World War-III: 1956
1916--Lester Pearson of Canada dies in a bus accident while in the Royal Flying Corps. He therefore never becomes Minister of External Affairs in the government of Liberal Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent in 1948.
Lester Pearson therefore never arranged for an eventual settlement of the "Suez Crisis". Eisenhower failed to push a ceasefire and the crisis escalates into nuclear war between the US, Europe and the Soviet Union.
October 29, 1956
Israeli forces move into the Sinai Peninsula, precipitated by the seizure of the Canal Zone by Egypt. Israeli forces advance, with no opposition, toward the Suez Canal but halt because of the demand of Britain and France.
October 29, 1956
The UN, backed by the British, demand a ceasefire. The Anglo-French force demands that both parties stop fighting 20 km from the Canal Zone. Nasser refuses, and the British and France justify that for the reason of their "intervention."
October 30, 1956
French and British forces launched massive airstrikes against Egypt.
October 31, 1956
A joint force from Britain and France entered the Canal Zone, launching paratroops into Port Said. However, President Dwight Eisenhower and the American government urge the three nations to withdraw their forces. Israeli troops finally comply with the demands of the ceasefire.
November 5, 1956
The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Egypt. Eisenhower consults with advisors but no consensus on action is reached.
November 6, 1956
The British fail to respond. Paris responds with: "France will not bend to Russian threats."
November 7, 1956
Israel forces seize Gaza in response to the Russian threats. Gaza is taken by November 9, and the Russians provide this as justification for intervention.
November 8, 1956
Russian bombers out of Odessa, hit British, French and Israeli forces in the Canal Zone. They use conventional explosives, not nuclear weapons.
November 9, 1956
President Eisenhower puts US forces in Europe on high alert. British bombers out of Malta hit the Odessa airfields; they too use only conventional explosives. Israel ponders the use of nuclear weapons against Russia. Egyptian forces along with Soviet forces that came from paratroopers attack French, British and Israeli units occupying the Canal Zone.
November 10, 1956
Soviet forces now fully amassed hit the West German border, move into the Fulda Gap. NATO forces declare war as West Berlin falls to the Russian Army. World War III is fully engaged as Soviet nuclear bombers hit Paris, Munich, and Manchester, England. Bombers going to London are stopped by the RAF but the city is destroyed by fire, caused by Soviet conventional warhead rockets which rain down upon it. Egypt now complies with the demands of the ceasefire. This means that the Anglo-French force now have no justification for their actions.
November 11, 1956
President Eisenhower orders America's nuclear forces into action utilizing preliminary plans laid out in the National Security Council's NSC 162/2 directive.
US B-47,B-52 and, bombers are launched into their targets in the Soviet Union. Russian bombers launched simultaneously swarm over the Canadian frontier. 200 weapons are detonated in Russia; 23 reach their targets in the United States, specifically Washington DC, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, Spokane, and eighteen military bases (most in the North, but including the Norfolk Shipyards in Virginia).
In Russia, over two dozen Soviet cities are blasted, and nearly as many major military sites (including the Baikonur ICBM/space satellite site). Top leaders like Georgi Malenkov and Nikolai Bulganin are killed at destroyed military sites in Western Russia; Nikita Khrushchev survived.
(Ultimately some 70% of America's and 90% of Soviet strategic bombing force is destroyed in the initial days of the war. By 1960 and fuel and parts shortages, it was estimated that the Soviets had less than a dozen bombers, of the Tu-14, Tu-16, and Tu-20 varieties, that were flight-worthy and no intermediate or intercontinental missiles. At the same time, some forty American B-52s were still operational and were supplemented by 200 more by 1965).
(After the later attacks on China, the US nuclear arsenal is limited to fourteen 'Mark-10' and 'Mark-11' strategic air-dropped weapons, a few nuclear artillery rounds, and around 10 'Mark-7' tactical weapons. The Soviet arsenal was nearly depleted with their later war with the Chinese in 1962. CIA estimates in the late 1990s claim that the Soviets had returned to their pre-War nuclear weapons levels by 1997, while America possessed over a thousand weapons by 1990).
Meanwhile, Soviet troops are blasted by nuclear artillery and American air power in Europe and as they approach Bonn and Amsterdam, they find their supply routes cut and their tanks grind to a halt. Radiation clouds cover Western Europe and the death toll (civilian and military) tops 53 million by November 13th.
The Anglo-French force decides to make a march for Cairo. The Israeli army walks through the Canal Zone and aids the Anglo-French force.
Soviet forces are decimated in the Canal Zone. The Soviet is too weak to provide more help for Nasser, so Egyptian forces later collapse from constant British, Israeli and French attacks.
American, NATO and Soviet forces continue to battle in Europe. Supplies and fuel dry up for both sides as their factories and supply centers are ravaged by radiation and refugees.
In Asia, the Chinese seeing their opportunity, launch invasions of South Korea (with North Korean help) and Japan. They are met with American bombers, and nuclear weapons are used against Peking, Tsingtao, Dalien and Shanghai; and the invasion of Japan is stopped. North Vietnam, secures an alliance with China, and invades South Vietnam taking Saigon in January 1957.
The Anglo-French-Israeli force hold the Tripartite Conference discussing the pulling out of forces.
Radiation deaths reach 200 million world-wide, after an initial death toll from nuclear explosions as well as conventional attacks of 39 million. American attacks on the Soviet Union lead to its collapse as most large urban centers (including Moscow) fall to the remaining American nuclear arsenal and high altitude bombers.
Only later recognized as such, the winter of 1957 is a "nuclear winter", with average temperatures 5 to 15 degrees F. lower than normal. American agriculture succeeds in maintaining an adequate supply to the US, Canada, and some parts of Europe, but starvation worldwide leaps as aid and food shipments stop. Starvation is eventually credited with another 150 million dead, mostly in the former Soviet Union, India and China.
Cairo is seized in an Anglo-French operation. The rest of the forces sweep through Egypt.
Eisenhower speaks to the nation for the last time on February 2nd, suffering a second, massive heart attack on February 6th and dies the same day. Richard Nixon is sworn in as the President and he nominates Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as Vice-President.
The new American capitol has been re-established in Denver, Colorado with Congress seizing the Denver State House and Nixon's White House established at the Peterson AFB in Colorado Springs. Contact with Soviet Generals in Achinsk, Siberia lead to an armistice in March. The Soviets, fearing Chinese invasion, agree to it quickly. In the Middle East, Anglo-French forces are withdrawn from Egypt to help stabilize their home countries. Israel assumes administration of Egypt, which is split along the Nile into the autonomous territories of East and West Egypt.
As America and the world continue to try to recover, Nixon runs for President with new electoral college guidelines created by Congress in April 1959. His opponent, California Governor Pat Brown runs on a "Marshall Plan for the United States," a massive reconstruction program including re-building Washington, DC to "its former glory". (Sen. John Kennedy was killed in the New York City Soviet bombing).
Nixon wins the disputed election (disputed due to poor communications and massive fraud).
President Nixon begins his "New America" Program, a less-ambitious attempt at re-building America, but without Brown's move to return to the urban areas laid waste by the war. Meanwhile, in the South, with much of the governmental power returned to the States (and little national media coverage, as CONELRAD still controls TV and radio), Southern governors clamp down on civil rights activists and Martin Luther King Jr. is thrown into the state prison in Alabama for "Communist fifth columnism" for 20 years.
China and the remaining Soviet Authority go to war in Manchuria and Siberia. Troop strengths are severely depleted and almost no air power exists, but the war rages for nearly a year with casualties mounting for both sides. By use of sheer numbers, the Chinese seize Vladivostok and Soviet forces retreat to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and a non-official ceasefire ensues.
In Europe, recovery continues, but slowly. Starvation lessens in the UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain, with a trickle of American and Canadian aid. Eastern Europe is devastated, both by radiation and by lack of Soviet support and thousands of refugees attempt to flee into West Germany and Austria. Riots ensue and several hundred are killed by NATO forces.
Syria and Jordan launch a joint assault on Israel. The IDF beats back the assault. Syria is occupied and turned into an autonomous territory, while Jordan loses the West Bank. All Arabs in the West Bank are given the choice of moving back to Jordan, or moving to the autonomous territories.
Studies show America is at an approximately "1925" level of economy. Meanwhile, Nixon runs for re-election against Sen. Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota. Humphrey runs on a revised version of Pat Brown's "American Recovery Plan", plus charges of election fraud against the Republicans, who now control Congress. He soundly defeats Humphrey and charges of election fraud fade.
Overseas, Russia and Ukrainian forces clash and Andrei Gromyko, the newest Soviet Premier, signs a treaty with Ukrainian leaders and "The Ukraine" becomes independent. Quickly, Soviet Georgia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan break away as well. In Europe, border guards in Germany, Austria, and Italy fire upon Eastern European refugees. Aid attempts in Poland and Hungary are helping but their governments teeter on collapse.
Asia flu, coded "Hong Kong-4", breaks out in October 1966. Similar to the 1918-1919 "Spanish flu", with severely depleted health care, it sweeps the world and causes millions of deaths. By Spring 1967, death tolls push 40 million, mostly in Asia and Europe. By the end of 1967, the population of Europe has reached a level unseen since the 1600s. America weathers the flu, but still loses 850,000 people, mostly in the remaining urban areas.
Nixon meets with Gromyko and then later with Chou En Lai in late 1968. They sign non-aggression treaties, and Nixon secures Japan, but cedes Chinese-controlled Korea to the Chinese. The Soviets reeling from radiation sickness, starvation and "Hong Kong-4" are desperate for American aid and agree to formally disband the Warsaw Pact.
By this year, the world's population has plummeted to 1.1 billion. Europe has less than 35% electricity and 45% sewer and fresh water support. Vast areas of Marseilles burn in July 1968 when fires break out and no fire control is available. Birmingham, England, British capital since "The War," has fewer people than Des Moines, Iowa.
Recovery continues for years. Democratic candidate George Wallace of Alabama wins the Presidency in 1968 over NY Governor Nelson Rockefeller. Wallace attempting to "soften his image" on civil rights, issues a pardon for Martin Luther King Jr. in the months leading up to the election.
Wallace loses to Ronald Reagan.
The USA invades Central America with help from Canada, looking for resources.
Reagan defeats US Senator Albert Gore, Sr. and wins re-election.
Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter defeats President Baker.
President Carter wins a second term over Republican challenger former Connecticut Governor George Bush.
Vice President Mo Udall loses to Republican Governor Pete Wilson of Illinois.
President Wilson defeats Rep. Dick Gephardt.
President Kerry narrowly wins re-election over Republican challenger Governor John McCain of Arizona.