A World Gazetter containing geographical, brief historical and critical account of the relevant countries, polities and other geographical entries of interest from the British Revolution to the present time.
Sultanate of Aceh a native Muslim monarchy centered on the northern end of the Island of Sumatra of the Dutch East Indies. Also called Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam. Capital Kutaraja.
Afghanistan a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia (Central Asia). The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within vast regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire. Currently ruled by the Durrani dynasty (q.v.) Capital Kabul.
Africa, continent name of a continent representing the largest of the three great southward projections from the main mass of the earth’s surface. It is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia in both categories).
Alaska or Alyaska is a Russian territory in North America. It started as a company colony under the administration of the Russian–American Company (RAK), later it was fully incorporated into the Russian Empire. It has a large population of native Eskimos in the interior. Capital Novo-Archangelsk.
Algeria (French: Algérie), a French colony and later an integral part of France of North Africa (Maghreb), bounded north by the Mediterranean, west by the Iberian Barbary Coast, south by the Sahara desert and east by Tunisia. The western boundaries, however, are in part not accurately determined and are disputed by France and Iberia. Capital Algiers (Alger).
Amazonia a South American republic of the extreme north-western of the continent. It is traversed by the Amazon River. Portuguese colony until 1821. Capital Bélem.
Andes, former Alto Peru, an inland republic of South America, once a part of the Spanish vice-royalty of Peru and known as the province of Charcas, or Upper Peru. Spanish colony until 1825. Capital Chuquisaca.
Duchy of Anhalt a central German state formed by the amalgamation of the three duchies of Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen. Capital Dessau.
Angola, the general name of the Portuguese, later an Iberian, possessions on the west coast of Africa south of the equator. Capital São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda.
Aotearoa Māori name given to an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Also known as New Zealand name given by Dutch cartographers in honor of the province of Zeeland and anglicized by James Cook. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses — the North and the South Islands.
Arabian Peninsula or Arabia for short, is a peninsula in the south-west of Asia, is bounded W. by the Red Sea, S. by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and E. by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. Its northern or land boundary is more difficult to define. It is divided into four distinct regions: Hejaz (Tihamah), Najd (Al-Yamama), Southern Arabia (Hadhramaut) and Eastern Arabia. Politically the Ottoman Empire rules over Hejaz, Najd and Eastern Arabia. Southern Arabia is an independant polity (q.v. Yemen). Arabia is the home of the Muslim religion that has the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Both are the pilgrimage destinations, Hajj in arabic, for large numbers of Muslims from across the Islamic world.
Ashanti Empire, an Akan empire and kingdom of West African country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean. Known capital (Comassie, also spelled Coomassie, native Kumasi).
Arakan see Mrauk-U.
Arakkal Kingdom a Dutch protectorate in India. Capital Cannanore.
Argentina a republic occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America. Spanish colony until 1817. Capital Buenos Aires.
Arnhemland a Dutch colony of northwest Australia. Capital Arnhem. First settled in 1771. Named after Dutch captain Willem Joosten Van Colster ship that sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe.
Australia a continental landmass in the Pacific Ocean. About 2900 sq mi (7.6 million km2). Discovered, explored and settled by Netherlands, Britannia and France.
Territory of Australian Desert (French: Territoire du désert australien) a French claim over the desert and central lands of Australia (i.e. terra nullius).
Austrian Empire (German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich) or Austria (Österreich) a German and Central European monarchy established after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805 from the lands of the House of Habsburg. Capital Vienna.
Grand Duchy of Baden (German: Großherzogtum Baden) a monarchy of southern Germany. Member of the Confederation of the Rhine. Capital Baden.
Bahia a republic of South American in the northeastern part on the Atlantic coast. Portuguese colony until 1822. Capital Salvador da Bahia.
Bahamas a British colony in the Lucayan Archipelago consisting of more than 700 islands, cays and islets in the Atlantic Ocean; north of Cuba and Hispaniola. Capital New Providence.
Kingdom of Bali a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom of the East Indie on the island of the same name. Dutch protectorate. Capital Bali.
Barbados a British colony in the island of the same name of the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean Sea. Capital Bridgetown. One of the world's biggest sugar producers after the former French colony of Saint-Domingue before the independence of the later.
Baroda State a British protectorate in India. Capital Baroda.
Kingdom of Bavaria (German: Königreich Bayern) a monarchy of southern Germany. Capital Munich.
Baudin a French colony in north-western Australia. Capital Bougainville. Established in 1821 from northern territories of French Cygnia. Named after French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer Nicolas Baudin.
Berber or Barbary Coast Republic (French: République de la côte berbère, République de la côte des Barbaresques, République Barbarie) a short-lived client republic of France in North Africa. Recovered by Ottomans and Spain. Its capital was Algiers, later moved to Tunis and finally Tripoli. The only effective control it had was on the several ports of Algeria and the Barbary Coast at different times.
Bermuda a British colony in island of the same name in the Atlantic Ocean. It is administered by the Somers Isles Company. Capital Saint George's Town.
Boer states or republics (Dutch: Boerenrepubliek, Afrikaans: Boererepubliek) were several independent, self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Kaapland and their descendants (Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of South Africa. These were the following: Swellendam, Graaff-Reinet, Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natalia.
Borealia a British colony in North America occupying the Hudson Bay drainage basin. By Commonwealth Charter of 1670 it is owned and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). Capital Fort Rupert.
Bornu Empire an African country in central Sudan, lying west and south of Lake Chad. Capital Ngazargamu (or Ngazargamo).
Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil) a republic of South American in the southeastern part on the Atlantic coast. Portuguese colony until 1821. Capital Rio de Janeiro.
State of Brazil (Portuguese: Estado do Brasil) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil. Covering the coast and inland of eastern South America and the Amazonian forest. Capital Rio de Janeiro.
Brandenburg-Prussia q.v. Prussia.
Bremen an independent Hanseatic city (free city) in northwestern Germany. A major port on the River Weser.
Britannia, Britain or British Commonwealth, q.v. Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Sultanate of Brunei a Muslim monarchy located on the north coast of the island of Borneo. Capital Brunei.
Burma a region in Southeast Asia bordered by India, Siam and China. Geographically it is distinguished in Lower Burma that Irrawaddy Delta and coastal regions and Upper Burma that refer to the upland. European trade and commerce is done in Lower Burma.
California a republic on the Pacific coast of North America that seceded from the Mexican Empire in 1830. Capital Monterrey.
Canada a former North American colony of the Kingdom of France (1610-1763). Now Quebec (q.v.) of the British Commonwealth. Capital Quebec.
Carpentaria a Dutch colony of north-east Australia. Capital Janszstad. First settled in 1772.
Federal Republic of Central America (Spanish: República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) is a sovereign state in Central America which lies between Mexico and New Granada. Consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. Independent from Spain in 1821 and annexed by the Mexican Empire in 1821. Regained its independence from Mexican Empire in 1823. Capital Guatemala City (1823-1834) and El Salvador from 1834.
Dutch Ceylon (Dutch: Nederlands-Ceylon) a Dutch colony of the island of the same name in India. Capital Colombo.
Chile a republic of South America, occupying the narrow western slope of the continent between Peru and its southern extremity. Former Spanish colony until 1817 when it gained its independence. Capital Santiago.
China, Chinese Empire, Middle Kingdom, Qing Empire or Manchu Empire a monarchy and country of eastern Asia. The principal division of the Chinese empire in addition to China — properly the Chinese Empire — include Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet and Sin-kiang (East Turkestan, Kulja, Dzungaria, etc., i.e., all the Chinese dependencies lying between Mongolia on the north and Tibet on the south). Capital Peking. The ruling emperors belong to the Manchu or Qing dynasty, a non-Chinese group, since 1636.
Confederation of the Rhine (German: Rheinbund; French: Confédération du Rhin) a regional alliance of the western German states established in 1805. Its parliament of representatives, Diet (Bundestag) meets in the free city of Frankfurt am Main.
Congress System a series of international meetings called or assisted by the Great Powers. The congresses or conferences had no written rules or permanent institutions, but at times of crisis or to resolve issues of common interest any of the Great Powers could propose a conference.
Cookland a British colony in north-east of Australia. Capital Brisbane. Established in 1826 from northern territories of New South Wales. Named after the British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the British Navy James Cook that explored its coasts.
Kingdom of Coorg a French protectorate in India.
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland a republic in Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the country includes the British Islands. Capital London.
Corsica (French: Corse) an Italian republic in the island of the same name. Established in 1795. Capital Corte.
Cospaia a small Italian republic.
Cuba a Spanish colony and also an island of the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean Sea. The largest island in the Caribbean and the second-most populous after Hispaniola. Capital Havana.
Curaçao and Dependencies or Territory of Curaçao (Dutch: Curaçao en onderhorigheden / Gebiedsdeel Curaçao) a group of islands of the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean Sea usually administered by the Dutch republic. The islands are Curaçao (settled in 1634), Aruba (1636), Bonaire (1636), Sint Eustatius (1636), Saba (1640), Sint Maarten (1648) and Anguilla (1631). Main city Willemstad (Curaçao)
Cygnia a French colony that occupies most of the south western end of Australia. Originally Cygnes or Colonie du Cygnes for the river of the same name until 1792. Capital Lapérouse-ville. It is the most important and populated settlement in Australia.
Dakota a republic of North America that seceded from Louisiana in 1832. It covers the Upper Louisiana and the Missouri river basin. Capital Des Moines.
Denmark-Norway a former monarchy. q.v. United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
Dutch Republic or Netherlands a republic in Europe existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule. The republic borders Rhenania, and the Flanders). Capital The Hague. It is one of the major industrial and colonial powers.
Dutch East Indies a term commonly used to denote the Dutch possessions which constitute the greater part of the Malay Archipelago (q.v.). The Dutch themselves use the term Nederlandsch-Indië.
Durrani dynasty or Afghan Empire' is monarchy that rules over Afghanistan (q.v.) and the Hindustani Empire (q.v.). Founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar. Capital Kabul.
Egypt a country forming the north-east extremity of Africa along the Nile river, is an autonomous Ottoman vassal. Khedive is the given title of its monarch and its equivalent to viceroy. Capital Cairo.
Ethiopia or Ethiopian Empire an ancient monarchy of north-eastern Africa, bounded on the north by Egypt and on the east by the Red Sea. Capital Gondar. Also known as Abyssinia, derived from the Arabic al-Habash. It as one of the few surviving Christian Churches in Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
Etruria an Italian republic established in 1797. It compromises the whole of Tuscany. Capital Florence.
Faroe Islands an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland. Capital Tórshavn. Dependency of United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
Kingdom of Fiji a British protectorate of the Pacific Ocean in the island group of the same name. Capital Suva.
Flanders (French: Flandre, Dutch: Vlaanderen) a monarchy (est. 1715) that borders Hannover-Westphalia, Dutch Republic and France. Capital Brussels. Until 1748 a non-contiguous territory bisected by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège that separated the south of the Grand Duchy (Luxembourg, Limburg and Guelders) from the northern lands. After 1748 integrated to Flanders a condominium and finally annexed.
Florida a Spanish colony in North America. Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Capital St Augustine (Spanish: San Agustín).
France can refer to:
- a) former Kingdom of France an absolute monarchy (843-1788) and later constitutional monarchy (1788-1790). Ruled by the House of Bourbon (1589-1790).
- b) the current French Republic established in 1790.
Dutch Formosa a Dutch colony of the islands of the same name in China.
Fraternity of Nations (French: Fraternité des Nations) a loose association of nations in Europe, America, Asia, Oceania, Australasia and Africa.
State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro (Portuguese: Estado do Grão-Pará e Rio Negro) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil. Capital Santa Maria de Belém.
Greater Antilles an island group of the Caribbean Sea (also called West Indies). It includes the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands.
Greenland (Danish: Grønland) a large continental island, the greater portion of which lies within the Arctic Circle, while the whole is arctic in character. Capital Godt-Haab. Dependency and colony of the United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Founded as farthest west viking (Norse) settlement known to date. Former Danish dependency and divided in two colonies North and South Greenland.
Gold Coast the name for a region on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa that was rich in gold which is made up of the following coastal settlements and colonies:
- a) Commonwealth Gold Coast
- b) Dutch Gold Coast
- c) Scandinavian Gold Coast. Consolidation of the former Danish and Swedish coastal settlements.
Dutch Guiana (Dutch: Nederlands-Guiana) a Dutch colony north-east of South America. Capital Fort Zeelandia. It incorporates the former colonies of Berbice (1627), Demerary (1745), Pomeroon (1650), Essequibo (1616) and Suriname (1667).
French Guiana (French: Guyane française) a French colony north-east of South America. Capital Cayenne.
Haiti or Hayti (French: Haïti) a republic of the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean Sea. Capital Port-au-Prince. Was the former French colony of Saint-Domingue. Haiti invades the eastern half of Hispaniola, a Spanish colony, gaining full control of the island.
Free State of Hannover-Westphalia (German: Freistaat Hannover-Westfalen) a republic of northern Germany. Capital Hannover.
Haudenosaunee see Iroquois.
Kingdom of Hawaii a British protectorate of the island group of the same name in the Pacific Ocean. Capital Honolulu.
Helvetia or Helvetic Confederation a republic located in the Alps of Europe. Established in 1815 from the Helvetic Republic (1797-1815). Capital Bern. Former Swiss Confederacy.
Kingdom of Hesse (German: Königreich Hessen) a monarchy of central Germany. Capital Marburg.
Hindustani Empire, the more correct name and the one used for the Mughal or Mogul Empire.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española) an island located in the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean Sea. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, and the most populous island in the Caribbean. Once divided in French (Saint-Domingue) and Spanish (Santo Domingo) colonies being the Spanish one-half the first colony in the Americas. Now the whole of the island is the Republic of Haiti.
Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a complex of territories in Central Europe and parts of Western Europe (mostly the lands of Germany) that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1805.
Horn of Africa (Arabic: Al-qarn al-afrīqī) is a peninsula in Northeast Africa. It extends hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent. Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha.
State of Hyderabad a French protectorate of southern India. Capital Hyderabad.
Iberia a country located in the southwest corner of Europe. Occupies the peninsula of the same name. It is the union of the Portuguese and and Spanish in 1842. Iberia as also important territorial holdings in Western Sahara, Morocco, Angola, Mozambique and Philippine. Capital Merida.
Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland) an island country at the confluence of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, east of Greenland and immediately south of the Arctic Circle. Capital and largest city Reykjavík. Dependency of United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Founded as viking (Norse) settlement later Danish dependency. Speaks its own language, Icelandic, and has a rich literary tradition (sagas).
Illinois a British colony and Indian Territory. Capital Chicago.
Illyrian Provinces an autonomous province of the Italian Republic, along the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Was created in 1802 from the Slovene Lands, ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy, and the former Venetian territories of Dalmatia and Istria. Capital Laybach.
India a great country of Asia, inhabited by a congeries of different races and religions, speaking upward of 50 different languages. The whole of Indian, including Burma, has an area of 1,766,000 sq. mi., and a population of over 200 million inhabitants, being about equal to the area and population of the whole of Europe without Russia. Geographically is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southward into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. India is politically divided as follows:
- a) British India,
- b) French India,
- c) Dutch India,
- d) Portuguese India. Goa, Daman (also enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli) and Diu,
- e) Minor territories and islands held by Scandinavia (former Danish or Norse territories) and Flanders, and
- d) Several local and native polities including the Mughal-Durrani, Maratha and Sikh empires.
Indonesia is an archipelago that exceeds two million sq km. and has more than 25,000 islands of the archipelago comprise many smaller archipelagoes. The main groups are the Sunda Islands divided in the a) Greater Sunda Islands - that include Sumatra, Java and Borneo, Sulawesi - and b) Lesser Sunda Islands, and Maluku Islands. Also called Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel) and Insulinde. Politically, it is a Dutch colony, Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië). Capital Batavia. The Maluku islands are the popularly known Spice Islands, for being the origin of the nutmeg, mace and cloves and the main producers of them.
Iroquois a Dutch native protectorate in North America. It is confederation of tribes. Called in local language Haudenosaunee.
Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana) is located in north western end of the Italian Peninsula consisting of the territories of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto. Capital Milan.
Jaipur State a British protectorate in India. It is also known as Jaipur Kingdom, Amber Kingdom, Dhundhar Kingdom and Kachwaha Kingdom. Capital Jaipur.
Jamaica a British colony in island of the same name in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean Sea seized from Spain in 1655. Capital Port Spain.
Japan a monarchy in East Asia. It consists of four largest islands that are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku and several smaller ones. From the 12th century Japan is governed by successive feudal military leader (shōguns) that ruled in the name of the Japanese Emperor. From the 17th century it has policy of isolation from the rest of the world. Only Dutch merchants are allowed to trade at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Chinese also trade at the city of Nagasaki. Not much is known and all accounts of the people, land and customs are second hand narratives from the Dutch and Chinese. Capital Kyoto.
Kaapland (Dutch for Capeland) a Dutch Colony in southern Africa. Formerly know as Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) between 1652 and 1795. Capital Kaapstad (Cape Town). It is known for agricultural production and mining extraction of gold, silver and diamonds.
Kingdom of Kongo (Portuguese: Reino do Congo) an African monarchy located in west central Africa. Its territory follows the shores of the Zari river. Capital São Salvador. Its king is called the Manikongo. It has an important influence sphere with neighboring African kingdoms and chieftains. The Catholicism was introduced by the Portuguese.
League of American Republics (Spanish: Liga de Repúblicas Americanas, Portuguese: Liga das Repúblicas Americanas, French: Ligue des Républiques américaines) a continental organization established with the purpose of providing regional solidarity, cooperation and defense among its member states (i.e. American republics).
Leeward Islands a British colony established in 1664. It is the consolidation of the defunct Carlisle proprietorship of the West Indies. Capital Basseterre (Saint Christopher Island).
Lemania or Léman (French: République lémanique) a short-lived Alpine French client state based around the Helvetic canton of Lausanne (1797-1798). Voted its union to Rhodania. Capital Lausanne.
Prince-Bishopric of Liège a former a state of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the Bishop of Liège. Annexed by Flanders.
Liguria an Italian republic that consists of the lands of the old Republic of Genoa which covers most of the Ligurian region of northwest Italy. Established in 1797. Capital Genoa.
London capital of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames five miles above its mouth. The “City of London” is a small area (673 acres) on the north bank of the river, forming the heart of the metropolis. London is also the capital of the English Home Country.
Louisiana a former French colony in North America. It occupies all the lands west of the Mississippi river, one of the longest in North America. From 1791 it was in hands of French Royalists. Later it became the Republic of Louisiana. Capital Nouvelle-Orleans.
Lucca an Italian republic north of Etruria.
Macao or Macau an Portuguese, later Iberian, trading post and port on the western side of the Pearl River estuary of China.
Madagascar a large island in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of southern Africa.
Republic of Mainz (German: Mainzer Republik) a republic (1791-1792, 1802-1806) of western Germany. Voted its union to Rhenania (q.v.). Capital Mainz.
Sultanate of Maguindanao or Mindanao, a Spanish-Iberian protectorate of the Philippines. Capital Kuta Wato.
Dutch Malacca a former Malay sultanate administered by Dutch East India Company (VOC) between 1641 and 1816, later a Dutch colony.
Malay Archipelago situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area and fourth by number of islands in the world. It includes the Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands. q.v. Indonesia.
Sultanate of the Maldives a Dutch protectorate of the island of the same name located in the Indian Ocean. Capital Malé.
Malta a British Colony of the Mediterranean Sea. Capital Valletta.
State of Maranhão (Portuguese: Estado do Maranhão) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil. Capital São Luís.
The Mariana Islands is an archipelago of dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st Parallels North and along the 145th Meridian East. It is a Spanish and later an Iberian colony. Geographically Guam is part of the archipelago but is administered as a separate unit. Capital Saipan.
Mataram Sultanate, a Muslim monarchy of Central Java. Capital Plered or Kartosur.
Maryland a British colony in North America. Capital Annapolis.
Mauritania an Iberian colony of north west Africa disputed between France and Iberia. Capital Nuakchot.
Mexico a North American republic in the southernmost portion of North America. Former Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain (1521-1820) and later Mexican Empire ((1820-1848, 1849-1860) and briefly First Mexican Republic (1848-1849) The present one is the Second Mexican Republic since 1860. Capital Mexico City.
Alawite Sultanate of Morocco a Spanish protectorate of northwest Africa. Capital Rabat.
Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique) a Portuguese, and later an Iberian colony of southwest Africa. Though effective and real control is of the coast line with its trade centers and forts. Capital Cidades de Piedra.
Kingdom of Mrauk-U, also called Arakan Protectorate, is a monarchy of coastal Burma. A Dutch protectorate. Capital Mrauk U.
Mughal or Mogul Empire a Muslim empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. Its more proper name and the one used in maps and diplomacy is Hindustani Empire. Established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia. Current dynasty is the Durrani, that overthrew the Mughal in 1762. At its height, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Mughal stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, and from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. Capital Shahjahanabad, current Delhi.
Kingdom of Mysore a French protectorate in India. Capital Mysore.
Neapolitan Republic (Italian: (Repubblica Napolitana) a short-lived Italian republic (1800).
New Arcadia an Australian colony of the British Commonwealth located in the south east end of the island continent. Capital Sydney. Established in 1782.
New Brabant (French: Nouvelle Brabant) a French colony in central southern Australia. Capital Nuyts. Former Dutch colony (1774-1804).
New England a British colony in North America. It is the administrative union of British colonies to the north of Dutch New Netherland. Established by Charter in 1675. Capital Boston that is also the main British port of North America.
Viceroyalty of New Granada (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva Granada) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America. Capital Bogotá.
New Guinea (Dutch: Nieuw-Guinea; Malay: Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent by the Torres Strait and having the Arafura Sea on the south-west. It is largest island (excluding Greenland) in the world, covering a land area of about 785,000 km2 (303,000 sq mi). Its west coast is colonized by the Dutch Republic that claimins the whole island.
Dutch New Holland (Dutch: Netherlands Nieuw Holland) a former Dutch colony (1771-1780). Capital Tasmanstad. It was one of the first colonies of the Dutch along Arnhemland. It claimed all of western Australia. Later divided in West-Australia (Dutch) and Cygnia (France).
New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in North America. It extension is from California to the Isthmus of Panama. Capital Mexico City. Besides being one of largest territories of Spain is also one of its riches colonies.
Newfoundland a British colony in North America. Capital St John's. It has no large number of permanent inhabitants. An annual fishing convoy leaves England and Ireland each spring to fish off Newfoundland. Capital St John's.
American Northwest Territories refers to all Commonwealth lands north of the Ohio and Tennessee rivers and East of the Mississippi river. The Northwest Territories border Borealia, Louisiana, Florida, Virginia, Maryland and Quebec. It is composed of colonies and India territories of Ohio (Capital Lancaster), Tennessee (Fort Loudoun) and Illinois (Chicago).
Novgorod-Volkhov or Novgorod a short-lived French client republic (1805-1806) located in the Neva river basin. Capital Novgorod. Recaptured by Russian.
Nullarbor a French colony of southern Australia. Capital Port Unité. Administered by Cygnia. Created from territories of New Brabant and Cygnia in 1831. Its name is Latin for no tree. This is because its territory is flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid.
Ohio a British colony and Indian Territory. Capital Lancaster.
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (German: Großherzogtum Oldenburg) a monarchy of northern Germany. Capital Oldenburg.
Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Sultanate or Turkish Empire a Muslim monarchy that controls the Balkans, Caucasus, Anatolia, Levant, Egypt, Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Capital Istanbul (or Constantinople).
Oudh State or Kingdom of Oudh a British protectorate in India. Capital Faizabad.
Papal States (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Latin: Status Ecclesiae) an central Italian state under the sovereign direct rule of the Pope. Capital Rome.
Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in western South America. Capital Lima.
Persia a Muslim monarchy of western Asia. It is bounded on the north by the Caspian Sea and Caucasus and Transcapia, on the east by Afghanistan and Baluchistan, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf, and on the west by Ottoman Mesopotamia. Capital Tehran.
The Philippines (Spanish: Las Filipinas) a Spanish colony in Southeast Asia. It consists of more than 7,000 islands of which the largest ones with their island group are from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Capital Manila.
Piedmont (Italian:Piemonte) a republic located on the Italian territory of the same name. Established in 1797. Capital Turin.
Polish–Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth or Commonwealth of Three Nations (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów) a triple union of Poland, Lithuania and Ruthenia. Capital Warsaw.
Pomerania (German: Pommern) a republic that occupies a region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea that were the former lands of the Swedish Pomerania and part of Mecklenburg. Capital Rostock.
Portugal a former a monarchy and republic (1826-1842) located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Capital Lisbon. The Kingdom of Portugal held Brazil, Bahia and Amazonia before 1821. In 1842 it formed with Portugal the Iberian Federation (q.v. Iberia).
Kingdom of Prussia (German: Königreich Preußen) a monarchy stretching from the Elbe river to the Bay of Gdansk. Capital Berlin. The present Kingdom of Prussia was constituted by the union of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (Berlin) and the Kingdom of Prussia (Königsberg) in 1618 as Brandenburg-Prussia. Name sometimes used to describe present Prussia.
Quebec a British colony in North America. Capital Quebec.
Ragusa a former republic in the shores of the eastern Adriatic Sea. Annexed by the Italian republic in 1803.
Rauracia, or Rauracian Republic (German: Raurakische Republik; French: Republique Rauracienne), a former Alpine republic created as a French client state off the lands around Basel. Capitals Porrentruy (1798-1799) and Basel (1799-1810). Reincorporated to Helvetia.
Rhenania or Rhenanian Republic (German: Rhenanische Republik) a republic established in 1794 along both banks of the Rhine river. It gained territories of the Grand Duchies of Berg and Hesse-Darmstadt, Duchy of Nassau (Usingen and Weilburg) and the former french department of Lippe. Capital Cologne.
Rhine q.v. Confederation of the Rhine for the regional alliance.
Rhodania, or Rhodanic Republic (French: République rhodanienne), a former Alpine republic created as a French client state off the French speaking cantons of Switzerland. Capitals Sion (1797-1799) and Lausanne (1799-1810). Reincorporated to Helvetia.
Viceroyalty of Rio de La Plata (Spanish: Virreinato de Río de La Plata) a territorial and colonial jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in eastern South America. Capital Buenos Aires.
Rio Grande, a short lived North American republic (1830-1833) lying between Mexico and Tejas. Capital Laredo.
Roman Republic (Italian: Repubblica Romana) a state that briefly existed in the present Papal States (1800-1802).
Russian Empire a monarchy that controls parts of Eastern Europe and the whole of the lands east of the Urals including Crimea, Central Asia, Siberia and parts of the Far East and Alyeska. Capital St Petersburg.
Saint-Domingue a former French colony (1625–1791) in the western one-half of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. Gained independence from France after a slave rebellion in 1791. Capital Port-au-Prince. France's and the West Indies most profitable and richest colony (Pearl of the Antilles) and its main products and source of its wealth were sugar, coffee and indigo. its production of sugar and coffee was more than all of the British West Indies colonies combined.
Samoa a Dutch colony in the island group of the same name in the Pacific Ocean. Capital Apia.
San Marino a small Italian republic.
Kingdom of Sardinia (Italian: Regno di Sardegna) an Italian monarchy in the island of the same name. Capital Cagliari.
Kingdom of Saxony (German: Königreich Sachsen) a monarchy of northern Germany. Capital Dresden. The country is an important industrial region in Central Europe. It has coal fields near its main urban centers, Leipzig, Chemnitz and Dresden.
Scandinavia a region in Northern Europe it also refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula or:
a) Scandinavian Republic (q.v.)
b) name used in the 19th century for United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (q.v.) or United Kingdom of Scandinavia.
Scandinavian Republic a short-lived state (1804-1818) formed after the overthrow of the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway that was later re-established. Capital Copenhagen.
Senarica a small Italian republic annexed by the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1810.
Siam a monarchy at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. Capital Bangkok.
Sicily (Italian: Sicilia) the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea north of the Italian peninsula. Part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Silesia (German:Schlesien) a region of Central Europe located along the Oder River. It consists of Lower Silesia and Upper. Its main cities are Breslau and Oppeln. Silesia is a coal and mineral rich and populous region and an important industrial center. Part of Prussia.
Sister republic (French: république soeur) named given to states established during the European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) as client states of France in Italy, Germany and the Alps. The Peace of Vienna of 1810 released them from French oversight. These were the Helvetic Republic, Lemania, Rhenania, Neapolitan Republic, Republic of Liège , Mainz Republic, Roman Republic, Rauracia, Rhodania, Scandinavian Republic, Lucca, San Marino, Piedmont, Etruria, Liguria, Italian Republic, Novgorod-Volkhov and Hannover-Westphalia.
Spain a former monarchy and later republic ((1825-1842) located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Capital Madrid. Before the Latin American Wars of Independence (1811-1825), Spain held the majority of the Americas. In 1842 it formed with Portugal the Iberian Federation (q.v. Iberia).
Sultanate of Sulu a Muslim monarchy that rules the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo. Capital Maimbung. An Iberian protectorate.
Swahili League is an association of coastal city states and sultanates of East Africa. A major trade point to the interior of central Africa, East Africa, Somalia and the Horn of Africa. Capital Kilwa.
Sweden a former monarchy. q.v. United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
Switzerland or Swiss Confederacy a former Alps confederacy in Western Europe. q.v., Helvetic Republic.
Tasmania an Australian colony of the British Commonwealth located in the island of the same name of the south east coast of Australia. Capital Hobart. Established in 1811. Previously Dutch Colony 1774-1805, occupied by France 1805-1811. Named after its first discoverer Dutch navigator Abel Tasman.
Tejas is an independant North American republic established in 1830 after it seceded from the Mexican Empire. Capital San Antonio.
Tennessee a British colony and Indian Territory. Capital Fort Loudoun.
League of Thuringian States (German: Bündnis der Thüringer Staaten) a confederation of the German Thuringian States established in 1812. It is also a customs and trade association. Capitals Weimar (Administrative) and Jena (Judiciary).
Kingdom of Travancore a French protectorate in India.
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie) a monarchy formed as a union of the former Kingdoms of Sicily and Naples. Capital Naples. It is the largest of the Italian states.
United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway a tri-national monarchy of the Scandinavian Peninsula established in 1764. Thought a Union of the Crowns of Denmark-Norway and Sweden came to being in 1746. Also called the United Kingdom of Scandinavia since the 19th century. Capital Copenhagen.
Virginia a British colony in North America. Capital Jamestown. Established in 1607 and having the honour of being the first English colony in North America.
West Australia (Dutch: West-Australië) a former Dutch colony from 1780-1807. Capital Tasmanstad. Split between French Cygnia and Dutch Arnhemland.
French West Indies or French Antilles French colonial possession in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean Sea. These islands are Guadeloupe, Martinique, St Lucia, St Martin, Saint-Barthélemy, La Grenade, St Croix, St Vincent, Saint-Christopher, Tobago and other smaller islands. Main city Fort-La-Republique (Martinique). These islands are mainly sugar and and coffee producers.
Kingdom of Württemberg (German: Königreich Württemberg) a monarchy of southern Germany. Capital Stuttgart.
Grand Duchy of Würzburg (German: Großherzogtum Würzburg) a monarchy of southern Germany. Capital Würzburg.
Yemen Arab Republic an independent state at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Established from the Sultanate of Lahej in 1827. Capital Aden.
Yucatan is an independent North American republic established in 1829, in the peninsula of the same name, after it seceded from the Mexican Empire. Capital Merida.
- e.g. for example
- i.e. in this case
- q.v. which see
- terra nullius (no man's land)
Home Nations of the British Commonwealth
Italian States in 1810
Confederation of the Rhine
Commonwealth of the Three Nations (Poland-Lithuania