The Southern Paradox (La Paradoja del Sur)
What if the Socialist Republic of Chile proclaimed 4 June 1932 was not disestablished in 16 June 1932? What if it lasted for more than 12 days?.
This timeline explores the events and development of the Socialist Republic of Chile. Why a paradox?. Because it would continue to exist in a more or less as socialist state within the safeguard that the United States has in the Western Hemisphere. Specifically a potential enemy to US interests in the region and the spread of left wing ideas to the neighboring countries specially Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.
- Would the SR of Chile pay a lip service to socialism as it happen to the most radical ideas in post revolutionary Mexico?
- Would it follow the path of building a welfare state as it happened in Uruguay and post-war Europe?
- Or became an earlier Revolutionary Cuba?
Socialist Republic of Chile
The Socialist Republic of Chile (República Socialista de Chile), proclaimed on 4 June 1932, is a country of America located in the extreme southwest of South America. Its capital is Santiago de Chile.
Despite being socialist state, the abolishment of parties and the hegemony of a communist one did not caught up. Instead political pluralism was fully guaranteed and practiced. Elections at all levels are highly competitive and various measures to punish ballot rigging and fraud have being enacted and enforced (secret balloting, compulsory voting, voter identification, electoral justice, single ballot papers, etc.).
- Political parties:
- Workers Party of Chile (Partido de los Trabajadores de Chile PTCh, center-left) Created 1930, disestablished in the 1940s. The main ruling party in the 1930s and 1940s.
- Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile PCCh, left). Declared illegal but tolerated in the 1930s. It used while it was illegal the label National Progressive Party (Partido Progresista Nacional, PNP).
- Conservative Party (Partido Conservador, right)
- Liberal Party (Partido Liberal, PL, righ)
- Radical Party (Partido Radical PR, center).
- Radical Socialist Party (Partido Radical Socialista, PRS, center-left wing radicals)
- Radical Democratic Party (Partido Radical Democratico PRD, center-left and moderate radical)
- Democratic Party (Partido Democratico, PD center-right)
- People's Democratic Party (Partido Democratico Popular, PDP center-left)
- Socialist Party (Partido Socialist PSCh)
- Social Republican Party (Partido Social Republicano PSR, social liberalism)
- Agrarian Party (Partido Agrario PA)
- Civic Action Party (Partido de Acción Cívica PAC, Ibañism)
- 1 January (New Year)
- 6 January (Día de los Niños)
- 1 May (International Labor Day)
- 21 May Celebration of the glories of the Navy)
- 4 June (Proclamation of the Socialist Republic)
- 18 September (Establishment of the First Government Junta in 1810)
- 19 September (Celebration of the glories of the Army)
- 12 October (Día de la Raza i.e. Columbus Day)
- 2 November (Día de los Difuntos)
- 25 December (Christmas Day)
- Fridays and Saturdays during Holy Week / Semana del Turismo
- Election days are national holidays.
Chile's government is a representative democratic socialist republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a formal multi-party system.
Executive power is exercised by the government by the President and the Council of Government. The later being the council of ministers and other government post of relevance according to law. Ministers are named by the President. The president is directly elected for a five year mandate with no immediate reelection.
Legislative power is vested in the both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies). However all laws must be approved by Congress that also holds the constituent power. The Chilean constitution establishes a form of direct democracy that allows a citizens to challenge laws approved by National Congress by use of a referendum or to propose changes to the Constitution by the use of a plebiscite
The Chamber of deputies is fully elected for a five year mandate and the senate by half every five years.
The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature of Chile. The Supreme Court and lower courts administer justice, The Comptroller General of Chile is charge of the administrative control of governmental institutions and bodies.
The National Economic Council (Consejo Nacional de Economìa, CNE) integrated by elected delegates of the economic organizations. The CNE as a consultative, optional or obligatory function of consultation in economic and social matters. It also issues reports and recommendations. Its consultation is obligatory for the National Economic Plan.
For purposes of the National Economic Council the provinces are grouped into economic regions with their respective regional councils (Consejo Regional de Economìa, CRE). These are Norte Grande, Norte Chico, Núcleo Norte (Valparaíso), Nucleo Central (Santiago), Núcleo Sur, Biobío, La Frontera, Los Lagos and Patagonia.
Administratively, Chile is organized into provinces, departments and communes. The Provincial Intendant and the Departmental Governor are named by the President. Local government resides in the autonomous commune that is administered by an elected municipal council (Concejo de Regidores) every five years.
- Provinces and economic regions
- Tarapacá (Norte Grande)
- Antofagasta (Norte Chico)
- Atacama (Norte Chico)
- Coquimbo (Norte Chico)
- Aconcagua (Núcleo Norte)
- Valparaíso (Núcleo Norte)
- Santiago (Núcleo Central)
- O'Higgins (Núcleo Central)
- Colchagua (Núcleo Sur)
- Curicó (Núcleo Sur)
- Talca (Núcleo Sur)
- Maule (Núcleo Sur)
- Linares (Núcleo Sur)
- Ñuble (Biobío)
- Concepción (Biobío)
- Arauco (Biobío)
- Biobío (Biobío)
- Malleco (La Frontera)
- Cautín (La Frontera)
- Valdivia (Los Lagos)
- Osorno (Los Lagos)
- Llanquihue (Los Lagos)
- Chiloé (Los Lagos)
- Aysén (Patagonia)
- Magallanes (Patagonia)
- Buenos Aires (La Plata)
- Catamarca (Catamarca)
- Ciudad de Buenos Aires
- Córdoba (Córdoba)
- Corrientes (Corrientes)
- Entre Ríos (Paraná)
- Jujuy (Jujuy)
- La Pampa (Santa Rosa)
- La Rioja (La Rioja)
- Mendoza (Mendoza)
- Río Negro (Viedma)
- Salta (Salta)
- San Juan (San Juan)
- San Luis (San Luis)
- Santa Fe (Santa Fe)
- Santiago del Estero (Santiago del Estero)
- Tucumán (Tucumán)
- National Territories
- Chaco (Resistencia)
- Chubut (Rawson)
- Formosa (Formosa)
- La Pampa (Santa Rosa)
- Misiones (Posadas)
- Río Negro (Viedma)
- Santa Cruz (Río Gallegos)
- Neuquén (Neuquén)
- Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)
- Artigas (Artigas)
- Canelones (Canelones)
- Cerro Largo (Melo)
- Colonia (Colonia del Sacramento)
- Durazno (Durazno)
- Flores (Trinidad)
- Florida (Florida)
- Lavalleja (Minas)
- Maldonado (Maldonado)
- Montevideo (Montevideo)
- Paysandú (Paysandú)
- Río Negro (Fray Bentos)
- Rivera (Rivera)
- Rocha (Rocha)
- Salto (Salto)
- San José (San José de Mayo)
- Soriano (Mercedes)
- Tacuarembó (Tacuarembó)
- Treinta y Tres (Treinta y Tres)