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Europe in 2011

Map of Europe in 2011

This timeline looks at what might have been if Wales under Owain Glyndwr had won the War of Independence (1400-1409).

The POD for this timeline is the Battle of Worcester. In the OTL this battle never happened. The two armies faced off and with the Welsh at the end of a long supply chain they did not force a battle with Henry IV. This timeline sees not only that battle happening, but with the Welsh winning it. With such a victory the entire territory west of the River Severn would have been open to the Welsh. With support from the Bretons, the Scots and official recognition from the French, Glyndwr would have been well placed to force the English to recognise his independent Principality.

This entry portal to the timeline contains the Kings List for the Principality and then Kingdom of Wales. Each monarch has their own page and there are links to some of the major conflicts that Wales has been involved in.

The bottom of this page also sees a list of the major nobles of the Kingdom, including the Princes of Glamorgan and Powys.

This is very much a work in progress and the main page contains a link to every page in this Alt-History, including pages on the three branches of the military and a Nation page.

Note On Regnal Numbering

In the OTL under the House of Aberffraw the Princes of Gwynedd (and de facto Princes of Wales) they began to recognise a numbering sequence for the Royal House. As such this Alternate Timeline follows on from the internally recognised (and the English) externally recognised numbering of the Royal Princes.

As such, the following Princes are also counted as part of the Royal House of Wales in this timeline under the House of Aberffraw.

House of Aberffraw

  • Owain Gwynedd - Owain ap Gruffudd (Owain I of Wales) Reign: 1137-1170 - Titles used or claimed by Owain included king of Gywnedd, king of Wales, king of the Welsh and finally, prince of the Welsh.
  • Dafydd I of Wales - Dafydd ap Owain Gwynedd. Reign: 1170-1195.
  • Llywelyn I Fawr of Gwynedd & Wales - Llywelyn ap Iorweth. Reign: 1195 –1240. Title recognised by Philip Augustus of France.
  • Dafydd II of Wales - Dafydd ap Llywelyn Fawr. Reign: 1240-1246. Title of Prince of Wales recognised by England and the Vatican.
  • Owain II of Gwynedd & Wales - Gruffydd ap Dafydd Gwynedd (Gruffudd I of Wales). Reign: 1246-1253.
  • Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf - Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Gwynedd. - Llywelyn II of Wales Reign: 1246-1282. Title recognised by the English Crown. Brother of Owain II.
  • Dafydd III of Gwynedd & Cyrmu - Dafydd ap Llywelyn Gwynedd. (Dafydd II of Wales) Reign: 1282-1283. Brother to Llywelyn II.
  • Madog o Feirion - Madog ap Llywelyn Meirion. (Madoc I of Wales). Reign: 1294-1295. Descendant of Owain Gwynedd and fifth-cousin to Llywelyn II.
  • Owain III "Lawgoch". Reign in Exile: 1372-1378. Claimed the throne via descent from Llywelyn the Great.

The House of Glyndwr

This is the first Royal House of Wales. Prince Owain was himself of the House of Mathrafal, the Princely Dynasty of Powys. However upon Owain's death, his son Maredudd changed the dynasty's name from Mathrafal to the House of Glyndwr. It ruled Wales from independence in 1401 until the end of the Protestant Uprising in 1600. Although the last monarch, Marc, was of the House of FitzGerald-Glyndwr, following Queen Elen's marriage (the later Princely House of Gwynedd would call itself the House of FitzGerald-Glyndwr). It would be a period of entrenchment in terms of building an independent State and expansion as Wales pushes the border out to include Bristol and the northern coast of Somerset.

  • Prince Owain IV Glyndwr: 1401-1419
  • Maredudd: 1419-1462. 43 Year Reign; Died age: 67
    Coat of Arms of Wales

    Coat of Arms of the House of Glwyndwr

  • Owain V: 1462-1490. 29 Year Reign; Died age: 61
  • Hywel I: 1490-1512. 22 Year Reign; Died age: 38
  • Hywel II: 1512-1545. 33 Year Reign; Died age: 45
  • Rhodri: 1546-1554. Brother to Hwyel II. Eight Year Reign; Died age 50
  • Elen: 1555-1598. 43 Year Reign; Died age 60 (Period known as the Reign of the Three Queens)
  • Marc: 1598-1600. Two Year Reign; Died age 44 (The Protestant Uprising)

The House of Deheubarth (The FitzGerald-Glyndwr's)

The second Royal House of Wales is also a direct descendant of Owain Glyndwr's house. Dafydd ap Rhys is the nephew of Marc, the last king of the House of Glyndwr. Technically, this means a continuation of the Cadet Branch of FitzGerald-Glyndwr's, however Dafydd is the titular Duke of Dyfed, he takes as his personal coat of arms that of the old Royal House of Dinefwr, and decrees that the Royal House will be known as the House of Deheubarth (the title held by his father, the Prince Rhys). This is a young Royal House, with three of the five kings assuming the throne during their minority and the remainder gain it whilst still young men. This is a period of growth and a flourishing of art, science and a period of change for the cities of Wales. It is also the last Royal House before the 78-year long English Occupation, with Dafydd the Rash the last king of an independent Wales.

  • Dafydd IV: 1600-1640. 40 Year Reign; Died age 52

Arms of the House of Deheubarth

  • Lords Council: 1640-1642 (Minority Rule of Hywel III)
  • Hywel III: 1642-1683. 41 Year Reign; Died age 60
  • Hywel IV: 1683-1706. 23 Year Reign; Died age 36
  • Dafydd V the Rash: 1706-1718. 12 Year Reign; Died age 38

The Third Anglo-Welsh War: 1718 & House of Deheubarth in Exile 1718-1750

This period of Welsh history is technically part of the history of the House of Deheubarth, with the last king of the house, Rhys. Rhys is the Welsh king in exile. Based in France he will try unsuccessfully to reclaim his homeland during his 42-year reign. During this period the heads of all the major noble houses live with the king in exile and following his death in 1750 they form a Regency Council, managing Welsh affairs between themselves for five years before deciding to elect one of their own to the kingship.

The House of Morgannwg in Exile - English Occupation and Second War of Independence

Following the election process, the young head of the Princely House of Morgannwg (also called the House of Bren) is elected to the Welsh throne. Rhisiart is through his mother a descendant of Owain Glyndwr, so a member of his house still sits on the Welsh throne, although only through the female line. The first two kings of this new Royal House spend their reigns fighting the Anglo-Scottish forces of George the Third of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland. In the end a mixture of diplomatic overtures and solid military success sees the Restoration of the Welsh State in the year 1796.

  • Rhisiart I: 1755-1773. 18 Year Reign; Died age 41. King in Exile
  • Rhisiart II: 1773-1795. 22 Year Reign; Died age 42. King in Exile

The Restoration - House of Morgannwg Continued

Following the official Restoration the House of Morgannwg continues to rule the Welsh State. They see the Welsh state grow into an Imperial Power, with a Colonial Empire, the Industrial Revolution, which in turn sees Wales become an early economic powerhouse. It also sees years of political repression, with Parliament not being restored to full privileges until the early 20th Century. This period also sees a Welsh Civil War as the direct male line descendants of Owain Glyndwr (the Princes of Gwynedd) fight to reclaim the throne from the House of Morgannwg. It would be a fight that the House of Morgannwg would win.

The 20th Century would see the Welsh State involved in the Great War of 1939-45 (World War One) after failing to become involved in the European War of 1914-18 (OTL World War One). It would see Communist revolutions, Communist governments, American involvement in Welsh politics and the eventual Welsh membership of the European Union.

  • Arthur I: 1795-1831. 36 Year Reign; Died age 62
    Coat of arms of Morgannwg

    The Coat of Arms of the House of Morgannwg

  • Cystennin: 1831-1845. 14 Year Reign; Died age 45

Welsh Civil War: 1845-1848  

Government and Political Structure of the Welsh Kingdom

Under King Owain V Cymru, the political landscape was created that would last until the modern era - Welsh Political Divisions.

Senedd Cymru

Election History

Etholiad Tŷ Isod 1973

Etholiad Tŷ Uchaf 2006

Etholiad Tŷ Isod 2008

Etholiad Tŷ Uchaf 2012

Etholiad Tŷ Isod 2014

Etholiadau Senedd 2018 (Y ddau Dŷ)


Swyddi, Swyddfeydd ac Adrannau'r Llywodraeth (Posts, Offices and Departments of the Welsh Government)

Rhestr o Gangellorion (List of Chancellors)

Adolygiad Amddiffyn 2011 (2011 Defence Review)

Imperial History

Ymerodraeth Cymru (The Welsh Empire)

Baneri’r Trefedigaethau a’r Taleithiau Ymerodrol (Flags of the Imperial Colonies and Provinces)


Coroniad a Teyrn-addurnau Brenhinol (Coronations & Royal Regalia)

Swyddogion y Llys Brenhinol (Officers of the Royal Court)

Gorchmynion ac Anrhydeddau (Orders and Honours)

Other Cultural Events/Information

Baneri’r Deyrnas (Flags of the Kingdom

Uwch Gynghrair Cymru (Football League)

Pro Rygbi

Y Diwygiad (The Welsh Reformation)

Wars, Conflicts and Other Major Events

Rhyfel Annibyniaeth (Welsh War of Independence)

Rhyfel Sir Benfro (The Pembrokeshire War)

Rhyfel 1af Cymru-Lloegr (The 1st Anglo-Welsh War)

2il Ryfel Cymru-Lloegr (The 2nd Anglo-Welsh War)

Y Gwrthryfel Protestannaidd (The Protestant Uprising)

3ydd Rhyfel Cymru-Lloegr (The 3rd Anglo-Welsh War)

Yr Alwedigaeth Saeson (The English Occupation)

Ail Rhyfel Annibyniaeth (2nd War of Independence)

Y Rhyfel Cartref (The Welsh Civil War)

Rhyfeloedd Gwyddelig (Irish Wars)

Rhyfel Groegwyr-Twrcaidd (Greco-Turkish War)

Y Rhyfel Mawr 1939-45 (The 1939-45 World War)

Y Rhyfel Fietnam (Vietnam War)

Historic Countries in this Alternate Timeline

The United Kingdom of England & Scotland

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Serbia and Montenegro

Countries in this Alternate Timeline

The Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of Scotland

The Republic of Ireland

The Greek Kingdom

The Kingdom of Romania

The Republic of Armenia

The Kingdom of Georgia

The Republic of Kurdistan

The Republic of Turkey

The Republic of Guinea

The Republic of Sierra Leone

The Republic of Gambia

The Republic of Burundi

The Republic of Equatorial Guinea

The Ethiopian Empire

The United States of America

The Republic of Argentina

The Kingdom of Tonga

The Republic of Fiji

The Kingdom of Serbia

The Principality of Montenegro

Y Lluoedd Arfog Gymreig - Welsh Armed Forces

The Welsh Armed Forces are split into three services;


Llynges Frenhinol Gymreig

Current Naval Fleet

Historic Welsh Ships


Byddin Frenhiniol Gymreig

Army Regiments

Regimental Honours

History of the Welsh Army Uniform & Equipment

Welsh Special Forces

The Modern Welsh Army

Air Force

Llu Awyr Frenhiniol Gymreig

Air Force Current Order of Battle

Aircraft used by the Welsh Air Force throughout history

Other Welsh Noble Families

This is a list of the major Noble Families of Wales.


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