Wales (Welsh: Cymru) is a constituent country of Great Britain, located directly to the west of England, with which it shares a land border: it is surrounded by the Irish Sea on all other side. Inhabited since the dawn of recorder history by Celtic tribes, it was integrated in the kingdom of England during the Middle Ages after fierce battles: it was only with the creation of the Commonwealth that it was made into a country in its own right, mostly out of fear of independentist revolts.
Wales is a hilly and mountainous land in the inland, while the shores are mostly characterized by long, sandy beaches. The country is officially bilingual: most of the population speaks English (which can be heard especially in the southern part of the country), but Welsh, a Celtic language, is also widely spoken, especially in the hills and valleys of the north. Wales is rural and agricultural in the north, but the south is heavily urbanized and industrialized, with mining and metallurgic industries being prominent.