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Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third (ATl half) of the Scandinavian population. Black Death peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1354. Arab historians Ibn Al-Wardni and Almaqrizi believed the Black Death originated in Mongolia, and Chinese records show a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early 1330s.


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Mayan State

The Blue Jade Mask

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Mayan State

The Blue Jade Mask

Behold for I am not Kukulkan nor other god (or divinty). I am man that has a piece of Kulkans tongue, part of the hands and feet of Bahlam as all of us are part of Hunab Ku.
(The Message of the Blue jade Mask- traditional narrative)

The Maya Homeland

The 15th century (AC) was period of destruction and change in the Mayan Homelands. The city-state of Mayapan, that rose in the 12th century to dominate the Yucatan was in crisis that also dragged the other city-states. Internal rivalries of the ruling classes, intercity alliances broken, natural disasters and the invasion from foreigners from west and south by the Qʼumarkaj Alliance. It seem the Gods were rallied to crudely punish their worshipers. It seemed the times of Second Fall were to sweep the Yucatan.

However from the West came the one of the Blue Jade Mask with a army. After months of siege and slaughtering the rulers of Campeche he claimed his right as lord of the city and the dubious title of K'inich-Ajaw (Great Sun Lord). He sent embassies to neighboring cities and kingdoms calling all to become his subjects or be burned and erases has he had the mandate of the Gods and did their willing. In several decades he expanded his rule, built causeways and reservoirs, planned new cities, commerce grew, crops were plentiful, executed unruly subjects, sacrificed Ajaws and their families. For his power was great at each passing of the rain season many bowed to him as the Will of the Gods. The slow but patient expansion of the Blue Jade Mask brought down the enemies of the south such as the Qʼumarkaj Alliance

Of the Blue Jade Mask there are more question then answer. It is proved, by archaeological and paleographical studies, he was not of Mayan origin debunking a previous theory of him being a cultural hero. From were exactly he or his army came is still a matter of research. The one or many Blue Jade Masks, revolutionized Mayan ruling theory by installing the concept of Mandate of the Gods to legitimize their rule and conquest hinting a Mesoamerican origin.

On time the Blue Jade Mask, or the K'inich-Ajaw, shared his rule, wisdom and advice with an assembly of the most loyal followers. They become the Great Council and co-administrators, because the Blue Jade Masked saw and knew the needs of the people. He taught the Ajaws and the people the rule of the mandate of the Gods and what was right and wrong, how to distinguish good and evil among themselves. The priest that doubted his given mandate, because he was not a God, were put on the sacrificial stone and their bodies feed to the jaguars. He reformed the ancient creed and customs bringing the right ways forgotten by rulers, priests and the people back to their hearths.

The Gods above seeing our wickedness and lack of goodness (or virtue) have mandate to repeat their words by my mouth their teachings, so hear the following (formula used in the Righteous Codexs)

But only the Gods live forever so time came that the Blue Jaded Mask left us. Great sorrow and many days of mourning follow for righteous and happiness were gone. However the Great Council announced that the Blue Jaded Mask had appointed his successor to be named by the Great Council to the Ajawas, priests and the people.

The Mandate of the Gods had always being ambiguous on the succession and removal of the K'inich-Ajaw. In some Codexs there is a hint that the succession is by royal blood and in others by election of the council. Later texts add the manifest displeasure of Gods, either by natural disasters, revolts, military defeats or ineptitude of the rulers or reigning dynasty that is replaced by another. This ambiguity had being functional in the preservation and renewal of the Mayan State in time.

Historical Polities of the Mayans

  • First Blue Jade Empire with three dynasties.
  • The First Warring Communities. The division of several warlords and dynastic rivals.
  • Second Blue Jade Empire with five dynasties.
  • Mayan Dominion - First republican government. Overthrow by internal revolts and war with Mesoamerican polities and Caribbean invasions of Mississippi.
  • The Second Warring Communities. The division in several warlords and polities, and perhaps the most heterogeneous in political institutions (dictatorship, theocracy, royal regency, republic, peoples republic, socialist republic). Some institutions being copied from the Vikings and Islamic communities and republican confederacies of North America.
  • Board of the Hegemony - Consensual reconstruction of the former Mayan Dominion. Would evolve from a restricted democracy to a people's State.


The Maya n their history had several religious movements:

  • Classical Folk Religion - animist and shamanism.
  • Yumil Kaan or Blue Jade Following - polytheistic. The official state religion of the First and Second Jade Empires.
  • Quetzalcoatlism - a dissident messianic religious movement that lead to several reforms being the main ones the Hunab K'u and Hahal K'u. Important and widespread during the First Warring Communities period.
  • Hunab K'u - monotheistic (influence by Islam)
  • Hahal K'u - reformed Hunab K'u taking elements of Quetzalcoatlism.

From outside the Maya, and practiced by migrant communities:

  • Islam
  • Norse religion with Christian syncreticism.
  • Buddhism.
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