Alternative History

My sandbox.

German monarchs family tree.jpg



  • Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor has a son. Option:
    • Maria Theresa is replaced by a male.
    • A third child is born.
  • Name choices:
    • Leopold II
    • Francis I
    • Charles VIII
    • Ferdinand IV
    • Joseph II
  • Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor survives the smallpox epidemic of 1711.
  • Leopold Joseph doe not die in infancy.
    • Joseph I's first child is male, and OTL Maria Josepha is replaced by Leopold Joseph
    • Joseph I's second child is female, ATL Maria Josepha, and dies in infancy.
    • Joseph I's third child is OTL Maria Amalia.

Kings of Spain

Kingdom of Spain (1479–)

House of Habsburg (1516–1700)

House of Bourbon (1700)

Thirty Years War

Flag of Electoral Saxony.svg Electorate of Saxony

Prinsenvlag.svg United Provinces
Flag of Hesse.svg Hesse
Flag of The Electoral Palatinate (1604).svg Electorate of the Palatinate
Flag of Bohemia.svg Bohemia

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire
  • Flag of Austria.svg Austria
  • Flag of Bohemia.svg Bohemia

Flag of Electoral Saxony.svg Duchy of Saxony
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Empire
Flag of England.svg England
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Milan
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Hungary

The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618–1648. It was one of the most longest and most destructive conflicts in all of European history.

Initially a war between Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmenting Holy Roman Empire, the Thirty Years War gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming less about religion and more a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.

The Thirty Years' War saw the devastation of entire regions, with famine and disease significantly decreasing the population of the German and Italian states, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Low Countries. The war also bankrupted most of the combatant powers. Both mercenaries and soldiers in armies were expected to fund themselves by looting or extorting tribute, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories.

War of Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) was a major European conflict of the early eighteen century, triggered by the death of the infirm and childless Charles II in 1700, the last Habsburg King of Spain. Charles II had ruled over a large active empire which spanned the globe, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled ministers throughout European capitals. Attempts to solve the problem by partitioning (dividing) the empire between the eligible candidates from the royal Houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg), and Bavaria (Wittelsbach) ultimately failed, and on his deathbed Charles II fixed the entire Spanish inheritance on Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of King Louis XIV of France. With Philip ruling in Spain Louis XIV had secured great advantages for his dynasty, but to some statesmen a dominant House of Bourbon was seen as a threat to European stability, and jeopardized the 'Balance of Power'.


By the late 1690's the question of Spanish succession had been brought into focus, with the declining health of the current king, Charles II, a Habsburg king noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities, along with his consequent ineffectual rule. Under the rule of Charles II the nation of Spain had devolved from a powerful European power to one less able to enforce hegemony over the continent of Europe. The Spanish Empire however, a collection of numerous territories across the globe, including much of the Americas, remained intact. In addition to the Spanish realm on the peninsula, the nation of Spain also included the Balearic Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Sicily, Naples, Sardinia, Finale, and the State of Presidi on the Tuscan coast. Including its overseas territories, the Spanish Empire included the Philippines, Spanish West Indies, Florida, and much of North and South America. Despite the overall decline of the Spanish Empire, its colonial empire remained the largest in the world, and highly active and influential in Europe and on the global level.

In 1665 king Philip IV of Spain died, and was succeeded by his son Charles II, despite being a physically weak individual incapable of having children. By the time of his ascension he was the last remaining male Spanish Habsburg, having survived much longer than anyone had expected. As a result of Charles II's lack of heir, Spanish statesmen and the other nation's of Europe sought to solve the problem of Charles II's succession before his dead, to avoid a large scale war over the Spanish throne. No single heir could be agreed upon however, with the two most predominate rival for succession being the Bourbon King Louis XIV of France, and the Austrian Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I. Both men were of sons-in-law to Philip IV of Spain and grandsons of Philip III, making each of their claims equally valid. Both claimants knew that the vast inheritance of Spain would greatly increase the power of either France or Austria, and both nations fiercely perused the Spanish throne.


Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg Empire


Habsburgische Erblande

OTL equivalent: Habsburg Monarchy
. 1526 -
Coat of arms
Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus
"Let justice be done, though the world perish"
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser
"God Save Emperor Francis"
The Habsburg Monarchy in 1789.


Official languages Latin, German
Regional languages Hungarian, Czech, Croatian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Dutch, Italian, Polish, Ruthenian, Bosnian, Serbian, French
Demonym Austrian
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Feudal Monarchy
 -  Monarch
 -  Royal House House of Habsburg
 -  Battle of Mohács 29 August 1526 
 -  Battle of Vienna 14 July 1683 

The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg. The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague.

The head of the House of Habsburg was often elected Holy Roman Emperor, although the two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, and most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties. The Habsburg Monarchy did not usually include all the territories ruled by the Habsburgs. The senior branch ruled Spain until 1700, but it is not usually included in the definition of "Habsburg Monarchy" after the reign of Charles V, who divided the dynasty between its Austrian and Spanish branches upon his abdication in 1556.

The Habsburg family originated from the Habsburg Castle in modern day Switzerland, and after 1279 came to rule in Austria (known as "the Habsburg Hereditary Lands"). The Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, and the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526.

Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, the younger brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks.

List of Holy Roman Emperors

List of emperors

See also: List of German monarchs

This list includes all emperors of the Holy Roman Empire.

Emperors before Otto the Great

Traditional historiography claimed a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. This is rejected by some modern historians, who date the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire to 962. The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

Carolingian dynasty

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Charles I
2 April 742
28 January 814
25 December 800 28 January 814 Founder of the Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne denier Mayence 812 814.jpg
Louis the Pious.jpg
Louis I 778
20 June 840
11 September 813

5 October 816
20 June 840 son of Emperor Charles I
Louis le Pieu denier Sens 818 823.jpg
Lothar I.jpg
Lothair I 795
29 September 855
5 April 823 29 September 855 son of Emperor Louis I
Lothaire 1er denier 840 855.jpg
Louis 2.png
Louis II 825
12 August 875
Easter 850
18 May 872
12 August 875 son of Emperor Lothair I
Jean Dassier - Louis II. roy de France.jpg
Charles II 13 June 823
6 October 877
29 December 875 6 October 877 son of Emperor Louis I
Charles le Chauve denier Bourges after 848.jpg
Charles the Fat.jpg
Charles III 13 June 839
13 January 888
12 February 881 13 January 888 grandson of Emperor Louis I
Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg

Guideschi dynasty

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Sin foto.svg
Guy 855
12 December 894
May 891 12 December 894 great-great grandson of Emperor Charles I -
Sin foto.svg
Lambert 880
15 October 898
30 April 892 15 October 898 son of Emperor Guy -

Carolingian dynasty

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Die deutschen Kaiser Arnulph.jpg
Arnulph 850
8 December 899
22 February 896 8 December 899 nephew of Charles III
great-grandson of Emperor Louis I

Bosonid dynasty

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Sin foto.svg
Louis III 880
28 June 928
22 February 901 21 July 905 grandson of Emperor Louis II -

Unruoching dynasty

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Berengar I on a seal.jpg
Berengar 845
7 April 924
December 915 7 April 924 grandson of Emperor Louis I -

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

Holy Roman Emperors

Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
Otto I 23 November 912
7 May 973
- 2 February 962 7 May 973 great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I
Siegel Otto I 968.jpg
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
Otto II 955
7 December 983
961 25 December 967 7 December 983 son of Emperor Otto I
Otto III 980
23 January 1002
June 983 21 May 996 23 January 1002 son of Emperor Otto II
Ota3 cisar.jpg
Jindra2 cisar.jpg
Henry II
6 May 973
13 July 1024
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 13 July 1024 second cousin of Emperor Otto III and great-great-great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I

Salian (Frankish) dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
Conrad II
4 June 1039
1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039 great-great-grandson of Emperor Otto I
Henry III 29 October 1017
5 October 1056
1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 son of Emperor Conrad II
Siegel kaiser heinrich iii.png
Henry IV 11 November 1050
7 August 1106
1053 31 March 1084 December 1105 son of Emperor Henry III
Heinrich IV. 1089.jpg
Henry V
8 November 1086
23 May 1125
6 January 1099 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 son of Emperor Henry IV
Siegel Heinrich V.jpg

Supplinburg dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
Lothaire III crop.jpg
Lothair III
9 June 1075
4 December 1137
1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 perhaps 9th generation descendant of Emperor Otto I
11th generation descendant of Emperor Charles II
Heinrich IV. 1089.jpg

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
Friedrich Barbarossa.jpg
Frederick I 1122
10 June 1190
4 March 1152 18 June 1155 10 June 1190 great-grandson of Emperor Henry IV
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg
JindrichVIStauf trun.jpg
Henry VI November 1165
28 September 1197
? April 1169 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 son of Emperor Frederick I
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg

Welf dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
Otto IV 1175 or 1176
19 May 1218
9 June 1198 4 October 1209 1215 great-grandson of Emperor Lothair III
Emporer Otto IV Arms.svg

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynasty

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
Frederick II and eagle.jpg
Frederick II 26 December 1194
13 December 1250
1215 re-election
22 November 1220 13 December 1250 son of Emperor Henry VI
Armoiries empereurs Hohenstaufen.svg

House of Luxembourg

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor Arms
Henry VII 1275/1279
24 August 1313
1308 29 June 1312 24 August 1313 13th generation descendant of Emperor Louis III
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg

House of Wittelsbach

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor Arms
Ludwig der Bayer.jpg
Louis IV 1 April 1282
11 October 1347
October 1314 17 January 1328 11 October 1347 6th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III and 7th generation descendant of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor Louis IV Arms.svg

House of Luxembourg

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor Arms
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg
Charles IV 14 May 1316
29 November 1378
11 July 1346/
17 June 1349 re-election
5 April 1355 29 November 1378 grandson of Emperor Henry VII
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.png
Pisanello 024b.jpg
Sigismund 14 February 1368
9 December 1437
10 September 1410/
21 July 1411 re-election
31 May 1433 9 December 1437 son of Emperor Charles IV
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.png

House of Habsburg

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be emperor Descent from emperor Arms
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg
Frederick III 21 September 1415
19 August 1493
1440 19 March 1452 19 August 1493 10th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III
Emperor Frederick III Arms.svg
Ambrogio de Predis 001.jpg
Maximilian I 22 March 1459
12 January 1519
16 February 1486 -
12 January 1519 son of Emperor Frederick III
Maximilian I Arms.svg
Carlos V pintado por Arias Fernández.jpg
Charles V 24 February 1500
21 September 1558
28 June 1519 February 1530 16 January 1556 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Hans Bocksberger (I) - Emperor Ferdinand I - WGA02326.jpg
Ferdinand I 10 March 1503
25 July 1564
1531 -
25 July 1564 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.png
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg
Maximilian II 31 July 1527
12 October 1576
November 1562 -
12 October 1576 son of Emperor Ferdinand I
Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.png
Rudolph II
18 July 1552
20 January 1612
1575 30 June 1575 20 January 1612 son of Emperor Maximilian II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Lucas van Valckenborch 003.jpg
Matthias 24 February 1557
20 March 1619
1612 23 January 1612 20 March 1619 son of Emperor Maximilian II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg
Ferdinand II 9 July 1578
15 February 1637
1618 10 March 1619 15 February 1637 grandson of Emperor Ferdinand I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Frans Luycx 002.jpg
Ferdinand III 13 July 1608
2 April 1657
1636 18 November 1637 2 April 1657 son of Emperor Ferdinand II
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Jan Thomas 001.jpg
Leopold I 9 June 1640
5 May 1705
18 July 1658 6 March 1657 5 May 1705 son of Emperor Ferdinand III
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg
Joseph I 26 July 1678
17 April 1711
6 January 1690 1 May 1705 17 April 1711 son of Emperor Leopold I
Charles V Arms-imperial.svg