Like the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany claiming an exclusive mandate for all of Germany although only has the sovereignty over the western half. The administrative centre of the Federal Republic is in Hamburg, although it still claims Berlin as its de jure national capital. Berlin, however, is controlled by the East German government since 1949 and now serves as the national capital of German Democratic Republic ("East Germany").
Politics and government
Anti-Nazi resistances (1933–1945)
Allied occupation of Germany (1945–1949)
On February 4–11, 1945, leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe was negotiated. The conference agreed to split Germany into five occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west; a British Zone in the northwest; a Scandinavian Zone in the north; an American Zone in the south; and a Soviet Zone in the east. At the time, the intention was not to split Germany, only to designate zones of administration.
Former German areas east of the rivers Oder and Neisse were put under Polish administration. Millions of Germans were expelled and replaced by Poles. In a similar fashion, the Soviet Union took over areas of eastern Poland and East Prussia.
An escalating Cold War antagonism between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies were manifested in the refusal in 1947 of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland, SMAD) to take part in the USA's Marshall Plan. The Western Allies then turned over increasing authority to West German officials and moved to establish a nucleus for a future West German government by creating a central Economic Council for their zones. The program later provided for a West German constituent assembly, an occupation statute governing relations between the Allies and the German authorities, and the political and economic merger of the French and the Scandinavian with the British and American zones.
In February 1948, the Western Allies permitted Ludwig Erhardt and the German Central Bank to carry a currency reform, establishing the Deutsche Mark as the new currency in the Western zones. The currency reform that conducted without even informing the Soviets marking a final break between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union responded by leaving the Allied Control Council. The Soviets then blockading Berlin from Western Allied soldiers and supplies on June 18, 1948 as there had been no previous treaties giving the Western Allies free access to West Berlin through Soviet-occupied zone.
In response to this, the Western Allies instituted the Berlin Airlift on June 21, 1948, in order to provide West Berlin with food and fuel transported by the cargo planes. The SED and the Soviets then organized a successful putsch for control of all of Berlin through a September 6 takeover of the city hall by the city assemblymen from the SED. Non-SED members of Greater Berlin's city-wide parliament then arrested by SED-controlled policemen. On November 30, 1948, the SED then declared the democratically elected city government to be deposed and replaced it with a new one led by Lord Mayor Friedrich Ebert, Jr.
Drafting of the Groundset (1948–1949)
On May 23, 1949, the Groundset (Grundgesetz), the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, was promulgated. Following elections in August, the first federal government was formed on September 20, 1949, by Konrad Adenauer, the leader of Christian Democratic Union (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU), as the Chancellor. Adenauer's government was a coalition of the CDU, the CSU, and the Free Democrats. The next day, the occupation statute came into force, granting powers of self-government with certain exceptions. On September 12, 1949, the eighty-one-year-old Hugo Eckener was elected first President of the Federal Republic by the Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) as a compromise between the CDU and the opposition SPD.