present only in Russia.

Each union republic (SSR) and autonomous republic (ASSR) has its own governments (Presidium and Council of Ministers) formed by the republican legislature (Supreme Soviet) of the respective union republic or autonomous republic. Republican governments are not legally subordinate to the All-Union government, but they are obliged in their activities to be guided by the decrees and decisions of the All-Union government. At the same time, the union-republican ministries have double subordination – they simultaneously submitted to the union republican government, within the framework of which they are created, and to the corresponding all-union government, orders and instructions which should have been guided in their activities. In contrast to the union republican ministries of the union republic, the republican ministries are subordinate only to the government of the corresponding union republic.

All SSR and ASSR have their own local republican party chapters of the CPSU.

Amendments to the 1936 Constitution of the USSR and in the present Constitution has allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each SSR.

Name SSR Flag Capital Official languages Established Joined USSR
Armenian SSR Yerevan Armenian, Russian 1920-1922 (incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR), 1936 to date 1936
Azerbaijan SSR Baku Azerbaijani, Russian 1920-1922 (incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR), 1936 to date 1936
Byelorussian SSR Minsk Byelorussian, Russian 1920 1922
Estonian SSR Tallinn Estonian, Russian 1940 1940
Georgian SSR Tbilisi Georgian, Russian 1920-1922 (incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR), 1936 to date 1936
Kazakh SSR Alma-Ata Kazakh, Russian 1936[10] 1936
Kirghiz SSR Frunze Kirghiz, Russian 1936[11] 1936
Latvian SSR Riga Latvian, Russian 1940 1940
Lithuanian SSR Vilnius Lithuanian, Russian 1940 1940
Moldavian SSR Flag of Moldavian SSR Kishinev Moldavian, Russian 1940[12] 1940
Russian SFSR Moscow Russian 1917 1922
Tajik SSR Dushanbe Tajik, Russian 1929[13] 1929
Turkmen SSR Ashkhabad Turkmen, Russian 1925[14] 1925
Ukrainian SSR Kiev Ukrainian, Russian 1919 1922
Uzbek SSR Tashkent Uzbek, Russian 1924[15] 1924
Karelo-Finnish SSR
Flag of the Karelo-Finnish SSR
Petrozavodsk Finnish, Karelian, Russian 1940[16] 1940
Transcaucasian SFSR Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR Tiflis Georgian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian 1922-1936 dissolved and divided again among the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani SSRs 1922-1936

Culture

The Worker and Kolkhoz Woman Cropped

Worker and Kolkhoz Woman by Vera Mukhina

The culture of the Soviet Union passed through several stages. It has been contributed to by people of various nationalities from every single one of the union republics, although a slight majority of them were Russians. The Soviet state (i.e. CPSU) supports cultural institutions, but also carries several forms of control and censorship.

During the Lenin years (1917-1922) a cultural revolution occurred in this case referring to the a complex of measures carried out in Soviet Russia and the USSR aimed at radically restructuring the cultural and ideological life of society. The state legalised abortion, and made divorce progressively easier to obtain, whilst public canteen proliferated at the expense of private family kitchens.

In the Stalin era (1922-1945) the arts were characterised by the rise and domination of the government-imposed style of Socialist realism, with all other trends being severely repressed, with rare exceptions. Many writers were imprisoned and killed, or died of starvation.

The Post-Stalin era (1945-1971) was characterized by a removal of the most oppressive measures of the previous era and cultural liberalization. Tought, the propaganda of communist ideas and the Soviet way of life was still carried out purposefully and centrally under the leadership of the CPSU and officially called ideological work, enlightenment of the masses and the like, was carried out, the absolute control of social life was unofficially abandoned. Unofficial or non state sponsored expresion of the arts were allowed within certain limits as long as they did not openly criticized the Communist Party or State.

The planning, management and production of books, films and mass media is done by state committees being these: Goskino (film production), Goskomizdat (publishing houses, printing plants, the book trade) and Gosteleradio (radio and television).

Influential newspapers of the Soviet Union are Pravda (the official newspaper of the CPSU), Izvestia (published by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR), Komsomolskaya Pravda (organ of Komsomol), Krasnaya Zvezda (organ of the Soviet Armed Forces), Trud (press organ of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, VTsSPS) and Pionerskaya Pravda (organ of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union). The Sovetskaya Rossiya (publication of the Central Committee of the CPSU), is in the Russian SFSR the most widely distributed newspaper.

The literary bimonthly Literaturnaya Gazeta (Literary Gazette) disseminates the views of the USSR Union of Writers and contains authoritative statements and perspectives concerning literature, plays, cinema, and literary issues of popular interest. The Sovetskiy Sport (organ of the USSR State Committee for Physical Culture and Sports and VTsSP) is a major sports newspaper. At Republican, regional, and local level several newspapers are published in dozens of languages.

Officially and constitutionally censorships does not exist. However, restrictions exist. For example State secrets were handled by the General Directorate for the Protection of State Secrets in the Press (Glavlit), which is in charge of censoring all publications and broadcasting for state secrets. Control of all other contents that is not a state secret is done by several other bodies that also plan and manage their media industry. For example Goskomizdat books and printed publications, Goskino, cinema and Gosteleradio, radio and television broadcasting.

The circumvention of censorship, a common practise at times encouraged by the State and the CPSU, is mainly done by the samizdat, allegorical styles, smuggling, and tamizdat (publishing abroad), underground or unlicensed private libraries. State censorship has never being applied over technical scientific literature after 1945 along ideological control the science. Decrees and ordinances enacted during Khrushchev's premiership (1961-1968) defined more clearly the nature and scope of state secrets. The officially sanctioned style of socialist realism was gradually abandoned in favor of artistic freedom and also unofficial circuit and venues exhibit the alternative non-conformist arts are largely undisturbed.

However censorship restrictions are especially acute when discussing national issues. According to the ideological principles of the CPSU, in the USSR there are no interethnic contradictions and problems. Therefore, censorship bodies pay special attention to materials mentioning instead of the Soviet people certain ethnic group and therefore were reviewed or corrected. Russian nationalism is a heavily censored issue.

Gosteleradio USSR (Гостелерадио СССР)[17]
Type National public broadcaster
Country USSR
Availability National
Headquarters Moscow
Launch date Radio (1924 to date) and television (1938-1941, 1945 to date)
National radio service All-Union Radio (Всесоюзное радио) and its four national radio channels (All Union First Programme, Radio Mayak, Radio Yunost and Radio Orfey)
National television service Central Television of the USSR (CT USSR / ЦТ СССР)
International radio service Radio Moscow and Radio Peace and Progress
Language Russian

Broadcasting in the Soviet Union was owned by the Soviet state, and is under its control and censorship. Under the control of the Soviet Union, censorship and limitation on information are filtered for the citizens to ensure the common culture and socialist ideals are maintained.

The USSR State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting (Gosteleradio), is the Soviet Union's governing body of broadcasting, in charge both of television (Central Television of the USSR) and radio (All-Union Radio) networks and stations.

In addition to the national radio and television channels, each SSR and ASSR have their own state radio and television broadcasting committees, although other regions are allowed specific regional state broadcasting committees.

The Soviet Union's radio and television news are provided by TASS (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union). TASS includes affiliated news agencies in all SSRs in addition to Russia. Novosti Press Agency (APN) is the leading information and press body of public organizations representing Soviet public opinion. APN founders are the USSR Journalists Union, USSR Writers Union, Union of Soviet Societies of Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, and the Znaniye Society. These organizations are also editors of Radio Peace and Progress.

Armed Forces

Armed Forces of the USSR
Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик
Communist star with golden border and red rims
Red Army flag
Founded 15 January 1918
Service branches Soviet Army

Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Navy
Soviet Air Defence Forces

Strategic Missile Forces
Headquarters Moscow
Leadership
Chairperson of the USSR Defense Council Vikenti Filippov
Ministry of Defence Arkady Fedorov
Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces Vyacheslav Matveev
Manpower
Military age 18–35
Conscription 2 years (army & air force) 3 years (navy)
Expenditures
Percent of GDP 10%
Industry
Domestic suppliers Ministry of the Defense Industry (MOP, reestablished in 1970), Ministry of Aviation Industry, Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry, Ministry of Armament and the State Committee for Defense Technology (until it was disbanded in 1970).

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the USSR are the armed forces of the Soviet Union and the CPSU from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to present day.

According to the all-union military service law of September 1925, the Soviet Armed Forces consisted of three components: the Ground Forces, the Air Forces, the Navy, the State Political Directorate (OGPU), and the convoy guards. The OGPU was later made independent and amalgamated with the NKVD in 1934, and thus its Internal Troops were under the joint management of the Defense and Interior Ministries. After World War II, the Strategic Missile Forces (1959) and Air Defence Forces (1948) were added.

The Ministry of Defense, an all-union ministry, directs the Soviet Armed services and all military activities on a daily basis. It is responsible for fielding, arming, and supplying the armed services, and in peacetime all territorial commands of the armed forces reported to it.

The Defense Council, chaired by the General Secretary of the CPSU, is the permanent advisory body of the national defense, military industries and issues and reviews the national defence policy. Among its members are the chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the Premier, the ministers of the National Defense and the chairperson of State Committee for Defense Technology (until it was disbanded in 1970). However the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet forms and approves the membership and attribution of the Defense Council.

Branches/Services
  • Red Army flag Soviet Army
  • Flag of the Soviet Air Force URSS-Russian aviation red star Soviet Air Forces
  • Naval Ensign of the Soviet Union Soviet Navy
  • Soviet Air Defence Forces
  • Strategic Missile Forces


State Security and Police

The Committee for State Security, better know as the KGB[18], is the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as the Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee is attached to the Council of Ministers. It is the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police. Similar agencies are constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russian SFSR, and consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions.

The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), a union-republic ministry, is in charge of police, maintaining public order, combating public intoxication, supervising parolees, managing prisons and labor camps, providing fire protection, and controlling traffic. The Militsiya (uniformed police) is the regular police force under supervision of the MVD. The Internal Troops of the MVD are paramilitary gendarmerie-like force with the function of support and reinforce the Militsiya, deal with large-scale crowd control, internal armed conflicts, prison security (except in Russia) and safeguarding of highly-important facilities


Notes
  1. Similar to OTL OGAS.
  2. Persian.
  3. Romanian
  4. Successor of the Congress of Soviets and Central Executive Committee since 1936.
  5. Former Council of People's Commissars.
  6. Organisational Bureau.
  7. Территориально-производственный комплекс, Tпк (Territorial'no-proizvodstvennyy kompleks, TPK)
  8. Russian: совнархоз, совет народного хозяйства, sovet narodnogo khozyaystva)
  9. In Russian: Общегосударственная производственная информационная сеть (Опи-сеть /OPI-Network) or сеть (Network).
  10. Kirghiz ASSR (1920-1925), Kazakh ASSR (1925-1936) of the Russian SFSR
  11. Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (1924-1926), Kirghiz ASSR (1926–36) of the Russian SFSR
  12. Moldavian Autonomous Oblast (1924-1924), Moldavian ASSR (1924-1940) of the Ukrainian SSR
  13. Tajik ASSR (1924-1929) of the Uzbek SSR
  14. Part of the Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924) of the Russian SFSR
  15. Part of the Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924) of the Russian SFSR
  16. Karelian ASSR (1923–1940) of the Russian SFSR
  17. USSR State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting (Russian: Государственный комитет СССР по телевидению и радиовещанию)
  18. Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́сности (КГБ), tr. Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti

Elections

Elections National Diet 1954 1959 1964
Party Seats (% votes) Seats (% votes) Seats (% votes)
Workers and Farmers Party 268 (67%) 286 (71.5) 282 (70.5%)
Constitutional Democratic Party 82 (20.5%) 44 (11%) 45 (11.3%)
Christian People's Party 5 (1.3%) 6 (1.5%) 5 (1.2%)
Dharma Welfare Party n/a 48 (12%) 52 (12.9%)
National Cooperative Party n/a 16 (4%) 16 (4%)
Workers Unions Joint Ticket 45 (11.2%) n/a n/a
Total Seats 400 400 400
Elections National Diet 1964 1967

(After dissolution of WFP)

Party Seats (% votes) Seats
Workers and Farmers Party 282 (70.5%) n/a
Socialist Masses Party n/a 113
Japan Proletarian Party n/a 76
Japanese Communist Party n/a 56
Japanese Socialist Party n/a 37
Constitutional Democratic Party 45 (11.3%) 45
Christian People's Party 5 (1.2%) 5
Dharma Welfare Party 52 (12.9%) 52
National Cooperative Party 16 (4%) 16
Total Seats 400

Sources, Texts and Images


Online Editions at HathiTrust of Model State Constitutions


Inspirations

The main source of inspiration is Aelita's

Note:Do not copy plot or ideas here on Alternate History Wiki.


Gallery

  1. Similar to OTL OGAS.
  2. Persian.
  3. Romanian
  4. Successor of the Congress of Soviets and Central Executive Committee since 1936.
  5. Former Council of People's Commissars.
  6. Organisational Bureau.
  7. Территориально-производственный комплекс, Tпк (Territorial'no-proizvodstvennyy kompleks, TPK)
  8. Russian: совнархоз, совет народного хозяйства, sovet narodnogo khozyaystva)
  9. In Russian: Общегосударственная производственная информационная сеть (Опи-сеть /OPI-Network) or сеть (Network).
  10. Kirghiz ASSR (1920-1925), Kazakh ASSR (1925-1936) of the Russian SFSR
  11. Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (1924-1926), Kirghiz ASSR (1926–36) of the Russian SFSR
  12. Moldavian Autonomous Oblast (1924-1924), Moldavian ASSR (1924-1940) of the Ukrainian SSR
  13. Tajik ASSR (1924-1929) of the Uzbek SSR
  14. Part of the Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924) of the Russian SFSR
  15. Part of the Turkestan ASSR (1918–1924) of the Russian SFSR
  16. Karelian ASSR (1923–1940) of the Russian SFSR
  17. USSR State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting (Russian: Государственный комитет СССР по телевидению и радиовещанию)
  18. Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́сности (КГБ), tr. Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.