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(One Hundred Steps Forward Campaign)
(Flying River War)
Line 68: Line 68:
   
 
Sikai's reign while short was instrumental in the creating the basis of modern China, capitalizing on previous Qing era reforms and western advisers Sikai dreamed of overcoming China's backwardness. Seizure of power was justified through modernization and Sikai's belief that the Chinese People were not suited for democracy after living under the direction of emperors for millennia. Like all previous dynasties, Shikai proclaimed that the Xian Dynasty had secured the mandate of heaven. In contrast to earlier dynasties the nationality of China was emphasized within the name, whereas the Qing China had termed itself as the 'Country of Qing' the new government was the 'Empire of China' or in some cases the "Xian Empire of China'.
 
Sikai's reign while short was instrumental in the creating the basis of modern China, capitalizing on previous Qing era reforms and western advisers Sikai dreamed of overcoming China's backwardness. Seizure of power was justified through modernization and Sikai's belief that the Chinese People were not suited for democracy after living under the direction of emperors for millennia. Like all previous dynasties, Shikai proclaimed that the Xian Dynasty had secured the mandate of heaven. In contrast to earlier dynasties the nationality of China was emphasized within the name, whereas the Qing China had termed itself as the 'Country of Qing' the new government was the 'Empire of China' or in some cases the "Xian Empire of China'.
  +
  +
During WWI the entente aligned Japanese seized most of Germany's colonies in China , leaving Yantai as the sole remaining colony. Japanese planned to seize Yantai as well but by 1917 the Imperial Japanese Army feared that the new Yuan Dynasty might be more apt to retaliate.
   
 
Prior to his death Shikai arranged for his son Keding to inherit the throne with the full support of the new Imperial Army. By the time Keding assumed the throne most of the governance of China had been assumed by officers who in turn forced civilian officials to their bidding. The sole exception to the military dominated government was Wang Jingwei a charismatic friend of the Yuan family.
 
Prior to his death Shikai arranged for his son Keding to inherit the throne with the full support of the new Imperial Army. By the time Keding assumed the throne most of the governance of China had been assumed by officers who in turn forced civilian officials to their bidding. The sole exception to the military dominated government was Wang Jingwei a charismatic friend of the Yuan family.
Line 76: Line 78:
 
The New Army was tested by intervening in the Russian Civil War. In 1919 Chinese Soldiers moved into Mongolia and Outer Manchuria going as far as the borders of the historical extent of the Qing under the pretext of supporting anti Communist forces. While the new Chinese Army was effective in seizing control of the region the soldiers alienated the Russian and Ukrainian peoples living in these territories. Keding and his generals agreed that a withdrawal was necessary to avoid full scale war with the newly proclaimed Soviet Union in 1924. The intervention however played a critical role in preparing the army for WWII twenty years later.
 
The New Army was tested by intervening in the Russian Civil War. In 1919 Chinese Soldiers moved into Mongolia and Outer Manchuria going as far as the borders of the historical extent of the Qing under the pretext of supporting anti Communist forces. While the new Chinese Army was effective in seizing control of the region the soldiers alienated the Russian and Ukrainian peoples living in these territories. Keding and his generals agreed that a withdrawal was necessary to avoid full scale war with the newly proclaimed Soviet Union in 1924. The intervention however played a critical role in preparing the army for WWII twenty years later.
   
In the mid 20's the One Hundred Step Campaign (Chinese: 百步運動, ''Bǎi bù yùndòng'' ) was initiated to create a modern market economy independent of western powers. As industrialization took place military officers and entrepreneurs were given grants to start private franchises in collaboration with the state.
+
In the mid 20's the One Hundred Step Campaign (Chinese: 百步運動, ''Bǎi bù yùndòng'' ) was initiated to create a modern market economy independent of western powers. As industrialization took place military officers and entrepreneurs were given grants to start private franchises in collaboration with the state.Serving the needs of a growing military-industrial complex the coastal cities of China became industrialized quickly as many rural migrants poured in from the countryside seeking better fortunes. Traditionalists minsters were dismayed to see a decline in the country's agricultural population sensing a rupture of the traditional farming family. Reformists were excited to modernize the country but were also divided between a nationalist and a liberal faction.
 
Serving the needs of a growing military-industrial complex the coastal cities of China became industrialized quickly as many rural migrants poured in from the countryside seeking better fortunes. Traditionalists minsters were dismayed to see a decline in the country's agricultural population sensing a rupture of the traditional farming family. Reformists were excited to modernize the country but were also divided between a nationalist and a liberal faction.
 
   
 
=== Years of Dragon Realm ===
 
=== Years of Dragon Realm ===
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<nowiki> </nowiki>From the start attempts to relax the army's authority over public life faced setbacks from without as well as within. terror groups allegedly backed from the Soviet Union. Historians are still unable to determine how many attacks were false flag operations from militarists are genuine resistance groups. There is at least one documented event where the ''Blazing Dragon ''agents'' ''fooled resistance fighters into collaborating with them.The Wall Street Crash of 1929 assured the failure of reforms and the rapid monopolization of power by militarists in the army with dissent civilian officials forced to vacate their positions or take an oath of loyalty. The situation gave an opportunity for Wang Jingwei to convince the previously ambivalent emperor Keding that the west was waging economic war on China.
 
<nowiki> </nowiki>From the start attempts to relax the army's authority over public life faced setbacks from without as well as within. terror groups allegedly backed from the Soviet Union. Historians are still unable to determine how many attacks were false flag operations from militarists are genuine resistance groups. There is at least one documented event where the ''Blazing Dragon ''agents'' ''fooled resistance fighters into collaborating with them.The Wall Street Crash of 1929 assured the failure of reforms and the rapid monopolization of power by militarists in the army with dissent civilian officials forced to vacate their positions or take an oath of loyalty. The situation gave an opportunity for Wang Jingwei to convince the previously ambivalent emperor Keding that the west was waging economic war on China.
  +
  +
Ties grew with the Third Reich, so close to the point that Wang Jingwei was invited for a tour in July 1937. While being a friendship tour to the public behind closed doors the JIngwei-Ribbentrop'' ''pact was made in secret. This is not to be confused with the more famous Moltov-Ribbentrop pact that was signed in 1939. Total details Jingwei-Ribbentrop was kept suppressed until the end of the war and not all details are completely known today. The most important conditions stipulated that on the outbreak of war the Germans would cede their last Asian colony of Yantai, pay a large subsidy to Chinese Government and concede any renaming claims in the Asia-Pacific region to the Yuan Dynasty. In return the Chinese would go to war with any western power that Germany was also at war with.
   
 
With encouragement from Italian and Nazi German agents the ''Blazing Dragon'' group became a player in politics as an armed wing of the ''Avenging Dragons ''party. With permission from the emperor the era of 'Dragon Realm for the Restoration of the mother country' was proclaimed across the country. For ten years the country was actively mobilized for a planned conflict against the Soviet Union, the British Empire and Japan. Many traditionalists in the army despised the Avenging Dragons as a foreign style populist movement that contradicted with Confucian governance. Certain sectors of the army in Qiangdao- near Confucius's birth place led a conservative protest against a regime increasingly influenced by Nazi German advisers.
 
With encouragement from Italian and Nazi German agents the ''Blazing Dragon'' group became a player in politics as an armed wing of the ''Avenging Dragons ''party. With permission from the emperor the era of 'Dragon Realm for the Restoration of the mother country' was proclaimed across the country. For ten years the country was actively mobilized for a planned conflict against the Soviet Union, the British Empire and Japan. Many traditionalists in the army despised the Avenging Dragons as a foreign style populist movement that contradicted with Confucian governance. Certain sectors of the army in Qiangdao- near Confucius's birth place led a conservative protest against a regime increasingly influenced by Nazi German advisers.
Line 92: Line 96:
 
As the Dragon faction controlled Yuan Keding in September 1939 Xian China sprung planned operations on Europe's Asian colonies called 'flash flood offensives'. The flash flood doctrine was similar but not identical to blitzkrieg. Unlike their German counterparts Chinese style offensives took more care attention to the environment of the invaded countries. Control of great rivers such as the Mekong, Salaween, Bramphuta, and the Indus were crucial. Ironically flash flood offensives usually involved damming up rivers to prevent them from going downstream than initiating actual floods. Only in the case of Calcutta was environmental engineering used for offensive operations.
 
As the Dragon faction controlled Yuan Keding in September 1939 Xian China sprung planned operations on Europe's Asian colonies called 'flash flood offensives'. The flash flood doctrine was similar but not identical to blitzkrieg. Unlike their German counterparts Chinese style offensives took more care attention to the environment of the invaded countries. Control of great rivers such as the Mekong, Salaween, Bramphuta, and the Indus were crucial. Ironically flash flood offensives usually involved damming up rivers to prevent them from going downstream than initiating actual floods. Only in the case of Calcutta was environmental engineering used for offensive operations.
   
Sometimes however the course of rivers were deliberately changed in 1940 so that ground forces could use the river as a highway relatively free of resistance.
+
Sometimes however the course of rivers were deliberately changed in 1940 so that ground forces could use the river as a highway relatively free of resistance. The 'flood' referred to mass tactical bombing campaigns followed by masses of infantry, Overall Chinese soldiers assigned to invade tropical Indo-China were prepared with jungle equipment. This adaptability to many climates was remarkably different from their German counter parts.
 
The 'flood' referred to mass tactical bombing campaigns followed by masses of infantry, Overall Chinese soldiers assigned to invade tropical Indo-China were prepared with jungle equipment. This adaptability to many climates was remarkably different from their German counter parts.
 
   
 
== Culture ==
 
== Culture ==

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大中華帝國
Empire of China
Timeline: Russian America
Preceded by 1915 — 1945 Succeeded by
Flag of China (1912–1928)
Flag of Hong Kong 1876
Flag of France
Flag of Portugal
Flag of the Soviet Union
British Raj Red Ensign
Flag of China (1912–1928)
Flag of Hong Kong 1876
Flag of France
Flag of Portugal
Flag of the Soviet Union
Flag of Tibet
Flag of the Empire of China 1915-1916 Republic of China Beiyang Government National Emblem
Flag Coat of Arms
Axis China Map
Xian Dynasty (1943)
Capital Beijing (Before 1919)
Nanjing (After 1919)
Language
  official
 
Chinese
  others Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur
Religion
  main
 
Confucians
  others Buddhists, Muslims, Taoists
Ethnic Groups
  main
 
Han Chinese
  others Mongolians, Tibetans, Uyghurs
Government Unitary absolute monarchy
Established December 12, 1915
Currency Yuan

The Xian Dynasty (Chinese: 憲朝, Xiàn Zhāo), officially referring to itself as the Empire of China (大中華帝國, Dà Zhōnghuá Dìguó), was sovereign state which existed between 1915 until 1945. The formation of a monarchy was proclaimed by Yuan Shikai (the Hongxian Emperor), ending the short-lived Republic of China and restoring dynastic rule in China.

In the chaos which followed the Xinhai Revolution general Yuan Shikai betrayed the liberal ideals which had overthrown the Qing Dynasty. Leading a coup Sikai's army took charge of the capital in Beijing,and drove the Republican Sun Yat Sen into exile. After Shikai's short reign, his eldest son Yuan Keding took the throne of the second emperor of the Xian house. Leading a relentless war against China's many warlords, Keding believed the spirit of Imperial China could only be restored with New Methods and Traditional Ideas' or (Chinese:{新方法與傳統觀念 Xīn fāngfǎ yǔ chuántǒng guānniàn). In all parts of life the dynasty took the mechanisms of a modern western state with the trappings of Traditional China to prepare for a campaign of vengeance across Asia against foreign powers. China's capital was moved southward from Beijing to the historic southern capital of Nanjing to reflect the Han centered focus of the empire. Resentment against minorities groups such as the Manchu and the Hui was fostered by Keding's family friend Prime Minister Wang Jingwei. Jingwei's ideas were inspired by the rise of Fascism in the West.

In a matter of twenty years the firm hands of Keding and Jingwei turned China into a rising industrial and armed power challenging both Modern Japan and European Colonialism for hegemony across Asia. Xian China took advantage of the outbreak of World War II in Europe and invaded French Indochina, British Hong Kong, British Burma and Thailand in Flash Flood campaigns.

While initially successful China's aggressive behavior provoked the Ire of a still neutral Japan. China brought Japan to war through a preemptive bombing strike on Hiroshima Harbor. In the following days China invaded Korea and attempted to reclaim the Qing Island of Taiwan.

Closer ties with the Third Reich encouraged the Chinese to attack the Soviet Far East when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. China waged war with all of its geographic neighbors with the exception of Bhutan in a series of 'final offensives' on Soviet Outer Manchuria, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Nepal, British Bengal and Dutch Sumatra.By 1943 China's armed Juggernaut was stretched thin over thousands of miles of frontier.

The United States of America's and Alaska's entry into the war on the allied side turned fortunes against China as they lost grip of their farthest territories. The fall of Germany in Europe in 1945 was a great threat to Xian China's survival as an sovereign state. Emperor Keding vowed to continue the war indefinitely regardless of the deteriorating situation. To bring the war to a speedy conclusion, the Americans utilized their first Atomic bomb to destroy the strategic port city of Tianjin, the Chinese continued to fight on until the second atomic strike took place on the capital ciity of Nanjing killing both Yuan Keding and Wang Jingwei. With the loss of their emperor and political leadership the remaining military leaders called for a truce.

By accords signed in the old Shanghai suburb of Zhujiaojiao the Xian Dynasty was formerly dissolved, and the Empire of China of the Southern Qing house was recreated to reflect pacifist values. Outlying countries not part of China Proper were ceded to the Soviet Union as in the cases of Uyghurstan, Mongolia and Manchuria or released as the independent state of Tibet. Japanese garrisons would occupy China through the 1970's. The legacy of the Xian empire remains as an infamous example of Ethnic aggression and Extreme Nationalism.

History

Coronation of the Dynasty

After Yuan Shikai overthrew and abolished China's fledgling nationalist party in 1915 he proclaimed himself as the Hongxian Emperor. The proclamation incited resistance from all parts of China's society as the Republic was still supported by most of the bureaucrats and students that had participated in the 1911 revolution. Shikai assured the loyalty of his army by granting titles to his senior officers promising his army they would have supreme influence over the remnants of the Qing bureaucracy. Shikai joined World War I on the side of the allied powers to dissuade them from aiding any potential rebellion

Sikai's reign while short was instrumental in the creating the basis of modern China, capitalizing on previous Qing era reforms and western advisers Sikai dreamed of overcoming China's backwardness. Seizure of power was justified through modernization and Sikai's belief that the Chinese People were not suited for democracy after living under the direction of emperors for millennia. Like all previous dynasties, Shikai proclaimed that the Xian Dynasty had secured the mandate of heaven. In contrast to earlier dynasties the nationality of China was emphasized within the name, whereas the Qing China had termed itself as the 'Country of Qing' the new government was the 'Empire of China' or in some cases the "Xian Empire of China'.

During WWI the entente aligned Japanese seized most of Germany's colonies in China , leaving Yantai as the sole remaining colony. Japanese planned to seize Yantai as well but by 1917 the Imperial Japanese Army feared that the new Yuan Dynasty might be more apt to retaliate.

Prior to his death Shikai arranged for his son Keding to inherit the throne with the full support of the new Imperial Army. By the time Keding assumed the throne most of the governance of China had been assumed by officers who in turn forced civilian officials to their bidding. The sole exception to the military dominated government was Wang Jingwei a charismatic friend of the Yuan family.

One Hundred Steps Forward Campaign

Ruling over a tentatively unified country Yuan Keding focused his efforts first on placating the army before redeveloping a China that was recovering from the ashes of domestic chaos. British and French engineers contributed to a new military-industrial complex which would bring an army which had used Crossbows as late as 1895 into the 20th century in a few short years. This was done at the expense of the Navy and civilian sectors of Chinese Society. Many peasants were conscripted away from their homes to forcibly build factories in coastal cities. This system of near forced-labor was reformed in a few short years to introduce wage labor into China.

The New Army was tested by intervening in the Russian Civil War. In 1919 Chinese Soldiers moved into Mongolia and Outer Manchuria going as far as the borders of the historical extent of the Qing under the pretext of supporting anti Communist forces. While the new Chinese Army was effective in seizing control of the region the soldiers alienated the Russian and Ukrainian peoples living in these territories. Keding and his generals agreed that a withdrawal was necessary to avoid full scale war with the newly proclaimed Soviet Union in 1924. The intervention however played a critical role in preparing the army for WWII twenty years later.

In the mid 20's the One Hundred Step Campaign (Chinese: 百步運動, Bǎi bù yùndòng ) was initiated to create a modern market economy independent of western powers. As industrialization took place military officers and entrepreneurs were given grants to start private franchises in collaboration with the state.Serving the needs of a growing military-industrial complex the coastal cities of China became industrialized quickly as many rural migrants poured in from the countryside seeking better fortunes. Traditionalists minsters were dismayed to see a decline in the country's agricultural population sensing a rupture of the traditional farming family. Reformists were excited to modernize the country but were also divided between a nationalist and a liberal faction.

Years of Dragon Realm

As the economy improved in the late 1920's more western style ideas developed within the civilian and military parts of the government. Younger bureaucrats and educated specialists often supported Western Liberalism, while cooperate industrialists and friends of Wang Jingwei were influenced by the birth of Fascism in Italy. The Army's command leaned towards conservative politics but officers were divided by the growth of factions. Japan's successful example of democratization appeared to make gradual reforms a possibility, a full republic was never considered but attempts to implement autonomy for local communities became known as the Sunshine Policy. Wang Jingwei always believed that political reforms were a submission to western decadence and actively undermined liberal political maneuvering with his infamous espionage group Blazing Dragon.

From the start attempts to relax the army's authority over public life faced setbacks from without as well as within. terror groups allegedly backed from the Soviet Union. Historians are still unable to determine how many attacks were false flag operations from militarists are genuine resistance groups. There is at least one documented event where the Blazing Dragon agents fooled resistance fighters into collaborating with them.The Wall Street Crash of 1929 assured the failure of reforms and the rapid monopolization of power by militarists in the army with dissent civilian officials forced to vacate their positions or take an oath of loyalty. The situation gave an opportunity for Wang Jingwei to convince the previously ambivalent emperor Keding that the west was waging economic war on China.

Ties grew with the Third Reich, so close to the point that Wang Jingwei was invited for a tour in July 1937. While being a friendship tour to the public behind closed doors the JIngwei-Ribbentrop pact was made in secret. This is not to be confused with the more famous Moltov-Ribbentrop pact that was signed in 1939. Total details Jingwei-Ribbentrop was kept suppressed until the end of the war and not all details are completely known today. The most important conditions stipulated that on the outbreak of war the Germans would cede their last Asian colony of Yantai, pay a large subsidy to Chinese Government and concede any renaming claims in the Asia-Pacific region to the Yuan Dynasty. In return the Chinese would go to war with any western power that Germany was also at war with.

With encouragement from Italian and Nazi German agents the Blazing Dragon group became a player in politics as an armed wing of the Avenging Dragons party. With permission from the emperor the era of 'Dragon Realm for the Restoration of the mother country' was proclaimed across the country. For ten years the country was actively mobilized for a planned conflict against the Soviet Union, the British Empire and Japan. Many traditionalists in the army despised the Avenging Dragons as a foreign style populist movement that contradicted with Confucian governance. Certain sectors of the army in Qiangdao- near Confucius's birth place led a conservative protest against a regime increasingly influenced by Nazi German advisers.

Dragons struck back by justifying its policies with Legalism from China's Warring States Period. The First Emperor of Qin, among others. Early Qing era military commanders were also sanctified by the state for their victories against various Mongolic Dzungar peoples. Public Culture especially cinema often reflected nationalist values but were also conflicted with traditional conservatism. Often times story plots that followed Dragon style scripts were popular with urban men but Conservative style movies with emotional pretenses with farmers and women.

Ultimately the long term effects of the wall street crash led many of the Chinese People to accept and even anticipate a conflict with the western powers.

Flying River War

As the Dragon faction controlled Yuan Keding in September 1939 Xian China sprung planned operations on Europe's Asian colonies called 'flash flood offensives'. The flash flood doctrine was similar but not identical to blitzkrieg. Unlike their German counterparts Chinese style offensives took more care attention to the environment of the invaded countries. Control of great rivers such as the Mekong, Salaween, Bramphuta, and the Indus were crucial. Ironically flash flood offensives usually involved damming up rivers to prevent them from going downstream than initiating actual floods. Only in the case of Calcutta was environmental engineering used for offensive operations.

Sometimes however the course of rivers were deliberately changed in 1940 so that ground forces could use the river as a highway relatively free of resistance. The 'flood' referred to mass tactical bombing campaigns followed by masses of infantry, Overall Chinese soldiers assigned to invade tropical Indo-China were prepared with jungle equipment. This adaptability to many climates was remarkably different from their German counter parts.

Culture

The Xian Dynasty had the unique role of defining Chinese Culture in industrial times. Highly controlled by the regime the culture attempted to transmit themes of European style Nationalism compromised with traditional Chinese values. Though autocratic the ministries of Propaganda and Education achieved several important milestones such as reforming China's Writing system, Establishing near universal literacy and making Classical Chinese culture more accessible for common people. New technologies such as movie theaters and radio were used to bring the people closer to their leaders like never before. Prior to World War II Wang Jingwei as the chief symbol of the regime used the propaganda department and film to deify Yuan Keding. Keding himself rarely made public appearances.

Legacy

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